Swarthmore College Peace Collection, 500 College Avenue, Swarthmore, PA 19081 USA
SUBJECT FILE: Conscientious Objection/Objectors

All material is located in Subject File #1. The items listed do
not necessarily represent the entire contents of the folders

Pre-WWI and WWI era | WWI retrospectives and historical analysis | Post-WWI era, 1920-1938|
WWII era | WWII retrospectives and historical analysis | Post-WWII era, 1946-1959|
Vietnam War era, 1960-1979| 1980-current (and undated) era | Government documents |
C.O.s in prison | Religion and conscientious objection/objectors

Pre-WWI and World War I era material
Box 1
U.S. and/or foreign sources, ____-1913
Foreign sources, 1914-1915
Foreign sources, 1916
- Pamphlet "The Conscientious Objector" by Rev. James Barr
U.S. sources, 1916
- Article re: Scott Duckers, 08/26/1916
Foreign sources, 1917
- Pamphlet "112 Days Hard Labour" by Hubert W. Peet
- Statement re: solitary confinement; case of Henry Flintoff
U.S. sources, 1917 Mss. re: rebellion against conscription stirred by Working Class Union in Oklahoma, 1917
Foreign sources, 1918
U.S. sources, 1918
- Pamphlet "What Happens in Military Prisons"
- Pamphlet "Report of Treatment of C.O.s at the Camp Funston Guard House"
- Pamphlet "Letters from a Political Prisoner [Erling Lunde] in a Military Hospital USA"
- Article "The Fort Leavenworth General Strike of Prisoners" by Carl Haessler
- Pamphlet "Moans From the Military Machine" by Erling Lunde
- Letter from Jacob Wortsman (Post Guard House, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas),
- "Report on C.O.s at Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas"
- Article "The Rebel Soul vs. the World" by Prof. Gilbert Murray, Sept. 1918
- C.O.s at Camp Meade who refused military service [card file]: includes men such as Wray Hoffman, William Kantor & Alfred Loeb, as well as many Mennonites, Dunkards, Quakers, Brethren in Christ C.O.s; cards include information about religious affiliation (or whether the man was a Socialist etc.), date & place of birth, date of arrival to the army camp & to what company, date when C.O. status was declared, date of discharge for mental or physical reasons (if such occurred), marital status, occupation, occupation of parents, education level reached, and home address.
Foreign sources, 1919
U.S. sources, 1919
- Pamphlet "The 'Mutiny' at Fort Leavenworth Disciplinary Barracks," July 22, 1919
- Pamphlet "The Problem of Conscience" by Richard Roberts, April 1919
- Statement of Theo Lunde re: treatment of C.O.s
- Article "Solitary" by Winthrop D. Lane, May 1919
- Article "The Strike at Ft. Leavenworth" by Winthrop D. Lane, Feb. 1919
- Goverment document "Statement Concerning the Treatment of Conscientious Objectors in the Army" prepared & published by direction of the Secretary of War, June 18, 1919

Box 1a (1/2 box)
U.S. & foreign sources, WWI era: miscellaneous
U.S. sources, WWI era: individual C.O.s; conditions at Ft. Leavenworth; etc. [removed from reference files of DG 117 (J. Nevin Sayre Papers)]
U.S. sources, WWI era: lists of C.O.s

World War I -- Retrospectives & Historical Analysis of WWI Conscientious Objection
Box 1a (cont.)
U.S. & foreign sources: retrospectives and historical analysis of WWI conscientious objection/objectors -- miscellaneous
Foreign sources: retrospectives and historical analysis of WWI conscientious objection/objectors -- Conscientious Objectors Day, May 15, 2004 [re: British C.O.s and Quaker relief efforts]
Foreign sources: retrospectives and historical analysis of WWI conscientious objection/objectors -- C.O. graffiti
found in Richmond Castle cells [Richmond 16], Great Britain
Note: See also Subject File #1: Events re: Peace -- General: Commemorations - 100th year anniversary of WWI, 2014-

British prison where C.O.s were
imprisoned, ca. 1918
British prison where C.O.s were imprisoned; postcard sent to Miss. Thomas of London by Stanley V. Keeling: "I thought you would like a glimpse of Stall 6 at "The Settlement." My cell is on the ground floor. Kindest regards to all at Cttee. [Friends Service Committee]," ca. WWI
3.5" x 5.5" sepia photo on postcard from Sydney
Turner collection (CDGB Great Britain)
3.5" x 5.5" sepia photo on postcard from Subject File:
Art in War and Peace: Postcard Collection --
Gillett Scrapbook: British Postcards

Post-World War I era material
Box 2
Foreign sources, 1920-1938
- Statement "The Nazarene Conscientious Objectors in Jugo-Slavia," 03/08/1928
U.S. sources, 1920-1938
- Pamphlet "Pacifist Handbook," June 1939
- Statement "Why I Am a Conscientious Objector" by J. Howard Branson
- List of names, addresses & affiliations from Reunion of Conscientious Objectors, Camp Meade,
Westminster, Maryland, 08/22/1937
- Letter from Raymond H. Bolin (Pasadena, California, 03/16/1938) to Dr. Hunter
and friends of the Muriel Lester Circle

Pre-WWI and WWI era | WWI retrospectives and historical analysis | Post-WWI era, 1920-1938|
WWII era | WWII retrospectives and historical analysis | Post-WWII era, 1946-1959|
Vietnam War era, 1960-1979| 1980-current (and undated) era | Government documents |
C.O.s in prison | Religion and conscientious objection/objectors

World War II era material
Box 2 (cont.)

Foreign sources, 1939-1941
- Pamphlet "The Faith of a Conscientious Objector" by Alfred Salter, 1940
- Pamphlet "The C.O. and the Tribunal," 1941
U.S. sources, 1939-1940
- Pamphlet "What About the Conscientious Objector," Nov. 1940
- Pamphlet "The Conscientious Objector Under the Selective Training and Service Act
of 1940," 10/08/1940
- Pamphlet "Summary of Brief: U.S. vs. Stanley Rappeport, Howard Schoenfeld,
Albert Herling, Francis Hall, William A. Winslow"
- Pamphlet "Selective Service Regulations Vol. 3 - Classification and Selection"
- Pamphlet "Selective Service Regulations Vol. 4 - Delivery and Induction"
- Statement to the Draft Board in Support of Request for Classification as a C.O.
by Michael Marsh, 10/10/1940
- Book The Draft and YOU by Congressman Emanuel Celler (forewords by Senator Edward
Burke and Representative James Wadsworth)
- Statement of Stanley Rappeport, 10/16/1940
- Statement of Henry Wheeler, 11/16/1940
- Statement of J. Olcutt Sanders, ca. Dec. 1940
U.S. sources, 1940: responses of various groups to Burke-Wadsworth bill re: C.O.s, ca. 1940
U.S. sources, 1941
- Pamphlet "Peace in Action: Position Taken by a C.O. Imprisoned For His Stand Against the War System, With Comments by Eminent Persons in the Peace Movement"
- Pamphlet "USA vs. Arle Brooks"
- Pamphlet "Federal Convicts No's. 1128 and 1129: College to Prison"
- Pamphlet "The Case of the Eight Divinity Students" [includes Roger Baldwin] by
Milton R. Konvitz
- "An Open Letter to the U.S. District Attorney Regarding the Selective Service Act and
Myself" by Ammon Hennacy, 04/28/1941
- Statement by Ernest Kirkjian to the Federal Court, 01/06/1941
- Letter to Chicago Selective Service Board No. #9 from Kenneth E. Culbertson, 05/06/1941
- Letter to U.S. District Attorney (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) from Fred. H. Richards,
- "Statement of Gene Garst Upon Pleading 'Nolle Contendre' to Charges of Refusal to
Register Under the Selective Service and Training Act of 1940"
- Statement from Union Theological Seminary students
- Empire State town meeting minutes, 12/14/1941
- "Oral Testimony in Support of Demurrer to Indictment by the Defendant in USA vs. Leon
Thomson", 07/07/1941

Box 3
Foreign sources, 1942-1943
- "Ustawa O Powszechnym Obowiazku Wojskowym: Rozporzadzenie W Sprawie Wykonania Ustawy O Powszechnym Obowiazku Wojskowym," 1943
- "Ley de Servicio Militar Obligatorio (Estados Unidos de Venezuela), 1942
U.S. sources, 1942
- Pamphlet "Conscripts of Conscience" by R. Alfred Hassler
- "Statement of Russell S. Smith In Refusing To Appear For Physical Examination," ca. April 1942
- Letter to "My Friends" from R. Asahi Chino, 06/25/1942
- "A Statement in Connection With My Position as a C.O." by Donald Mackenzie
- Letter from Frank T. Gobla to Draft Board #9, 07/30/1942
- "A Statement to My Friends" by John McCartney, July 1942
- Letter from Harold Robert Cole to Francis Biddle, 06/30/1942
- Statement "Why I Cannot Comply With the Selective Service Act" by Ralph Galt
- Statement "Common Ground for CPS" by Jim Vicary, 11/30/1942
- Letter from Edson Sower to Francis Biddle
- Statement of Edgar Hanawalt, 10/29/1942
U.S. sources, 1943
- Press Release "The Facts in the Cases of Stanley Murphy and Lewis Krawcyzk"
- Letter from Elizabeth Murphy to Mr. & Mrs. Eichel, 07/25/1943
- Booklet "Congress Looks at the Conscientious Objector"
- Letter from E. Raymond Wilson to John Morgan, 08/19/1943
- Statement of Philip Isely in Federal District Court, Portland, Oregon, 05/10/1943
- Letter from Paul Kermiet to "Sir," 06/06/1943

- Letter from Walter Stark to "Whom It May Concern," 09/18/1943

- Letter from Bayard Rustin to Local Draft Board #63, 11/16/1943
- Statement by Roger Axford to Local Draft Board #1, Lincoln, Nebraska, 12/28/1943
- Statement "Why I Can No Longer Cooperate With Conscription" by David Newton
- "Excerpts From the Journal and Letters of a C.O." by Lawrence McK. Miller Jr.
- Extracts of letters from David Dellinger
- Pamphlet "They Asked For a Hard Job" by Frank Olmstead
- Letter from Denny Wilcher to John ____, 11/13/1943
- Letter from Charles Butcher to Bayard Rustin, 10/13/1943
- Excerpts from a letter by Roger Scattergood, 07/15/1943
Foreign sources, 1944
- Pamphlet "The Present Position of Conscientious Objection" by C.E.M. Joad, May 1944
- Pamphlet "The C.O. and the National Service Acts," March 1944
- Pamphlet "A Prisoner's Log" [re: Halloway Prison] by Stella St. John
- Pamphlet "The International Rights of Conscience" by Douglas J.J. Owen
- Report "Alternative Service Program for Canadian C.O.s" by Paul Comly French, 09/26/1944
U.S. sources, 1944
- Pamphlet "Conscientious Objectors: Their Morale in Church-Operated Service Units" by Anton T. Boisen
- Pamphlet "The Truth About Springfield [Medical Center for Federal Prisoners]"

- Meeting minutes from the Special Conference to Discuss Whether Pacifists Should / Should Not
Ask Provisions for C.O.s in Any Conscription or "National Service Bills," 12/06/1944
- Mss."Forgotten Women of WWII: Wives of C.O.s in CPS" by Heather T. Frazer and
John O'Sullivan
U.S. sources, 1944: writings of Leo Crespi re: public opinion of C.O.s, 1944-1945

Box 4
Foreign sources, 1945
- Pamphlet "Penalties on Conscience" by Lincoln Efford
- Article "Jehovah's Witnesses Triumph Over Concentration Camps," Consolation: A Journal of Fact, Hope and Courage (vol. 26:678), 9/12/1945
- Government report "Atrocities and Other Considerations In Concentration Camps In Germany"
U.S. sources, 1945
- Newspaper article "Why [Stanley] Murphy Won't Fight" by Holly Beye
- Meeting minutes from Conference on a Campaign for Amnesty for Imprisoned C.O.s,
- Letter from Al Orcutt to "Friend," June 1945
- "My Viewpoint" by Robert L. Lam, 10/01/1945
U.S. & foreign sources, WWII era
- Statement "To Take Or Not To Take: Farm Work"
- Pamphlet "Why We Refused to Register"
- Pamphlet "Why They Cannot Go to War"
- Mimeographed pamphlet "A Saga of C.O. Joe"
- Paper "Conscientious Objectors in Canada"

World War II -- Retrospectives & Historical Analysis of WWII Conscientious Objection
Box 4 (cont.)
Foreign sources

U.S. sources
- Pamphlet "Characteristics of Conscientious Objectors in World War II" by Adrian E. Gory and David C. McClelland
- Article "Conscientious Objectors in World War II," Quarterly Research Survey, January 1949
- Article "Recollections of a World War II Conscientious Objector" by Lawrence Mck. Miller
- Article "Not a Soldier, Not a Slacker: Conscientious Objectors and Male Citizenship in the United States During the Second World War" by Timothy Stewart-Winter, Gender & History 19:3, November 2007
- Article "Farm Deferments During World War II" by Al Albrecht
U.S. sources: paper "Treatment of Conscientious Objectors in the United States During World Wars I and II and Its Relation to the Concept of Freedom" by Harry A. Wallenberg Jr., 1952
U.S. sources: mss. "So That Others May Be Free: Absolutist Objectors During World War II" by Marc Miller, 1971
U.S. sources: paper "Pacifism During the Second World War" by Ralph Levering, 1985
U.S. sources: article "The Radical Conscientious Objectors of World War II: Wartime Experience and Postwar Activism" by Gretchen Lemke-Santangelo, Radical History Review 45, 1989
U.S. sources: mss. "The Good War and the Bad Peace: Conscientious Objectors in World War II" by Bonnie Keady, 2003
U.S. sources: mss. "The Home Front: Men, Women and Collective Sacrifice," ca. 2006

U.S. sources: Japanese-American conscientious objectors

Pre-WWI and WWI era | WWI retrospectives and historical analysis | Post-WWI era, 1920-1938|
WWII era | WWII retrospectives and historical analysis | Post-WWII era, 1946-1959|
Vietnam War era, 1960-1979| 1980-current (and undated) era | Government documents |
C.O.s in prison | Religion and conscientious objection/objectors

Post-World War II era material
Harold Blickenstaff, who took part as a C.O. in starvation experiments as a human guinea pig, 07/11/1945
2.5" x 3.5" black & white photo
from Edward & Margaret Thomas collection (CDGA)
Box 4 (cont.)
Foreign sources, 1946
U.S. sources, 1946
- Pamphlet "The Church and Returning C.O.s" by Ray A. Burkhart
- Pamphlet "They Refuse to Be Criminals" by Edward C.M. Richards.
Foreign sources, 1947
- Pamphlet "The C.O.s Hansard: A Series of Reprints from Parliamentary Reports of Matter Concerning Conscientious Objectors, From 10th October, 1945 to 21st January, 1946" published by the Central Board for Conscientious Objectors
U.S. sources, 1947
- Pamphlet "Men Against The State" by George B. Reeves
- Pamphlet "Whither Freedom?: A Study of the Treatment of Conscientious Objectors in the United States during World War I and II and its Relation to the Concept of Freedom" by Harry A. Wallenberger, Jr.
- "Statement of Thomas J. Leonard," May, 1947
- Article "The Meaning of Religious Training and Belief in Court Decisions Affecting the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940" from "Exemption from the Draft" by Julien Cornell
Foreign sources, 1948-1949

Box 5
U.S. sources, 1948
- Article "The Amazing Comeback of Lew Ayres" by Irving Wallace
- Court Record "United States of America vs. Sander Katz"
- Court Judgment "United States of America vs. James S. Lovett"
- "Statement of Non-Registration" by Rollin Pepper
- Letter "To My Friends" by Gerald Haynes
- Statement "On Conscription: This is My Stand" by Armin L. Saeger Jr.

- Essay "Notes on the Non-Registrant Trials" by William Fuson
- Court Record "United States of America vs. Paul Barker Gates" and "United States of America
vs. Frederick Gerald Williams"
- Court Record "United States of America vs. Walter J. Coppock, Jr."
U.S. sources, 1949
- Periodical Retort: An Anarchist Quarterly of Social Philosophy and the Arts, (Vol. 4:3), Winter 1949; includes article "Resistance in Prison" by Clif Bennet
- Pamphlet "Why Do They Go to Prison" by the Fellowship of Reconciliation
- Letter from Walter Coppock Jr. to Judge Hall, 01/27/1949

Box 6
Foreign sources, 1950-1959
U.S. sources, 1950-1951
- Court record "Larry Gara vs. USA: Brief of Petitioner," 1950
- Pamphlet "[Calvin DeFillipis] Urges Korean Armistice, Faces Seven Years in Jail"
- Articles re: Jim George, Laguna Beach Post, 08/23/1951
- Article "'Thou Shalt Not Kill' Can Land a Man in Jail" by John Keats, Washington Daily News
- Manuscript "Second Prosecutions of Conscientious Objectors for Violations of the Selective Service Act of 1948"
- Article "They Won't Fight -- But They Aren't Chicken" by Maeanna Chesterton-Mangle, The Kiwanis Magazine
- Press release (02/08/1951) and letters re: Raleigh Henry Pickard, C.O.
U.S. sources, 1952-1959
- Pamphlet "The Law Versus the Conscientious Objector" by Francis Heisler
- Court record "USA vs. Andrew Geyer, United States District Court, District of Connecticut, Special Findings and Opinion"
- Court record "USA vs. Harry Gray Nugent, United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit"
- Court record "USA vs. Edward Lee Nichols, District Court of the United States, Southern District of California Central Division, Memorandum of Opinion"
- "Statement of J. Ervin Waters, Minister of the Gospel, Church of Christ, to the Armed Services Committee of the House of Representatives, Concerning the Recommendations Submitted to Congress by the National Security Training Commission"
- "Fact Sheet in the Case of Vern Davidson"
- Letter from Seymour Eichel to "Friends" re: his case [see also DG 131]
PAX Service / I-W Service, 1951-1975
PAX Service / I-W Service, 1951-1975: "Evaluation of the 1-W Program: A Report on the Experiences of Mennonite and Brethren in Christ 1-W Service Men" by J.S. Schultz, 1955.
Pre-WWI and WWI era | WWI retrospectives and historical analysis | Post-WWI era, 1920-1938|
WWII era | WWII retrospectives and historical analysis | Post-WWII era, 1946-1959|
Vietnam War era, 1960-1979| 1980-current (and undated) era | Government documents |
C.O.s in prison | Religion and conscientious objection/objectors

Vietnam War era (& beyond) material
Box 7
Foreign sources, 1960-1969
- Pamphlet "Manual for Draft-Age Immigrants to Canada," 1968
- Press release "Australia Imprisons Its War Resisters" re: Robert Mowbray
U.S. sources, 1960-1969
- Pamphlet "Deity Belief: Necessity for Draft Status?" by J.B. Tietz
- Pamphlet "Fairness and Due Process Under the Selective Service System" by John Aldock
- Pamphlet "The National Lawyers Guild Practitioner," Fall 1966
- Statement of Carl Wittman to Local Draft Board #4, Hackensack, New Jersey, 04/29/1968
- Statement & press release etc. of Evelyn Whitehorn & her son, Erick, 1968
- Pamphlet "Why We Are Conscientious Objectors" by William R. McGrath, 1968?
Burning of draft card

Black & white photo from Theodore Hetzel
Collected Papers (CDGA)

- Pamphlet "'McNeil'" by (?) Meldon Acheson, 1969
- Letter "A Matter of Conscience" by Donald S. Heath
- "Statement of Resistance" by Chuck Noell
- "Copy of One Friend's Letter to His Draft Board" from David Hartsough
- "A Statement of Personal Belief" by Thomas Cleaver
- Article "From Harvard to Prison for Peace" by David Reed
- "Number 160074: The View from the Inside" by Stephen G. Cary
- Booklet "The Nine for Peace"
- "A Personal Statement" by Archie Williamson
- Article "Responsibilities of the High School for Providing Information on Conscientious Objection to War" by Dean A. Allen
- Pamphlet "Conscientious Objection" by Harvo Yamaoka
- "Answers for the Application for Conscientious Objector" by Ren Brown
- Statement "Why I Am a Resister" by Francis B. Randall
- Pamphlet "Can a Jew Be a Conscientious Objector"
- Advertisement for event "A Celebration of Conscience," Allenwood Federal Prison Farm, Pennsylvania, Dec. 20-21, ____
- Letter from William N. Plymat Jr. to Polk County Local Board #13-77, 04/30/1969
- Statement to sentencing judge by Robert Eaton, 08/27/1969
Foreign sources, 1970-1979
- Pamphlet "Guida All 'Obiezione di Coscienza'"
- Pamphlet "Qué son Los Objetores de Conciercia" by Juan Roca
- Letter re: Australian C.O., Brian Ross, who was serving two years in prison for refusal to register for the draft, 1970
- Article "Unlikely Rebels: Even in Israel There Are C.O.s," Present Tense, Spring 1975
- Article "U.S. War Resisters in Sweden" by Charles Peterson, Philadelphia Bulletin, 07/18/1976
- Pamphlet "La Objecion Es Un Derecho"
- Article "War Resisters in the Land of Battle [Israel]," Dissent Summer 1977
- Article "Green Beret Who Refused to Go" [re: Gerry Condon], Peace Newsletter, April 1975
U.S. sources, 1970-1979
- Pamphlet "Free to Go" by William H. Kuenning
- Pamphlet "Humanist Conscientious Objection: A Guide for Men of Draft Age" by Dane H. Drews
- Article "A Young Man [Mark Edgell] Asks to Be Declared a Conscientious Objector: A Draft Board Weighs," Life
- Statement to sentencing judge by John Braxton
- Account of trial of Bill Stanton III, written by Bill Stanton III
- Article "The Right to Refuse to Kill" by Eileen Egan
- Source list "Guide to Files on Conscientious Objection, The United States Government, and the Quest for Alternatives in the Twentieth Century"
- Article "Profiles in Conscience: 200 Years of Conscientious Objection in the Armed Forces"
- Booklet "Memoirs" by Jim Stanley
- Letter "To Whom It May Concern" from Daniel Marc Hittner making public his status as a C.O.
- Article "An Appeal for Humanity" by Sandra A. Gilson, 05/31/1979
U.S. sources, 1970-1979: pamphlet "Conscription and Conscientious Objectors" by Joseph F. Costanzo, Law and Water Law Review 6:2, 1971

Box 8
U.S. sources, 1970-1979: mss. "A Study of Conscientious Objection to War in the Twentieth Century" by Thomas J. Kaplan, January 1974
1980-current era material; undated material
Box 8 (cont.)
Foreign sources, 1980-1999
- Miscellaneous
- Pamphlet "South African Law and the Conscientious Objector" by Andrew Smail
- Pamphlet "Conscientious Objection in South Africa"
- Reports from the Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly Legal Affairs Council re:
conscientious objection to military service in Europe, 08/27/1981, 05/17/1984
- Booklet "Conscientious Objection," 1989 [Occasional Paper No. 8 (Second Edition) by Centre for Intergroup Studies]
- Leaflet "The Right to Refuse to Kill -- Conscientious Objection to Military Service Within the
CSCE Member States"
- Report of the Secretary General of the United Nations "The Role of Youth in the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights, Including the Question of Conscientious Objection to Military Service," 01/18/1991
- Article "Principled Objection to Military Service in Contemporary Poland" by Wojciech
Modzelewski, Feb. 1999
Foreign sources, 1980-1999: Israeli C.O.s (who refused to serve in occupied territories)
U.S. sources, 1980-1999
- Pamphlet "Conscientious Objectors and the Draft"
- Pamphlet "Selective Service Registration: What You Need to Know"
- Letter to "Friend" from Frank Brodhead re: impending court martial of Pfc. James Bergeron, 01/04/1982
- Pamphlet "First Medical Officer to Refuse Desert Storm Duty: Captain Yolanda Huet-Vaughn"
U.S. sources, 1980-1999: court cases against Gilberg Hager, M.D. and Jwan Claude Rainey, 1991
U.S. sources, 1980-1999: mss. "Status of Conscientious Objection Under International Law" by Emily Marcus, 1997
U.S. sources, 1980-1999: court case against Dennis Lipton, 1999
Foreign sources, 2000-2010
Foreign sources, 2000-2010: Israeli resisters
(Shministim), 2008
U.S. sources, 2000-2003

Box 9
U.S. sources, 2000-2003: "The Christian C.O." [web site], 2003
U.S. sources, 2004-2005
U.S. sources, 2006-2007
U.S. sources, 2006-2007: paper "Supporting the Voice of Conscience for [by] Social Workers" by Pamela Harms, 2007
U.S. sources, 2008-2009
U.S. sources, 2010-current
Foreign sources, 2011-current
U.S. & foreign sources, undated

Pre-WWI and WWI era | WWI retrospectives and historical analysis | Post-WWI era, 1920-1938|
WWII era | WWII retrospectives and historical analysis | Post-WWII era, 1946-1959|
Vietnam War era, 1960-1979| 1980-current (and undated) era | Government documents |
C.O.s in prison | Religion and conscientious objection/objectors

Government Documents
Box 9 (cont.)
Government documents, 1914-1929
- "Military Service (No. 2) Act," 1918
- Statement Concerning the Treatment of Conscientious Objectors in the Army" prepared and published by direction of the Secretary of War, June 18, 1919
Government documents, 1930-1969
- Miscellaneous
Goverment documents, 1970-current
- Miscellaneous
Government documents, 1970-current: "Manual for Advisors to Registrants" by the Selective Service System, 1972
Government documents, 1970-current: report "Military Personnel: Number of Formally Reported Applications for Conscientious Objectors Is Small Relative to the Total Size of the Armed Forces," by the Government Accounting Office, 2007
C.O.s in Prison
Demonstration for amnesty for
imprisoned C.O.s, ca. 1946
Black & white photo from unknown source
Box 10
General (U.S. & Foreign)
Lists of C.O.s imprisoned, WWI & WWII testimonies of C.O.s imprisoned; stories about prison

Testimonies of C.O.s imprisoned; stories about prison: mss. "Prison Memoirs" by Jeff Keith [1970 version, retyped 1997]
Clipsheet of newsclippings secretly circulated at Millpoint Prison (WV) by imprisoned C.O.s,
(with pencil notes about happenings at the camp & summaries of newsclippings)

Religion & Conscientious Objection/Objectors
Box 11
Religion & conscientious objection/objectors
Assemblies of God C.O.s / opinions re: C.O.s
Association of Bible Students C.O.s / opinions re: C.O.s
Baptist C.O.s / opinion re: C.O.s
Brethren (Church of the . . .) C.O.s / opinion re: C.O.s
Brethren in Christ C.O.s / opinions re: C.O.s
Catholic C.O.s / opinion re: C.O.s [2 folders]
Christ's Church of the Golden Rule C.O.s / opinions re: C.O.s
Christ's Sanctified Holy Church C.O.s / opinions re: C.O.s
Christadelphian C.O.s / opinion re: C.O.s
Christian Scientist C.O.s / opinion re: C.O.s
Church of Christ C.O.s / opinion re: C.O.s
Church of God (Anderson, IN) C.O.s / opinion re: C.O.s
Church of God in Christ C.O.s / opinions re: C.O.s
Church of God of the Abrahamic Faith C.O.s / opinions re: C.O.s

Box 12
Congregational & Christian Church C.O.s / opinion re: C.O.s
Disciples of Christ C.O.s / opinion re: C.O.s
Doukhobour C.O.s / opinion re: C.O.s
Emmanuel Association C.O.s / opinion re: C.O.s
Episcopal C.O.s / opinion re: C.O.s
Evangelical / Evangelical & Reformed C.O.s / opinion re: C.O.s
Hutterite C.O.s / opinion re: C.O.s
Immanuel Missionary C.O.s / opinion re: C.O.s
Jehovah's Witness C.O.s / opinion re: C.O.s
Jewish C.O.s / opinion re: C.O.s
Lutheran C.O.s / opinion re: C.O.s
Mennonite C.O.s / opinion re: C.O.s
Methodist C.O.s / opinion re: C.O.s [see boxes 10-12 for cards with information about Methodist C.O.s]
Molokan [or Molochan] C.O.s / opinion re: C.O.s
Mormon C.O.s / opinion re: C.O.s
Muslim C.O.s / opinion re: C.O.s
Nazarene C.O.s / opinion re: C.O.s
Order of Aaron C.O.s / opinion re: C.O.s

Box 12a
Pentecostal Assemblies C.O.s / opinion re: C.O.s
Pilgrim Holiness C.O.s / opinion re: C.O.s
Presbyterian C.O.s / opinion re: C.O.s

Box 13
Seventh-Day Adventist C.O.s / opinion re: C.O.s
Seventh-Day Adventist C.O.s / opinion re: C.O.s cont.
Society of Friends C.O.s / opinion re: C.O.s
Unitarian Universalist C.O.s / opinion re: C.O.s
Young Russian Christians Association C.O.s / opinion re: C.O.s

Boxes 14-16 [card file boxes]
Cards with names of Methodist C.O.s (in alphabetical order), WWII era [includes address, annual conference, date of induction, CPS camp/s and/or prison]


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Swarthmore College Peace Collection

List of Conscientious Objection Sources

For more information, contact Wendy Chmielewski, Curator, at peacecollection@swarthmore.edu or call 610-328-8557.

This page created by Anne Yoder, Archivist, July 1999; last updated February 2013.
Black and white photo in title bar comes from unidentified source in the SCPC.