Skip to main content

Course Announcements

Course Enrollment Available online

The Tri-College Course Guide contains current enrollment information for all courses it lists. After you've found a course in the Guide, click on the specific course link to see a detail box including "CUR ENR" (current enrollment) listed under "Additional Course Info". Note: the Instructor decides whether a course is actually open or closed; current enrollment is provided only as a guide in assessing that potential.

A - B - C - DE - F - G - H - I - J - L - M - P - R - S - T - W

If no information appears under the department or program heading below, please see the departmental office.

First come-first serve courses and courses with closed enrollment for web-registration--FOR Fall 2023 are listed below:

ASTR 001- Limited to first come first served-fall and spring
CHEM 010-Limited to first come first served-fall
CHEM 010 Labs- Limited to first come first served - fall
CHEM 011-Limited to first come first served-fall
CHEM 011 Lab-Limited to first come first served-fall
CHEM 022 Labs- Limited to first come first served -- spring
CHEM 032- Two sections limited to 35 each, first come first served--fall
CHEM 032 Labs – Limited to 16 upperclassman per section – fall
CHEM 038 Labs- Limited to first come first served--spring
CHEM 042-Limited to first come first served-fall
CHEM 042 Labs-Limited to first come first served-fall
CHEM 058-Limited to first come first served-fall
CHEM 058 Lab-Limited to first come first served-fall
CHEM 108-Limited to first come first served-fall
ECON 001-View policy below
ECON 011 Conferences-Limited to first come first served -- fall
ECON 021 Conferences-Limited to first come first served-spring
All ECON seminars- Not available for web-registration
EDUC 001C- Not available for web-registration
ENGL 001C- Not available for web-registration
ENGL 070K- Not available for web-registration
ENVS 089A- Not available for web-registration
JPNS 001- Limited to First come first served -- fall
PHED - Limited to first come first served--fall and spring
PHYS 003 and 003L- Limited to first come first served -- fall
PHYS 004 and 004L- Limited to first come first served -- spring
RELG 056- Limited to first come first served -- fall


Directed Reading, Independent Study, Research, Thesis, Special Projects, etc. are not available for web-registration- see Dept Administrative Asst/Coordinator to register

Arabic: see Modern Languages and Literatures

ARAB 001 Intensive Elementary Modern Standard Arabic

This course is designed for beginners, with no prior knowledge of Arabic.

We strongly advise that students interested in taking Arabic begin with the first year. If you have any questions about the Arabic program, language and cultural courses, placement exams, or study abroad options, please contact Khaled Al-Masri at

Art (Studio Arts):

Please visit to learn more about the Art program and the program’s academic requirements.

Art History

ARTH 001N FYS: Indigenous Art, Land, and Environment
ARTH 002 The Western Tradition
ARTH 005 Modern Art in Europe and the United States

Asian Studies:


CLST 023 Intro to Sanskrit 
CLST 030 Caste and Power
MUSI 049A Balinese Gamelan
MUSI 042 Chinese Music Ensemble
DANC057 Taiko I
DANC049D Swarthmore Taiko Ensemble

Astronomy - see Physics and Astronomy


BIOL 001 NSEP, Cellular & Molecular Biology (Fall)
BIOL 005 FYS: Exploring Regeneration & Cancer Biology Through Authentic Research (Fall)
BIOL 009 Our Food (Fall) 
BIOL 002 NSEP, W Organismal & Population Biology (Spring - can be taken out of sequence with BIOL 001)

We offer the Scholar's Program (SP) as an attachment to the introductory courses (001 and 002) in which a faculty member meets with up to 12 students, giving them an opportunity to more deeply engage with course material and to develop tools for success in their STEM courses at Swarthmore. It is a 0.5 credit course and requires enrollment in Bio 001 (Fall) or Bio 002 (Spring) along with submission of an application form (link). Please see the catalog listing for more information.

Bio 005 is a new first year seminar that will focus on having students participate in independent, publishable research projects. This course will be designed to engage students at all levels of preparation in the natural sciences. There is no need for Bio 005 students to enroll in Bio 001 and students are welcome to enroll in this course if they are lotteried out of Bio 001.

Black Studies:

For more information in the Black Studies Program, please see

For more information on  Chemistry courses, please see

Chinese - see Modern Languages and Literatures

CHIN 001 First Year Chinese
CHIN 055 Contemporary Chinese Cinema
CHIN 056 Travel & Relocation in Sinophone Literature
CHIN 091 Special Topics in English: Representing Colonial Taiwan: Public Space in Print

We highly recommend students with an interest in Chinese language to begin their language study from their first year. Be sure to sign up for both a "lecture" (T/Th) and "drill" (MWF) section for First Year Chinese.


Beginning ancient languages:
CLST 023: Introduction to Sanskrit
GREK 001: Intensive First-year Greek
LATN 001: Intensive First-year Latin
Entry-level courses in ancient history and cultures:
ANCH 022: Greek Art and Archaeology
CLST 010: FYS: Identities in the Ancient World: race, Gender, and Ethnicity
CLST 030: Caste and Power

Cognitive Science:


Comparative Literature:

CPLT 21. Performance in Early Modern Europe
RUSS 14. The Russian Novel: Revolution, Terror and Resistance
SPAN 015. First Year Seminar: Introduction to Latinx Literature and Culture
LITR 017FC / FREN 017C 
Contemporary Graphic Novels French

The basic requirement for the major is work in two literatures in the original language. Of courses in the Classics and Modern Languages and Literatures departments, only courses numbered 011 or above are counted as constituents of the comparative literature major.

Please have students with questions email

Computer Science:

CPSC 021 Introduction to Computer Science

For more details about the placement exam see
or contact Professors Lila Fontes ( or Lisa Meeden (


For more information on Dance courses, please see


For more information on Economics courses, please see

ECON 001: Introduction to Economics. This course is a one-semester survey of microeconomics and macroeconomics, for both majors and non-majors. It is a prerequisite for all other courses in economics. ECON 001 is offered during both the fall and spring semesters.

Some students may be able to waive ECON 001 based on their AP, IB, or A-levels scores. For important details, see Fall 2023 courses available to students with a waiver are:

ECON 084. Latin American Economies
ECON 013. Economic Efficiency, Markets and Distributive Justice
ECON 031. Introduction to Econometrics
All other Fall 2023 courses (ECON 011, ECON 022, ECON 033, ECON 035, and ECON 122) are closed to first-year students.

*ECON 001 Enrollment Policy*

ECON 001 sections are capped on a first-come, first-served basis during online enrollment, and then at 30 during Add/Drop. Students who wish to add a section of ECON 001 during Add/Drop should submit an add request online. These requests will be handled by Megan Salladino (, who will allow students to add the least-enrolled section that fits their academic schedule, up to the overall cap of 30.

Educational Studies:

EDUC 014. Pedagogy and Power: Introduction to Education
EDUC 014F. First-Year Seminar. Pedagogy and Power: Introduction to Education
EDUC 014 is the entry course for Majors, Minors, Special Majors, and teacher certification in Educational Studies. The First-Year Seminar EDUC 14F is restricted to first year students; the non-FYS has a cap of 30 and includes students from any year. Lotteries are possible.

EDUC 014 is the normal entry point for majors, minors, special majors and teacher certification in the Department of Educational Studies. The 2 FYS are limited to first year students. Lotteries are possible.

English Literature:
Academic Writing Courses:

ENGL 009F. FYS Intro to Latinx Literature and Culture
ENGL 009H. FYS Portraits of the Artist
ENGL 009R. FYS Grendel's Workshop
ENGL 009Y. FYS Metropolitan Forms and Fictions
ENGL 010. Monsters, Marvels, and Mysteries: Beowulf to Paradise Lost
ENGL 020. Shakespeare
ENGL 035. The Rise of the Novel
ENGL 064C. Black Protest and Possibility
ENGL 071D. The Short Story in the US
ENGL 074A. Global South Literature
ENGL 079P. Sanctuary

ENGL 001F. FYS:Transitions to College Writing (4 sections). Students in this course develop their ability to write effectively for academic and public audiences, build rhetorical knowledge for a variety of disciplines, and strengthen their writing processes to aid in their transition from high school to college writing.


ENGR 15 and ENGR 11 for students interested in the ENGR major

We recommend ENGR 015 - Fundamentals of Digital and Embedded Systems for all prospective Engineering majors. Students placed into Math 25 or above are eligible to take ENGR 011 - Electrical Circuit Analysis instead. Please encourage any first-year students interested in Engineering to attend our info session and consult with an advisor in the department!

Environmental Studies:


ENVS 006 – FYS: Apocalypse: Hope and Despair
ENVS 007 – Chester Semester Fellowship
ENVS 008 – Plants and Human Culture 
ENVS 010 – Climate Change: Science & Responsibility
ENVS 014 – Environmental Issues in Native American Communities
ENVS 015 – Nature Rx: Wellbeing & Natural World
ENVS 028 – Global Environmental Governance
ENVS 033 - Indigenous Peoples and Globalization
ENVS 035 – Environmental Justice: Ethnography, Politics & Action
ENVS 049 – Indigenous Food Sovereignty
CHEM 010 - Foundations of Chemical Principles


Film and Media Studies:

FMST 001 Intro to FMST
T/Th 9:55-11:10am Singer 033
Screening T 7-10pm LPAC 101

FMST 09 FYS (W): Women and Popular Culture*
Course T Th 2:40-3:55 KOHL 116
Screening W 7-10pm LPAC 101

*This FYS, writing course was ADDED over the summer

We offer courses in critical media studies and media production. Please contact with any questions.

French and Francophone Studies:

  • The FYS seminar under "French and Francophone Studies" (LITR 017FC Contemporary Graphic Novels in French) is not being taught next fall. It should be replaced instead with the advertisement for 
    • FREN 017 D FYS The French Philosophical Novel (W Course) (Taught in English with a writing component)
  • LITR 017FC Contemporary Graphic Novels in French is also advertised under Comparative Literature, and should be removed from there.
  • We would like to spotlight the following course somewhere in the French & Francophone Studies section:
    •  FREN 051 Littérature et médecine (For the most advanced students) 
  • The French & Francophone Studies section should be concluded with:

Please let us know if you have any questions or would like clarification from MLL/FREN!

Gender and Sexuality Studies:

Gender and Sexuality Studies: GSST 001. Perspectives on Gender and Sexuality;
*FMST 009. First-Year Seminar, Writing Course: Women and Popular Culture 
*this course was ADDED over the summer!

German Studies:

GMST 1 - Intensive Elementary German - For students with no or up to one year of high school German

GMST 3 - Intensive Intermediate German - For students who have taken two or more years of high school German or are bi-lingual heritage speakers. Please take the German placement test accessible through MySwarthmore to make sure this is the right course for you.

GMST 91 (Special Topics in GMST II) - German Voices - 6th's semester German course - For students with the proficiency to process authentic literary and cultural texts and write about them on an analytically elevated level in German. You need to take the German placement test accessible through MySwarthmore to make sure this is the right course for you.

GMST 2 - Intensive Elementary German (2nd semester) - For students who have successfully passed GMST1 in the fall semester or have placed into this course through their placement test scores accessible through MySwarthmore.

GMST 8 - Texts in Context - Advanced intermediate German course for students who have successfully passed GMST3 in the fall semester or placed into this course through their placement test scores accessible through MySwarthmore.

Each semester a 0.5 credit conversation course (GMST 5 and 6) accompanies our regular curriculum for students seeking to maintain and advance their speaking and listening skills. And please, no matter your level, join us for Sharples Deutschtisch during lunchtime on Wednesdays!

For anyone with advanced knowledge of the German language or native speakers, please talk to Hansjakob Werlen, GMST Section Head, during orientation week.

Global Studies:

Introduction to Global Studies is open to all students interested in exploring global issues, phenomena, and processes that impact all our lives. The program has recently announced its Special Majors (click on the Special Majors tab on the website).

Greek-see Classics


For more information on History courses, please see

Interpretation Theory:


Islamic Studies:
For information on the Islamic Studies Program, please visit

Japanese- see Modern Languages and Literatures

JPNS 001 (First Year Japanese) is open to all students. There are no prerequisites and a placement exam is not necessary. However, enrollment may be closed if the class exceeds capacity.

JPNS 003, JPNS 012, and JPNS 019 (Second-Year, Third-Year and Fourth-Year Japanese), are open to new students by placement only. Please contact the Japanese Section Head, John Bundschuh, at regarding placement. Students who have competed the prior year in the language sequence at Swarthmore do not need placement. 

The Prerequisite for JPNS 012A (Japanese Conversation) is completion of JPNS004 or permission of the instructor. The class can be repeated for credit. Please contact Atsuko Suda at with any inquiries.

JPNS 023 - Language in Contemporary Japanese Society and Media

If you have any questions about our Japanese program, including language and culture classes, study abroad, and majors and minors, please contact Prof. Bundschuh at

Literature: For information on courses taught in English, please see

Lang Center Engaged Scholarship: 

What is Engaged Scholarship?
List of Engaged Scholarship courses

Latin-see Classics

Latin American and Latino Studies:


SPAN 012. Imágenes y contextos hispánicos
LALS 015/SPAN 015. First Year Seminar: Introduction to Latinx Literature and Culture

See Linguistics

LING 001 – Introduction to Linguistics
LING 003 - Multilingualism and Language Contact (First Year Seminar)
LING 011 - American Sign Language I
LING 025 - Sociolinguistics: Language, Culture & Society
LING 040 - Semantics
LING 045 - Phonetics & Phonology
LING 050 - Syntax

Literature - see Modern Languages and Literatures

Back to top

Mathematics and Statistics:

Students interested in Math 67 must enroll in a problem session taught by the same professor. 

Typically, the first course is one of:


MATH 003 (spring only) - Introduction to Mathematical Thinking
MATH 015 - Single Variable Calculus I (can be taken with or without the MATH 015-SP STEM Scholars attachment)
MATH 025 - Single Variable Calculus II
MATH 027 - Linear Algebra
MATH 028 - Linear Algebra with theory
MATH 039 - Discrete Mathematics
Stat 01 - Statistical Thinking 
STAT 011 - Statistical Methods I
STAT 021 - Statistical Methods II


Students should use their math/stat placement recommendation on mySwarthmore to determine their first course or speak with Placement Advisor (Professor Phil Everson).


* Students must have a math/stat placement recommendation in order to register for any math or stat course. Students must, at minimum, take the readiness exam (on Moodle) if they do not already have placement from AP scores. Students without a placement recommendation who wish to take a Math/Stat course in the fall should contact the Math/Stat Placement Coordinator (Professor Phil Everson) immediately.


* Students can view their placement results from the placement tab on their mySwarthmore page. Only the courses listed will be open for them at registration, so if they hope to register for something not listed, they must contact the Math/Stat Placement Coordinator (Professor Phil Everson) to get their placement changed.


* Stat 21 does have some space for first years and is an appropriate course for someone with a Stat AP score of 4 or 5. A student can also place into Stat 21 by taking the placement exam to pass out of Stat 11.


* Math 15-SP is a course for students of all abilities who are interested in the sciences and who want to master the Math 15 material more deeply by working on challenging problems. Students in this course need to be concurrently enrolled in Math 15 and should contact the Math 15-SP instructor (Professor Tom Crawford) in order to obtain permission to take this course.


* Students placing out of Math 15 and Math 25 who have a deep interest in mathematics should consider taking Math 28. Part IV of the calculus-placement exam is required before such students can enroll in the course.

Medieval Studies:

English 10: Monsters, Marvels, and Mysteries: Beowulf to Paradise Lost



Modern Languages and Literature:

Arabic: For information on Arabic courses, please see

Chinese: For information on Chinese courses, please see

French and Francophone Studies:  For information on French and Francophone Studies  courses, please see


For more information on German Studies courses, please see


For information on Japanese courses, please see


For information on Russian courses, please see


MUSI 002B. Reading And Making Music: The Basics Of Notation - Hauze
MUSI 005A. Music And Dance Cultures Of The World - Stewart
Eligible for GLBL Core credit

MUSI 006B. Music And War - Milewski
Eligible for PEAC credit

MUSI 009. Native American Culture & Contemporary Music [ANTH 034C.] - Two-Bears
MUSI 011. Harmony, Counterpoint & Form 1 - Kochavi
MUSI 040A Elements of Musicianship I   - Hauze
Qualified students may enroll for academic credit in MUSI 047 (Chamber Music), MUSI 048 (Individual Instruction), as well as in Department Ensembles (Chorus, Jazz Ensemble, Orchestra, Wind Ensemble, Gamelan, Garnet Singers, and Chinese Music.)

For students interested in Music, please join us on August 24th at 3 PM in the Lang Music concert hall for an orientation. We will review the requirements for our private lessons course, MUSI 048, and introduce our other academic courses and ensembles. You can also learn about paths to becoming a major or minor.

Join us in MUSI 049A. Balinese Gamelan Ensemble with Prof. Tom Whitman

Gamelan Semara Santi, Swarthmore's own traditional Indonesian percussion orchestra, is looking for new members to join us in the fall semester. All students are welcome; no previous experience or audition is necessary. We've also made a brief video about the group: \
Please e-mail Professor Tom Whitman ( if you'd like more information.
We also have some very exciting new courses being offered Spring 2023 in Music, so stay tuned!
New Ethnomusicology Course! - MUSI 010. From Roots to Django: Interpreting the Soundtracks of Black Power, Black Pain, and Retribution with Dr. Tracey Stewart
New Music History Course! - MUSI 036. Contesting Darkness: Music, Sound, and Place in Gothic Europe, with an additional 0.5 credit abroad component (036A.) with Dr. Jamie Blasina


The study of Neuroscience involves advanced coursework with the following prerequisites:

BIOL 001: Cellular and Molecular Biology
BIOL 002: Organismal and Population Biology
CHEM 010: General Chemistry
CHEM 022: Organic Chemistry I
MATH 015: Elementary Single-VariableCalculus
STAT 011: Statistical Methods
PSYC 001: Introduction to Psychology
PSYC 025: Research Design and Analysis

Peace and Conflict Studies:

For information on Peace courses, please see

PEAC 015. Intro to Peace and Conflict Studies
PEAC 024. Quakers Past and Present
PEAC 030. War in Lived Experience
PEAC 038. Civil Wars & Neoliberal Peace in Central America
PEAC 045. Peace and Conflict in Latin America
PEAC 053. Contemporary Israel/Palestine

Learn more about the program at and follow us at @swarthmorepeace on social media (fb, twitter, instagram). 

Philosophy: Philosophy Course Information

Physical Education:
Physical Education courses are offered on a first come first served basis and enrollment is capped depending on the course. Check the course schedule for class limits. 
Students should take at least one physical education course during the fall semester and spring semester of their first year at Swarthmore.
Physics and Astronomy:

PHYS 005. Spacetime and Quanta introduces and explores in some depth special relativity and quantum mechanics - two key theories of modern physics and astronomy. This course is intended as an entry point to the major track for both physics and astronomy, regardless of the degree of high school physics and math preparation a first-year student has had. Students interested in majoring in astronomy/astrophysics should take PHYS 5 and consider taking ASTR 016 in the fall of their sophomore year.

PHYS 003. General Physics I: Motion, Forces, and Energy is calculus-based and has a weekly lab component and is the entry point for a two-course physics sequence required of engineering majors.

Note: Although most prospective majors start in Physics 005, if after taking Phys 003 you wish to consider a major in our department, please speak to your instructor or to the department chair and we will be glad to discuss pathways for doing so.

PHYS 003L. General Physics I: Motion, Forces, and Energy with Biological and Medical Applications is calculus-based and has a weekly lab and is the entry point for a two-course physics sequence intended for biology, pre-med, and chemistry students. It covers the same basic physical ideas as Physics 003 but applies those ideas to systems of interest to those studying biology, medicine, or chemistry.

ASTR 001. Introductory Astronomy: The scientific investigation of the universe by observation and theory, including the basic notions of physics as needed in astronomical applications. Topics may include the appearance and motions of the sky; history of astronomy; astronomical instruments and radiation; the sun and planets; properties, structure, and evolution of stars; the galaxy and extragalactic systems; the origin and evolution of the universe; and prospects for life beyond Earth. Astronomy 1 is not part of the astronomy/astrophysics major; students interested in those majors should take Physics 5 followed by Astronomy 14 or 16.

Registration for PHYS 003/003L labs will be "first-come, first-served" basis, you are advised to register early. Web-registration assignments are tentative, students who will need to resolve conflicts with their lab assignment should contact the Physics/Astronomy dept during add/drop.

Note that in general, majors cannot replace Physics 005 (or most other major requirements) with AP credit or college courses taken during high school. However, students who need to take Physics 003 or Phys 003L to meet other departments' requirements can get Swarthmore credit for work done prior to college if they scored a 5 on the physics AP exam *and* they achieve a good score on the department's placement test, which is given the week before classes start in the fall (but in certain cases may be taken at other times throughout the year; Prof. Ben Geller is the placement test contact person).

Political Science:

POLS 070B: enrollment limited to course majors
POLS 116: enrollment limited to 10; ECON 001 and POLS 004 prerequisite requirements

POLS002: American Politics;
POLS003: Politics Across the World;
POLS 004: Introduction to International Relations;
POLS 011: Ancient Political Thought
The academic program of the Political Science Department encompasses all four major subfields of the discipline: American Politics, Comparative Politics, International Relations, and Political Theory. All political science majors, regardless of major type, must meet the department’s breadth distribution requirement by taking at least one course or seminar in each of these four subfields.

One introductory course and one additional course is required to be accepted into the major. All distribution requirements that must be taken at Swarthmore.


For information on Psychology courses, please see

PSYC 001. Introduction to Psychology (this is the typical entry course for students who are interested in psychology; serves as a prerequisite for further work in the department; and has NO enrollment limit. PSYC 001 or the equivalent is required for the psychology major and minor, neuroscience special major, and other special majors involving psychology. 


COGS 001. Introduction to Cognitive Science. COGS 001 can count towards the psychology major and can serve as a prerequisite for the following psychology courses in the cognitive area: PSYC 033 Cognitive Psychology and PSYC 034 Psychology of Language 

PSYC 009. First Year Seminar: Environmental issues such as climate change and pollution are, at their core, issues with human behavior. Thus, psychology has a key role to play in addressing these problems. This seminar will explore several interconnections between psychology and environmental sustainability, including how psychological biases lead to climate inaction, how understanding morality and culture is important for encouraging environmentalism, and how people can develop more sustainable relationships between themselves and nature.

Although students may meet the prerequisite for psychology courses with a grade of AP 5 on the psychology Advanced Placement test or a grade of 6 or 7 for psychology in the higher-level International Baccalaureate Program, students electing the AP or IB placement option are not permitted to take a core course (numbered in the 30s) in their first semester. (Swarthmore credit is not granted for AP or IB work in psychology.)


For information on Religion courses, please see


RUSS 001: Intensive Russian - Intensive Russian - No prior experience with the language is necessary. Russian is widely spoken in some of the former Soviet Republics, especially in Central Asia.

RUSS 013: The Meaning of Life and the Russian Novel - Taught in translation, with the possibility of adding a course attachment to do some readings in the original language. This is a writing intensive course. Cross-listed with LITR 014R

RUSS 015: FYS: East European Prose in Translation - Taught in translation and a writing intensive course. Readings from Hungary, Estonia, Poland, Ukraine, Czechia, Croatia, Serbia, and other literary traditions. Cross-listed with LITR 015R


Sociology and Anthropology:  All current courses

Spanish : For information on Spanish courses, please see

SPAN 001. Elementary Spanish 001
SPAN 002B. Spanish for Advanced Beginners
SPAN 003. Intermediate Spanish
SPAN 004. Advanced Spanish
SPAN 008. Spanish Conversation and Composition (W course)
SPAN 015. First Year Seminar: Introduction to Latinx Literature and Culture (W course)
SPAN 022. Introducción a la literatura española (W course)
SPAN 055. Puerto Rico y su discurso literario
SPAN 076. Identidades en el siglo XXI
SPAN 087. Cruzando Fronteras: Migración y neoliberalismo en el cine mexicano


Statistics -  see Mathematics and Statistics



THEA 001. Theater and Performance (W), Wooden, W 1:15-4:00pm
THEA 002A 01. Acting I, Walters, M 1:15-5:30pm
THEA 002A 02. Acting I, Stevens, T 1:15-5:30pm
THEA 004B. Lighting Design, Murphy, M 1:15-6:00pm
THEA 004C. Costume Design, Swanson, R 4:15-6:15pm and R 7:15pm-9:15pm
Production Ensemble: THEA 022 Sunday Noon-6:00, Tuesday 4:30-10:30pm, Thursday 6:30-9:30pm, LPAC 001 (Frear Ensemble Theater)

Writing Program:
ENGL 001F. FYS:Transitions to College Writing (4 sections).
Students in this course develop their ability to write effectively for academic and public audiences, build rhetorical knowledge for a variety of disciplines, and strengthen their writing processes to aid in their transition from high school to college writing.

For more information, please see our Engl 1F video at