Linguistics

THEODORE B. FERNALD, Professor 3
DONNA JO NAPOLI, Professor
LORRAINE LEESON, Julian and Virginia Cornell Distinguished Visiting Professor
K. DAVID HARRISON, Associate Professor and Chair
BROOK D. LILLEHAUGEN, Assistant Professor (Tri-College)
NATHAN SANDERS, Visiting Assistant Professor
SHELLEY DEPAUL, Instructor
MELANIE DROLSBAUGH, Instructor
BRITTANY McLAUGHLIN, Visiting Instructor (part time)
ANISA H. SCHARDL, Visiting Instructor
DOROTHY KUNZIG, Administrative Assistant

3 Absent on leave, 2013–2014.

What is Linguistics?

There are 7,000 languages in the world. Linguistics is the scientific study of language—we develop techniques to explore patterns that all human languages have in common and investigate the ways in which each is unique. Our explorations yield insights not only about languages, but also about the nature of the human mind.
The relevance of linguistics to the fields of anthropology, cognitive science, language study, philosophy, psychology, and sociology has been recognized for a long time. Linguistics cross list courses from ten departments, reflecting the diversity of fields with strong relevance to our field. The interdisciplinary nature of the field, and our program, further encourages students to broaden their horizons and interact with a wide variety of students, scholars, and ideas.

What we hope students will get from studying Linguistics

Because the very nature of modern linguistic inquiry is to build arguments for particular analyses, the study of linguistics gives the student finely honed argumentation skills, which stand in good stead in careers in law, business, and any other profession where such skills are crucial.

Linguistics at Swarthmore, Bryn Mawr College, and Haverford College

The Linguistics Department is a constituent in the Tri-College Linguistics Department, which includes courses at Bryn Mawr College and Haverford College. Linguistics courses at Swarthmore College regularly include students from all three schools.

The Academic Program

The Linguistics Department offers a course major, a course minor, an honors major, and an honors minor. In addition, a special course major and a special honors major are offered in linguistics and languages.

Course Major: Linguistics
The course major in linguistics consists of at least eight credits in linguistics, including all of the following:

  • A course in sounds from the following list: LING 045, 052.
  • A course in forms: LING 050.
  • A course in meanings from the following list: LING 026, 040.
  • A course in the Structure of a Non-Indo-European Language: typically LING 061, 062, or 064.
  • LING 100, in which students complete and defend a two-credit senior thesis. This course constitutes the comprehensive requirement for the major.
  • Two electives in linguistics.

LING 001 (Introduction to Language and Linguistics) may be included in the major at the student’s option.

Special Course Major: Linguistics and Languages

The special course major in linguistics and languages consists of at least twelve credits: six credits in linguistics and three credits in each of two languages. The languages can be ancient or modern. Students must complete each of the following:

  • A course in sounds from the following list: LING 045, 052.
  • A course in forms: LING 050.
  • A course in meanings from the following list: LING 026, 040.
  • A course in the Structure of a Non-Indo-European Language: typically LING 061, 062, or 064.
  • LING 100, in which students complete and defend a one or two-credit senior thesis. This course constitutes the comprehensive requirement for the major.

For a language taught by the Modern Languages and Literatures Department, there must be one course numbered 4 or above, two courses numbered 11 or above or a seminar. For a language taught by the Classics Department there must be one intermediate-level course numbered 11–14 and one seminar.

Some work in each foreign language included in the major must be done in the student’s junior or senior year.
If one or both of the foreign languages is modern, the student must study abroad for at least one semester in an area appropriate for one of the foreign languages.

Course Minor

Four minors are offered, each totaling 5 credits (courses below plus any other two credits in linguistics):

  • Theory: LING 040, LING 045, LING 050
  • Phonology/Morphology: LING 045, LING 043, and LING 052 or LING 025
  • Syntax/Semantics: LING 040, LING 050, LING 043
  • Individualized: Student may choose five courses in linguistics and provide justification why the courses form a coherent minor.

Honors Major

The honors major in linguistics consists of at least eight credits in linguistics, and includes all of the following:

  • A course in sounds from the following list: LING 045, 052.
  • A course in forms: LING 050.
  • A course in meanings from the following list: LING 026, 040.
  • A course in the Structure of a Non-Indo-European Language: typically LING 061, 062, or 064.
  • LING 195, in which students complete and defend a two-credit senior thesis. This course constitutes the comprehensive requirement for the major.
  • Two electives in linguistics.
  • Complete and defend an honors major portfolio as explained below.

Honors Major Portfolio requirements:

Thesis: Students are required to write a two-credit thesis in LING 195 (Senior Honors Thesis) in the fall of their senior year. The thesis may be on any topic in linguistics. It need not be related to course work. Work may be collaborative with one other student at the discretion of the faculty. The oral examination will consist of a discussion of up to one hour with the external reader.

Research Papers: Students are required to write two research papers. The student will prepare for these research papers by taking at least four credits of course work (two credits in each of the research paper areas). The areas will be selected from any combination of the following, possibly in combination with other course work:

  • phonetics
  • phonology
  • morphology
  • syntax
  • semantics
  • historical and comparative
  • sociolinguistics

Students will take LING 199 (Senior Honors Study) for one credit in the spring of their senior year. The two research papers will be on topics selected by the external readers and must be directly related to course work the student has taken.

Students will work independently on their research papers. The oral examination will consist of a forty-five minute discussion with the external reader for each paper. The discussion will cover the papers and any other material pertinent to the two credits of course work offered in preparation for the paper.

Honors Special Major Linguistics and Languages

The special honors major in linguistics and languages consists of at least twelve credits: six credits in linguistics and three credits in each of two languages. The languages can be ancient or modern. Students must complete each of the following:

  • A course in sounds from the following list: LING 045, 052.
  • A course in forms: LING 050.
  • A course in meanings from the following list: LING 026, 040.
  • A course in the Structure of a Non-Indo-European Language: typically LING 061, 062, or 064.
  • LING 195, in which students complete and defend a two-credit senior thesis. This course constitutes the comprehensive requirement for the major.
  • Complete and defend an honors major portfolio as explained below.

Honors Special Major Linguistics and Languages portfolio requirements:

Thesis: Students are required to write a two-credit thesis in LING 195 (Senior Honors Thesis) in the fall of their senior year. The thesis may be on any topic in linguistics. It need not be related to course work. Work may be collaborative with one other student at the discretion of the faculty. The oral examination will consist of a discussion of up to one hour with the external reader.

Research Papers: Students are required to write two research papers in linguistics and one research paper in a language that is administered by the relevant language department. The student will prepare for the linguistics research papers by taking at least four credits of course work (two credits in each of the research paper areas). The areas will be selected from any combination of the following, possibly in combination with other course work:

  • phonetics
  • phonology
  • morphology
  • syntax
  • semantics
  • historical and comparative
  • sociolinguistics

The third research paper is administered by the relevant language department.
Students will take LING 199 (Senior Honors Study) for one credit in the spring of their senior year. The three research papers will be on topics selected by the external readers and must be directly related to course work the student has taken.

Students will work independently on their research papers. The oral examination will consist of a forty-five minute discussion with the external reader for each paper. The discussion will cover the papers and any other material pertinent to the two credits of course work offered in preparation for the paper.

Honors Minor

If a student is a course major in Linguistics as well as an honors minor in Linguistics, the thesis required for the course major constitutes the portfolio for the honors minor.
Honors minors who are not course majors in linguistics will satisfy the course minor and complete and defend their honors minor portfolio as explained below.

Honors Minor portfolio requirements:

A single research paper will constitute the portfolio for honors. The areas will be selected from any combination of the following:

  • phonetics
  • phonology
  • morphology
  • syntax
  • semantics
  • historical and comparative
  • sociolinguistics

The program requires a one-half credit in LING 199 (Senior Honors Study) in the spring of the senior year. The oral examination will consist of a discussion of up to one hour with the external reader.
Thesis / Culminating Exercise
Every senior linguistics major or linguistics and language major must write a thesis during the fall semester of their senior year.

Application Process Notes for the Major or the Minor

Please follow the process described by the Dean’s Office and the Registrar’s Office about how to apply for a major.

Please contact our department office and request a Sophomore Plan form, or get it online at www.swarthmore.edu/SocSci/Linguistics/xling14.html. Submit the completed form to the department office.

Advanced Placement/International Baccalaureate Credit

Linguistics does not accept AP/IB credit.

Transfer Credit

Linguistics does accept transfer credit. Please contact the department for more information.

Off-Campus Study

Students who special major in linguistics and languages and who focus on two modern languages must spend at least one semester abroad in an area appropriate for one of the foreign languages.

Students planning on a semester abroad must consult with their adviser and the Linguistics Department. Upon return from study abroad, students must present all written work to the department in order to have the course work considered for credit here, including class notes, syllabi, examinations, and papers.

Sample Paths through Linguistics

There are many acceptable paths through the major. We urge students to talk with their advisers to find the one that is best suited to their interests, bearing the following considerations in mind.

The end of the path is satisfaction of the requirements for the major. The most intricate of these is successful completion of the senior thesis. While students are permitted to complete one or more of the core requirements (courses in sounds, forms, and meanings) during their senior year, doing so will preclude writing a senior thesis in one of these areas. We strongly recommend completing these requirements by the end of the junior year.

Because students frequently develop thesis topics during their courses in the Structure of a Non-Indo-European Language, we also recommend satisfying this requirement by the end of the junior year. Syntax (LING 050) and Phonetics and Phonology (LING 045) are prerequisites for (LING 006X), the faculty urge students to take these courses by the end of the fall semester of the junior year.

Courses

LING 001. Introduction to Language and Linguistics

Introduction to the study and analysis of human language, including sound systems, lexical systems, the formation of phrases and sentences, and meaning, both in modern and ancient languages and with respect to how languages change over time. Other topics that may be covered include first-language acquisition, sign languages, poetic metrics, the relation between language and the brain, and sociological effects on language.
Writing course.
1 credit.
Fall 2013. Staff. Spring 2014. Lillehaugen.

LING 002. First-Year Seminar: The Linguistic Innovation of Taboo Terms and Slang

Taboo terms vary in topic across language communities: religion, sex, disease and death, and bodily effluents are common, but other topics can appear, often depending on nonlinguistic factors (community size, demographics, and cultural beliefs). Taboo terms also vary in how they are used: exclamations, name-calling, and maledictions are common, but other uses can appear, such as modifiers and predicates. Over time less common uses tend to semantically bleach, so that historical taboo terms can be used without hint of vulgarity or rudeness. These less common uses can fall together with slang in exhibiting linguistic behavior unique within that language, at the word level and the phrase and sentence level, behavior that is telling with respect to linguistic theory. Each student will choose a language other than English to investigate.
1 credit.
Not offered 2013–2014.

LING 003. First-Year Seminar: What Gay Sounds Like: Linguistics of LGBTQ Communities

This seminar provides grounding in several subfields of linguistics (e.g., anthropological, socio-phonetics, lexical semantics, discourse analysis, language and gender theory, performativity theory, ethnography of speaking, ASL studies). We will use these models to explore Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer ways of speaking, identities, discourses, and communities, in a variety of cross-cultural settings. Community involvement and social action will be a key component of the course.
Eligible for GSST credit.
1 credit.
Fall 2013. Harrison.

LING 004. First-Year Seminar: American Indian Languages

At least 300 languages were spoken in North America before the first contact occurred with Europeans. Most of the surviving languages are on the verge of extinction. Students will learn about language patterns and characteristics of language families, including grammatical classification systems, animacy effects on sentence structure, verbs that incorporate other words, and evidentials. Topics include how languages in contact affect each other, issues of sociolinguistic identity, language endangerment and revitalization efforts, and matters of secrecy and cultural theft.
1 credit.
Not offered 2013–2014.

LING 006. First-Year Seminar: Language and Deafness

This course will look at many issues connected to language and people with hearing loss in the United States, with some comparisons to other countries. We will consider linguistic matters in the structure of American Sign Language (ASL) as well as societal matters affecting users of ASL, including literacy and civil rights. A one-hour language drill outside of class is required.
All students are welcome to do a community service credit in LING 095.
1 credit.
Not offered 2013–2014.

LING 007. Hebrew for Text Study I

(See RELG 057)
This course counts for distribution in humanities under the religion rubric and in social sciences under the linguistics rubric.
1 credit.
Spring 2014. Plotkin.

LING 008A. Russian Phonetics

(See RUSS 008A)
0.5 credit.
Not offered 2013–2014.

LING 010. Hebrew for Text Study II

(See RELG 059)
1 credit.
Fall 2013. Plotkin.

LING 014. Old English/History of the Language

(See ENGL 014)
This course counts for distribution in humanities under the English rubric and in social sciences under the linguistics rubric.
1 credit.
Spring 2014. Williamson.

LING 015. Lenape Language Study

Students will gain a working knowledge of the structure of the Lenape Language. The course covers conversation, grammar, and usage, as well as discussion of the conceptual elements inherent in this Algonquian language. Topics will include elements of Lenape culture, songs in the language, and discussion of the current status of Lenape as an endangered language.
1 credit.
Spring 2014. DePaul.

LING 016. History of the Russian Language

(See RUSS 016)
This course counts for distribution in humanities under the Russian rubric and in social sciences under the linguistics rubric.
1 credit.
Not offered 2013–2014.

LING 020. Computational Linguistics: Natural Language Processing

(See CPSC 065)
Prerequisites: CPSC 035 (or the equivalent).
1 credit.
Not offered 2013–2014.

LING 025. Language, Culture, and Society

(Cross-listed as SOAN 040B)
This course is an introduction to sociolinguistics and the study of language variation and change, with a focus on variation in North American English. Topics to be examined include the following: How do social factors such as age, gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic class influence the way people use language? How do individual speakers use language differently in different situations? How do regional dialects differ from each other, and why? How does language change spread within a community and between communities? In learning the answers to these questions, students will carry out sociolinguistic field projects to collect and analyze data from real-life speech.
1 credit.
Spring 2014. Staff.

LING 026. Language and Meaning

(See PHIL 026)
This course counts for distribution in humanities under the philosophy rubric and in social sciences under the linguistics rubric.
1 credit.
Not offered 2013–2014.

LING 032. International Perspectives on Deafness

This course introduces students to the range of ways in which deafness and Deaf people are categorized internationally by medical personnel, by hearing people, and by Deaf communities. We begin with references to Deafness and Deaf people in ancient times and trace changing attitudes to Deafness, signed languages and Deafhood up until contemporary times. We also explore the notion of Deaf culture and community and consider the objective symbols and behavioral norms of this culture. This course introduces a continuum of perspectives of Deafness, and examines the range of practical and political implications of these views. As signed language use is a defining feature of what it means to be a member of a Deaf community, we will also touch on some key sociolinguistic elements of identity (e.g. gendered language use, regional variation in signed languages, bilingualism in deaf communities).
Students are encouraged to gain a rudimentary knowledge of American Sign Language, or to concurrently register for LING 032A.
Eligible for PPOL credit.
1 credit.
Fall 2013. Leeson.

LING 033. Introduction to Classical Chinese

(See CHIN 033)
This course counts for distribution in humanities or social sciences under either rubric.
1 credit.
Spring 2014. Berkowitz.

LING 034. Psychology of Language

(See PSYC 034)
1 credit.
Fall 2013. Grodner.

LING 035. Interpreting and Translating in a Social Context

This course introduces students to current thought on translation and interpretation, with respect to both spoken and signed languages. We will take a seminar based approach and explore the literature with respect to interpretation philosophy and practice, considering the practical applications of these findings for sign language interpreters and translators. We will explore issues such as lexical equivalence, equivalence at word level, clause level and discourse level and compare and contrast grammatical equivalence with issues of situational and cultural context. We will consider what this means for interpreting and translating in community settings (healthcare, legal, educational and work place settings).
All students are encouraged to gain a rudimentary knowledge of American Sign Language, or to concurrently register for LING 035A if your ASL level is beginner or LING 062A if your ASL level is intermediate.
1 credit.
Spring 2014. Leeson.

LING 036. African American English: Culture and Linguistics

An interactive and hands-on seminar on African American English (AAE), a language spoken by some African Americans. We will explore the emergence of AAE and scholarship on it, from early claims that it was defective English, to current scientific evidence that AAE has a distinct grammar, vocabulary, and style. Linguists view AAE as a language like any other, but it continues to be discriminated against in American society. We will examine the effects of and responses to language discrimination, paying special attention to AAE in everyday talk, art and literature, the Ebonics controversy, and current events like the Trayvon Martin case. This course has no prerequisites.
Eligible for Black Studies credit.
1 credit.

LING 040. Semantics

(Cross-listed as PHIL 040)
In this course, we look at a variety of ways in which linguists, philosophers, and psychologists have approached meaning in language. We address truth-functional semantics, lexical semantics, speech act theory, pragmatics, and discourse structure. What this adds up to is an examination of the meaning of words, phrases, and sentences in isolation and in context.
This course counts for distribution in humanities under the philosophy rubric and in social sciences under the linguistics rubric.
Eligible for Cognitive Science credit.
Writing course.
1 credit.
Fall 2013 and spring 2014. Schardl.

LING 043. Morphology and the Lexicon

This course looks at word formation and the meaningful ways in which different words in the lexicon are related to one another in the world’s languages.
Eligible for Cognitive Science credit.
Prerequisite: LING 001 or 045.
1 credit.
Spring 2014. Harrison.

LING 045. Phonetics and Phonology

Phonetics explores the full range of sounds produced by humans for use in language and the gestural, acoustic, and auditory properties that characterize those sounds. Phonology investigates the abstract cognitive system humans use for representing, organizing, and combining the sounds of language as well as processes by which sounds can change into other sounds. This course covers a wide spectrum of data from languages around the world and focuses on developing analyses to account for the data. Argumentation skills are also developed to help determine the underlying cognitive mechanisms that are needed to support proposed analyses.
Eligible for Cognitive Science credit.
1 credit.
Fall 2013 and spring 2014. Sanders.

LING 050. Syntax

We study the principles that govern how words make phrases and sentences in natural language. Much time is spent on learning argumentation skills. The linguistic skills gained in this course are applicable to the study of any modern or ancient natural language. The argumentation skills gained in this course are applicable to law and business as well as academic fields.
Eligible for Cognitive Science credit.
Writing course.
1 credit.
Fall 2013. Napoli. Spring 2014. Schardl.

LING 052. Historical and Comparative Linguistics

This course is an introduction to the study of linguistic history in the following sense: (i) The languages we are speaking are constantly changing. Over longer periods of time, these small changes build up to significant changes. (ii) As groups of speakers whose ancestors once spoke the same language become separated, their languages diverge. This leads to a split into separate daughter languages, which often end up being mutually incomprehensible. The question is, how is it possible to figure out and reconstruct the changes and splits that occurred in the distant past in languages that are no longer spoken and were perhaps never recorded? The method applied by historical linguists to solve this problem, the main focus of this course, is called the ‘comparative method.’ We will draw on material from a wide range of languages, focusing mainly on sound change and morphological analogy.
Prerequisite: LING 001 or 045 or permission of the instructor.
1 credit.
Spring 2014. Sanders.

LING 053. Language Minority Education in the U.S.: Issues and Approaches

(See EDUC 053)
1 credit.
Spring 2014. Allard.

LING 054. Oral and Written Language

(Cross-listed as EDUC 054) (Studio course)
This course examines children’s dialogue and its rendering in children’s literature. Each student will pick an age group to study. There will be regular fiction-writing assignments as well as primary research assignments. This course is for linguists and writers of children’s fiction and anyone else who is strongly interested in child development or reading skills. It is a course in which we learn through doing. All students are welcome to do a community-service credit in LING 096.
Prerequisite: LING 001, 043, or 045 and LING 040 or 050. Can be met concurrently.
Writing course.
1 credit.
Not offered 2013–2014.

LING 061. Structure of Navajo

Navajo is an Athabaskan language spoken more commonly than any other Native American language in the United States. This course is an examination of the major phonological, morphological, syntactic, and semantic structures of Navajo. The morphology of this language is legendary. This course also considers the history of the language and its cultural context.
Prerequisites: LING 050 and 045 or 052 or permission of the instructor.
1 credit.
Not offered 2013–2014.

LING 062. Structure of American Sign Language

In this course, we look at the linguistic structures of ASL: phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and history. We also discuss issues of culture, literacy, and politics pertinent to people with hearing loss.
All students are encouraged to gain a rudimentary knowledge of ASL, or to concurrently register for LING 062A if your ASL level is intermediate or LING 035A if your ASL level is beginner.
Prerequisites: LING 050 and 045 or 052 or permission of the instructor.
All students are welcome to do a community-service project in LING 095.
Writing course.
1 credit (plus 1 credit under LING 062A).
Spring 2014. Napoli.

LING 063. Supporting Literacy Among Deaf Children

In this course, we will develop ebooks for young deaf children. Adults can “read” these books with the children regardless of their knowledge of American Sign Language (or lack thereof). Working from beloved picture books, we will add video clips of actors signing the stories as well as voice-overs and questions about sign language that the interested reader can click on to find information.
Students must have a rudimentary knowledge of American Sign Language or concurrently take an attachment in ASL language. A background in linguistics, theater, film, early childhood development, or education would be helpful.
Students from Gallaudet University will join Swarthmore College students in this jointly taught course. We will travel to Gallaudet University three times and students from Gallaudet University will travel to Swarthmore College three times over the semester.
1 credit.
Fall 2013. Napoli and Mirus.

LING 064. Structure of Tuvan

Tuvan belongs to the Turkic branch of the Altaic language family and is spoken in Siberia and Mongolia by nomadic herders. It has classically agglutinating morphology and curious phenomena such as vowel harmony, converbs, and switch reference. It has rich sound symbolism, a tradition of oral (unwritten) epic tales, riddles, and world-famous song genres (“throat singing”). We will investigate the sounds, structures, oral traditions, and ethnography of Tuvan, using both printed and digital media.
Prerequisites: LING 050 and 045 or 052 or permission of the instructor.
Eligible for ASIA credit.
1 credit.
Not offered 2013–2014.

LING 070R. Translation Workshop

(See LITR 070R and RUSS 070)
This course counts for distribution in humanities under the literature rubric and in social sciences under the linguistics rubric.
1 credit.
Not offered 2013–2014.

LING 075. Field Methods

This course affords a close encounter with a language, direct from the mouths of native speakers. Students develop inference techniques for eliciting, understanding, analyzing, and presenting complex linguistic data. They also gain practical experience using state-of-the-art digital video, annotation, and archiving for scientific purposes. A different (typically non-Indo-European) language will be investigated each time the course is taught.
Prerequisite: LING 001.
1 credit.
Fall 2013. Staff.

LING 094. Research Project

With permission, students may elect to pursue a research program.
1 credit.
Fall or spring. Staff.

LING 095. Community-Service Credit: Literacy and Hard-of-Hearing or Deaf People

This course offers credit for community service work. Students may work with children on literacy skills in a mainstream environment or a bilingual-bicultural program, locally or in the greater Philadelphia area. Students will be required to keep a daily or weekly journal of experiences and to write a term paper (the essence of which would be determined by the student and the linguistics faculty mentor).
Prerequisites: LING 045; LING 006 or 062; permission of the chairs of both the linguistics and educational studies departments; and the agreement of a faculty member in linguistics to serve as a mentor through the project.
Fall or spring. Staff.

LING 096. Community-Service Credit: Literacy

This course offers credit for community service work. The prerequisites are LING/EDUC 054, the permission of the chairs of both the linguistics and educational studies departments, and the agreement of a faculty member in linguistics to mentor students through the project. Students will be required to keep a daily or weekly journal of experiences and to write a term paper (the essence of which would be determined by the student and the linguistics faculty mentor).
1 credit.
Fall or spring. Staff.

LING 097. Field Research

This course offers credit for field research on a language. Prerequisites are the permission of the chair of linguistics and the agreement of a faculty member in linguistics to serve as a mentor through the project.
1 credit.
Fall or spring. Staff.

LING 100. Research Seminar

All course majors in linguistics and linguistics/language must write their senior thesis in this seminar. Only seniors are admitted.
2 credits.
Fall 2013. Harrison, Napoli, Sanders.

LING 195. Senior Honors Thesis

All honors majors in linguistics and honors minors who are also course majors must write their thesis in this seminar.
2 credits.
Fall 2013. Harrison, Napoli, Sanders.

LING 199. Senior Honors Study

Honors majors may write their two research papers for 1 credit in this course. Honors minors may take this course for 0.5 credit.
Fall 2013 or spring 2014. Harrison.

Seminars

LING 105. Seminar in Phonology: Contact and Change

This seminar studies language contact and its results; the relation between internal and external linguistic change; dialects and koine formation; and pidgins and creoles.
Prerequisite: LING 001, 045, or 050, or permission of the instructor.
1 or 2 credits.
Spring 2014. Staff.

LING 106. Seminar in Morphology

This seminar will consider recent developments in the theory of morphology. Topics vary.
Prerequisite: LING 043.
1 or 2 credits.
Not offered 2013–2014.

LING 107. Seminar in Syntax

This seminar will consider recent developments in the theory of syntax. Topics vary.
Prerequisite: LING 040 or 050
1 or 2 credits.
Spring 2014. Staff.



LING 108. Seminar in Semantics

This seminar will consider recent developments in the theory of semantics. Topics vary.
Prerequisite: LING 040.
1 or 2 credits.
Not offered 2013–2014.

LING 115. Seminar: Linguistic Typology and Constructed Languages

Humans have long been driven to duplicate and manipulate the properties of natural language to create new languages for the purposes of enhancing works of fiction, for aiding human communication, or even for pure intellectual curiosity. In this course, students will explore this drive through development of their own constructed languages, guided by rigorous study of the typology of patterns observed in real human languages. Topics to be covered include phoneme inventories, phonological rules, morphological classification, syntactic structure, language change over time, dialectal variation, and writing systems. Students will also apply their knowledge of linguistic typology to critically assess the design of existing constructed languages such as Esperanto and Klingon.
Prerequisite: LING 001 or 045 or permission of instructor.
1 credit.
Fall 2013. Sanders.

LING 116. Language and Meaning

(See PHIL 116)
This seminar counts for distribution in HU under the philosophy rubric and in SS under the LING rubric.
2 credits.
Fall 2013. Eldridge.

LING 120. Anthropological Linguistics: Endangered Languages

(Cross-listed as SOAN 080B)
In this seminar, we address some traditional issues of concern to both linguistics and anthropology, framed in the context of the ongoing, precipitous decline in human linguistic diversity. With the disappearance of languages, cultural knowledge (including entire technologies such as ethnopharmacology) is often lost, leading to a decrease in humans’ ability to manage the natural environment. Language endangerment thus proves relevant to questions of the language/ecology interface, ethnoecology, and cultural survival. The seminar also addresses the ethics of fieldwork and dissemination of traditional knowledge in the Internet age.
Prerequisite: One course in linguistics or anthropology or permission of the instructor.
1 credit.
Not offered 2013–2014.

LING 134. Psycholinguistics Seminar

(See PSYC 134)
1 credit.
Spring 2014. Grodner.