How do I get involved in student research?
There are several different ways that students can get involved in research, but most student research has traditionally occurred in the summer, although a significant amount also happens during the semester.
There are opportunities for both on- and off-campus research during the summer. Planning for off-campus summer research ("REU programs" though not all summer research programs are formally REUs, which are NSF-funded) should start in December, as most applications are due in February (more information about REU programs can be found at the bottom of this page). This year, due to the pandemic, it's not clear how these programs will be run. Last summer, some were canceled while others were run remotely. Several students in the department did remote REUs last summer. For now, our advice is to check the websites of specific programs; quite a few programs are already advertising their 2021 summer programs.
The mode of summer research on campus is to join one of the faculty research teams for eight-to-ten weeks of full-time work, sometimes coupled to preparation in the spring and/or follow-up in the fall. In the Department of Physics and Astronomy, meaningful student research almost always involves students learning about and participating in projects devised by faculty members and incorporated into each faculty member's ongoing research program. See this overview and also faculty members' websites for descriptions of research projects - and specific project presentations are collected together and linked below.
To one extent or another, student research involves interactions with not only the faculty advisor but also other Swarthmore research students and also quite often scientists and students from other colleges, universities, labs, or research institutes. Participating in research is a good way to experience many aspects of science that are not commonly seen in the classroom and we view it as an important, challenging, and fun aspect of students' physics and astronomy education.
Some faculty members actively recruit new students into their research groups year-round, and provide research opportunities either for credit (see Phys 94 and Astro 94) or for hourly pay during the semester. Interested students are encouraged to talk to individual faculty members about opportunities to get involved in research during the semester. And note, the poll about possible summer research interest (below) also includes a question about interest in semester-time research.
Most honors thesis research involves at least one summer of full-time research, followed by one credit of thesis-writing (Phys 180 or Astro 180) in the fall. Note that a thesis is optional for students doing honors in our department.
Faculty Research Presentations and Student Preferences
Most years, we have an event late in the fall semester where all faculty members who have openings for students during the summer give a short presentation on their research and available projects for students. Some faculty also present about semester-time research opportunities as well. This year we plan on making videos available in November and then holding an open house for students on November 12, 2021 at 12:45 in SC 199.
Last year, because of the pandemic, we presented information about faculty research via videos in early January. Here are the videos from each faculty member or research group from last year:
- Prof. Cacey Bester
- Prof. Mike Brown
- Prof. David Cohen
- Prof. Eva-Maria Collins
- Profs. Catherine Crouch & Ben Geller
- Prof. Amy Graves
- Prof. Eric Jensen
- Prof. Jesse Rivera
- Prof. Hillary Smith
- Prof. Tristan Smith
The process of students informing themselves and expressing interest and ultimately applying for positions typically involves a period of time after the faculty presentations and open house when students can talk with faculty members, followed by a department-run process in which students express their interest and preferences regarding which faculty research groups they'd like to work with. The department analyzes these student preferences and then makes offers to students for summer research positions, usually by the end of fall exam period.
In many cases it is possible to accept a position provisionally and for a student to apply for off campus positions too and decide if they will ultimately accept the offer in March. In other cases, students may be offered a guaranteed position in which case they may also be able to start research during the spring semester, but will generally be asked to forgo applying for other summer positions. The application will ask students to indicate which of these (or both) they are interested in.
We have many more students apply than there are positions available in any given summer, and we do our best to accommodate as many students as possible. Typically there are about fifteen students who have on-campus research positions each summer. And sometimes this includes a few rising sophomores, though some priority is given to older students if they haven't yet had the opportunity to do research.
Remember, even at this point, each faculty member will not be certain of how many stipends will be available and therefore how many students they may employ in the summer. And some students who are offered positions my eventually decline them because they get an off-campus position, for example. Some applicants will be put on a waitlist, at this point.
Early Spring: College Applications
For students who the department places into a summer research position the process is not complete yet. This includes students on the waitlist. The College requires that each student fill out an online application to be submitted by mid-February, 2022. The College then awards a limited number of student stipends. Most of the funding to support student summer research stipends (sort of a salary/scholarship, that's paid all at once at the beginning of the summer) comes from the College, while some comes from research grants obtained by individual faculty members (from the National Science Foundation, for example). There is always some uncertainty about the total number of stipends available until the spring.
Students who provisionally accepted a position in the department can expect to be notified of the College's funding decision by early March. Students and faculty members can then discuss any other (off-campus) positions the student might have been offered. Students on the waitlist might find that positions open up for them around then (more stipends than expected are available) or soon after (other students decide to accept offers outside the department).
The College opens up applications for on-campus summer housing in late March.
Off-Campus Summer Research
There are numerous research opportunities off campus during the summer. Many universities, national labs, and observatories host summer research programs for undergraduates, and the ones funded by a specific National Science Foundation initiative are called "REU" (Research Experience for Undergraduates) programs. Often these are quite competitive, and require applications to be submitted (typically) in February. You can start with the National Science Foundation's list of programs. The American Physical Society has a database of summer internships. And we've compiled information about summer programs, including many non-REU programs that allow non-US citizens to participate. NASA, the National Labs (Los Alamos, Sandia, Livermore, Fermilab, Oak Ridge, and a few others) have their own summer internship programs. And there are increasingly opportunities at privately funded (often theoretical physics) research institutes (Santa Fe Institute, the Perimeter Institute in Canada, the Flatiron Institute in Manhattan) for undergraduate summer research.
Talk to faculty members to get advice and to request letters of recommendation. And ask other students who've done summer programs in the past about their experiences.
Of special interest to astronomy students: The Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium (KNAC) is a consortium of eight small liberal arts colleges: Swarthmore, Haverford/Bryn Mawr, Colgate, Vassar, Wesleyan, Williams, Wellesley, and Middlebury. Students from these eight schools can apply to spend the summer at one of the other seven campuses, and work on a project with a faculty member at that school. The consortium hosts a meeting every fall at which students present the results of their summer research (In 2019, the symposium was held at Vassar and twelve Swarthmore students attended and several presented their research results; in 2020 the symposium was virtual and hosted by Williams College and several students presented talks and posters, with more attending to watch talks while the 2021 symposium is being hosted by Haverford but is remote again). The meeting is open to all students, not just ones who have done the summer exchange. Applications for the KNAC exchange program for summer 2022 will be open in December 2021. All students - not just US citizens - are eligible for the KNAC program.