Swarthmore College Peace Collection

American Civil Liberties Union: National Committee
on Conscientious Objectors Records, 1940-1946

Collection: DG 022

Contact Information
Swarthmore College Peace Collection
500 College Avenue
Swarthmore, PA 19081-1399
Telephone: (610) 328-8557 (Curator)
Fax: (610) 328-8544
Email: wchmiel1@swarthmore.edu (Curator)
URL: http://www.swarthmore.edu/Library/peace/

Descriptive Summary
Swarthmore College Peace Collection
American Civil Liberties Union: National Committee on Conscientious Objectors
American Civil Liberties Union: National Committee on Conscientious Objectors Records
Inclusive Dates
Call Number
DG 022

Language of Materials
Materials in English [include other languages as appropriate]
13.25 linear feet [papers only]
The roots of the NCCO began shortly after conscription in WWII was instituted. Little is known about the New York Office of the NCCO. It was headquartered at 31 Union Square West in New York City (NY) where the ACLU had its offices, and was likely set up in 1940, under the chairmanship of Norman Angell, and stayed in existence through 1945. In Washington (DC), the Temporary Committee for Legal Aid to Conscientious Objectors was formed in 1940. R. Boland Brooks had gone to NSBRO (National Service Board for Conscientious Objectors) under the sponsorship of this committee. In 1942, George Reeves and R. Boland Brooks left their posts at the National Service Board for Conscientious Objectors. The relationship of Brooks and the Legal Aid Committee was re-established after the resignations from NSBRO. Reorganizing as Legal Service to Conscientious Objectors, the Committee agreed to sponsor a Washington service bureau, with Brooks as director and Reeves as assistant director. An office was opened at 1734 F Street NW, Washington (DC) in the building occupied by the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom. During this same period, the NCCO also was arranging for a Washington service. At its meeting of December 21, 1942, it was decided to appoint an expediter and lobbyist to work toward removal of certain discriminatory restrictions for COs. Dorothy Detzer was selected (she completed her three month assignment on April 15, 1943). In 1943, the Legal Service to COs was formed, and merged with the NCCO's Washington Service in February 1943, with Reeves and Brooks as its staff. Because most of the men involved in running the Washington Office were COs who were sent to CPS or to prison, turn-over of staff was frequent. The Washington Office of the NCCO closed on December 31, 1945.
Others involved with the NCCO included Roger N. Baldwin, Arthur Billings, Charles F. Boss Jr., Allan Knight Chalmers, Julien Cornell, Harrison DeSilver, Richard B. Gregg, Georgia Harkness, Lewis Hill, John Haynes Holmes, Abraham Kaufman, Marjorie Kendrick, A.J. Muste, Frank Olmstead, Randolph Phillips, Vivien Roodenko, John Nevin Sayre, Arthur Sheehan, Joseph Summers, Evan W. Thomas, Norman Thomas, and Agnes Young.

Administrative Information
Restrictions to Access
Usage Restrictions
Yes Records concerning individual conscientious objectors are restricted until the year 2020. Researchers using this collection must sign a form agreeing to disguise the identity of any individual CO when writing or speaking publicly. Boxes are stored off site. Please contact SCPC staff two weeks in advance of visit to request this material.
Alternate Form of Material
Acquisitions Information
Gift of Roger Baldwin and Vivien Roodenko of the ACLU, 1946-1951
Processing Information
Processed by SCPC staff; re-processed and checklist revised by Anne Yoder, May 2001; this version of finding aid created by Wendy Chmielewski, June 2009.
Preferred Citation
[Identification of item], in theAmerican Civil Liberties Union: National Committee on Conscientious Objectors Records (DG 022), Swarthmore College Peace Collection
Copyright Notice
Copyright is retained by the authors of items in these papers, or their descendents, as stipulated by United States copyright law

Online Catalog Headings
These and related materials may be found under the following headings in online library/archival catalogs.
See tripod record

Related Collections

Historical Background
The story of the National Committee on Conscientious Objectors (1940-1946) involves many groups and individuals interested in CO problems and begins really with experiences of similar organizations in World War I.

During the first World War, the American Union Against Militarism, a highly efficient group organized to combat military training in schools and colleges, set up the Civil Liberties Bureau to defend war objectors and other pacifists whose constitutional rights were being ignored as war hysteria mounted. Soon this program had grown to such an extent and attracted so much attention that a friendly division was accomplished and the bureau became the National Civil Liberties Bureau, completely independent of the AUAM. As the war ended and objectors were released from prison, more and more of the NCLB's attention went to cases involving other than war resisters. In 1920 the Bureau was reorganized and became the American Civil Liberties Bureau.
To this day the ACLU is the largest, most prominent, and most inclusive agency working to uphold civil liberties in the United States and U.S. possessions. While Congress was shaping conscription legislation in preparation for United States participation in World War II, representatives of the ACLU appeared at committee hearings and proposed provisions for conscientious objectors which would parallel those of England, with complete exemption for sincere "absolutist" objectors and equal recognition of political and religious objection to war. These provisions were not incorporated in the conscription law as enacted.
Shortly after conscription began, the ACLU organized a special division, the National Committee on Conscientious Objectors, to concentrate on the problems of this particular class of draftees. Non-pacifists, as well as pacifists were included in its membership. Ernest Angell, a New York attorney and a member of the American Legion, was named chairman and continued in that office throughout the existence of the committee.
From its inception, there has been much misunderstanding of the role the NCCO chose to play. The committee deliberately chose to restrict its assistance to those objectors discriminated against in ways clearly unconstitutional. For instance, the NCCO advised objectors to register as prescribed by law, and it did not handle the cases of men who had refused to register. Pacifists generally, whatever their views on the constitutionality of conscription, were willing to support non-registrants out of sympathy with the motivation of the latter. The NCCO, however, was not a defender of pacifism as such and was concerned only when civil liberties clearly were violated.
Meanwhile the National Service Board for Religious Objectors (NSBRO) had been set up in Washington with the three largest historic peace churches -- Mennonites, Brethren, Quakers -- taking the lead to administer Civilian Public Service, the "work of national importance, under civilian direction" which conscription laws prescribed for conscientious objectors. Because of its quasi-governmental aspect and the tolerance with which it was viewed in official Washington, NSBRO came to play the dominant role in the relations of war objectors with government. Its sponsorship was almost entirely religious and before long NSBRO was regarded by some objectors, particularly those of philosophical or political motivation, as an improper agent to represent them. this was one evidence of cleavage among pacifists that is obvious in most anti-war activities and groups and that sometimes is described as "left wing vs. right wing," sometimes as "religious vs. political," sometimes "fundamentalist vs. radical." None of these labels is exact.
Two members of the NSBRO staff, R. Boland Brooks and George Reeves, resigned in November 1942, each remarking in the process of resigning upon the need for an agency not connect with the government to handle the legal difficulties of the objectors who did not feel themselves to be well represented by NSBRO. At the time of resignation, Brooks was head of the NSBRO Appeals Section and Reeves was head of the Placement Division.
Brooks had gone to NSBRO under the sponsorship of the Temporary Committee for Legal Aid to Conscientious Objectors, formed in 1940 to provide bail and defray legal expenses in certain test cases involving objectors. The latter committee, alarmed at the failure of the presidential appeal system to function in the cases of many wrongly classified objectors, sent Brooks to Washington as a volunteer with NSBRO, to expedite appeals and try to prod officials into a more efficient operation of the appeal system. After some months, Brooks became a regular staff member of NSBRO.
This relationship of Brooks and the Legal Aid Committee was re-established after the resignations from NSBRO. Reorganizing as Legal Service to Conscientious Objectors, the Committee agreed to sponsor a Washington service bureau, with Brooks as director and Reeves as assistant director. An office was opened at 1734 F Street NW, Washington (DC) in the building occupied by the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom. The address of the sponsoring committee was that of its chairman, A.J. Muste, 2920 Broadway, New York City (NY). Other committee members were Evan W. Thomas, Treasurer; Abraham Kaufman, Secretary; Roger N. Baldwin, Charles F. Boss Jr., Allen Knight Chalmers, Harrison DeSilver, Richard B. Gregg, Georgia Harkness, John Haynes Holmes, Frank Olmsted, John Nevin Sayre, Arthur Sheehan and Norman Thomas.
In their preliminary announcement, Legal Service to Conscientious Objectors proposed to concentrate on obtaining paroles for and improving prison conditions of objector prisoners, and on providing bail, counsel and legal [aid] in matters concerning selective service, appeal boards and courts. This prospectus differed from that of the ACLU's NCCO in that it did not propose to limit assistance to those being deprived of constitutional liberties, but would aid also "those who have refused to conform with existing laws and regulations."
During this period of the organization of the Legal Aid to Conscientious Objectors, the NCCO also was arranging for a Washington service. At its meeting of December 21, 1942, it was decided to appoint an expediter and lobbyist to work toward removal of certain discriminatory restricts of COs. Dorothy Detzer was selected.
At the next meeting of Legal Service, January 11, 1943, the prospective overlap of the Brooks-Reeves and Detzer programs was considered and it was decided to ask the NCCO to take over the whole job in Washington. This proposal the NCCO promptly accepted at its next meeting, January 15th, and in February the changeover was accomplished.
While the Washington office was open only three years, from December 1942 through January 1946, they were critical years in the affairs of war objectors, as of the rest of the world. In this group of records will be found material on the numerous celebrated cases of COs that nearly every week during the war were handled sensationally by the newspapers.
The times produced many organizational crises for the Washington office, for the directorship of the program was a way-point no the way to prison or Civilian Public Service (CPS). Directors during the three years were Brooks, Reeves, Frank Olmsted, Lewis Hill, Randolph Phillips, Arthur Billings and Joseph Summers. During the crises produced by the sudden departure of directors, the program was administered by whomever happened to be working in the Washington office. Three of these office workers made particularly significant contributions to the service: Agnes Young (who resigned to marry an imprisoned objector, Charles Butcher); Marjorie Kendrick (who resigned to marry an imprisoned objector, Robert Swann); and Vivien Roodenko (the sister of Igal Roodenko, who was one of the absolutist objectors in Sandstone prison). They, like other NCCO employees, were working out of concern for the men involved, rather than for the salary, and their devotion and ability to equal theirs is not often found among office workers.
Most objectors opposed war and/or conscription with a conviction that did not take into account the penalties that might be exacted upon the individuals; therefore, fewer calls for NCCO service came from COs themselves than from their relatives and friends. The most frequent requests were for: (1) information as to how to deal with draft boards which ignored the legal provisions for conscientious objectors; (2) information as to the rights of men who had ceased cooperating with conscription; and (3) assistance in arranging paroles and jobs for imprisoned objectors. However, those these were the most frequent patterns, the NCCO records are rich with out-of-the-ordinary cases that explored new areas. (Here are a few random samples: A school board requests the resignation of a CO teacher; a man who has ceased to be a conscientious objector is rejected when he attempts to join the army and is confined in a CPS camp; a civilian CO arrested for a traffic violation is removed from a city jail to an army prison and declared to be inducted.)
In answer to these requests the Washington office was able to offer advice as to legal rights, to provide bail where needed, to make job arrangements for parolees, and showed a willingness to take the problems of objectors before all government officials who would give them a hearing. When a CO was discriminated against in a way which by previous court decisions clearly was illegal, the request for help was likely passed on to the ACLU and the New York NCCO office. The people of the Washington office, however, were inclined to agree (tacitly, at least) with the proposition that the entire CPS arrangement was illegal. Therefore, out of their pacifist convictions, the Washington office accepted and handled cases which did not come within the scope of the ACLU.
Judges, like administrative officials, are human and influenced by the temper of their times. While American courts have gone far to uphold the rights of individual conscience, such decisions generally have come after the damage to the individual was done, after the war was over. The NCCO functioned in wartime and has not a record of brilliant success in the application of its legal services. From the standpoint of the CO its value lay rather in its day-to-day service of advice and assistance; and to absolutist objectors, especially in the feeling of relative security in knowing that they had an agency working in Washington on their behalf. Many of these men did not want to be represented by NSBRO, a religious group, nor by any agency which maintained any official relationship with the government, nor any group that showed itself to be disapproving of an absolutist position. The War Resisters League (WRL) met the requirements of most such men, but the WRL was a New York agency. It did much, however, in sending Frieda Lazarus frequently to Washington on behalf of absolutist objectors.
One natural result of the frequency of personnel turnover in the NCCO office, and the lack of employment overlap, is an inconsistency at record filing techniques. Whether to file case file fashion or correspondent fashion , whether to file under name of individual correspondent, or under name of agency , whether to emphasize subject files or correspondence files -- there were different answers at different times.

Collection Overview
This collection includes meeting minutes, financial records, general correspondence arranged by personal name or group name (often these were people who or groups which cooperated with the NCCO on various projects), correspondence by or about individual COs, and reference material. It has material generated by the New York office of the NCCO, as well as its Washington Office. The bulk of the material comes from the latter Office.
At the time of the closing of the NCCO's Washington program, Vivien Roodenko became caretaker of its records. Early in 1946 she sent them to the ACLU office in New York City, which sent them to the SCPC in October-November 1946. In September 1949, 1.5 feet of records from the New York office (of the NCCO?) was sent to the SCPC by the ACLU (Acc. 49-205), and more arrived in September 1951.

Arrangement of Collection
In the 2001 survey of this collection, it was noted that there were many discrepancies in the way material had been filed, and thus the checklist for it was confusing. These discrepancies were likely a result of the frequent staff turn-over, as noted in the history. For instance, some files were called "COs in Prison" and were together in a box, but this did not by any means include all the files of men who were in prison during the same time period. Another confusion came from the fact that the NCCO's Washington Office evolved from several other committees, but the Washington Office files had mixed in it material from these predecessor groups. Also, material received after the December 1946 processing of the collection had never been sorted through, so there was much duplication. Because of these issues, the NCCO collection was completely reorganized into four series: 1) Series A: New York Office; 2) Series B: Washington Office (and Its Predecessors); 3) Series C: Files re: Individual CO's from Washington and New York Offices; 4) Series D: Reference / Reading Material from Washington Office.
Series C includes files from both the Washington Office and the New York Office. These were put together so that the researcher can easily see how both offices worked for the rights of COs, sometimes even the same CO. The correspondence etc. in the files came from family and friends who were concerned about the COs they knew, or from the COs themselves -- men in the military wanting to be transferred to CPS; men in CPS who were on strike or planning to walk out (or had done so already); men wanting farm furloughs; men wanting parole; men denied civil or legal rights; reports on conditions at CPS camps; or, expressions of desire for a CPS camp run by the government. In WWII, there were already approximately 4,000-5,000 COs in prison; Jehovah's Witnesses made up half or more of this total. The NCCO was very interested in working for the rights of Jehovah's Witnesses; because of this, the archival processor tried to note when a file related to a JW, but there may be others as well that did not get noted in the checklist.
Some of the files in Series C had records of court hearings for individual COs; the reference files also had many of the same records. Some of these were local draft board hearings; some cases had gone clear to the Supreme Court. For the most part, hearing records have now been placed in Series D. Researchers should look in both series for information about the COs in whom they are interested.
See the SCPC office files for the 1946 version of the checklist.

Detailed Description of the Collection

Box 1 [off site]
New York Office
Meeting minutes, 1941-1945
Legal Committee: meeting minutes, May 25, 1943, August 4, 1943
Relationship with NSBRO
Form letters, 1940-1945
Memos/Letters to President Roosevelt
Letters to/from General Hershey, 1941-1943
Meeting with General Hershey, April 9, 1943
Meeting with Paul McNutt, Manpower Commission, February 13, 1943
Chicago Conference on Social Action, April 12-18, 1943
Statements / position papers / etc.
Memorandum for Lawyers, #6-8 (December 11, 1944 - November 1, 1945)
General correspondence re: conscientious objection / objectors
Correspondence with/about conscientious objectors: A-Z [collective file]
Case of Reverend Andrew McAllister
Case of Winfred Lynn re: racial discrimination in U.S. army selection
Deferment of CO George Reeves
American Legion
Box 2 [off site]
New York Office
California probation cases
CO problems [includes taking of oaths; religious training and belief; 2nd prosecutions]
CO strike at Danbury Prison
CO strike at Lewisburg Prison
Hunger strike by Stanley Murphy and Louis Taylor
Continuation of CPS
COs in the army
Detached service for COs
Farm labor for COs
Statements re: employment of COs in public service
Denial of employment to COs by Kentucky public schools
Jehovah's Witness COs
Work re: legislation on COs, etc.
Work re: court cases of COs assisted by NCCO; legal briefs
Parole for COs
Pay for COs
Prison conditions; COs in prison (statistics)
Puerto Rican Nationalists imprisoned

Box 3 [off site]
Legal Service for Conscientious Objectors
Temporary Committee for Legal Aid to Conscientious Objectors / Legal Service for Conscientious Objectors
Meeting minutes, 1942 (December) - 1943 (January 20)
Finances, 1941-1943
General, 1941-1943
Work of Dorothy Detzer as lobbyist, 1943
Bail fund applications, 1942 (September) - 1943 (January)
Attorney fees of Julian Cornell, 1941-1942 [includes fees for Julius Eichel case]
Counselors for COs
Washington Office
Joint meeting of NCCO and NSBRO, April 28, 1943
Discussions re: purpose and direction of NCCO / merging with Legal Service for Conscientious Objectors, 1943
Washington Committee: members
Washington Committee: meeting minutes, 1943 (January 25) - 1944 (September)
Correspondence re: purpose / direction of NCCO, 1943-1944 [may be more in other correspondence files]
Resignation of the Washington NCCO Committee from the National Committee on Conscientious
Objectors of the ACLU, November 9, 1944
Administrative material: misc.
Financial Committee
Financial records, 1943-1944
Financial records: correspondence re: finances, 1943-1946
Financial records: bank books, 1942-1946; bank statements, 1942 (December) - 1945 (March)
Financial records: cancelled checks, 1942-1943
Box 4 [off site]
Washington Office
Financial records: check stubs, 1943-1945
Financial records: cancelled checks and check stubs, 1944-1946
Financial records: contributors
National Committee: members
Public Relations Section
Correspondence re: possible Interagency Council
Misc. reports and statements, etc. [includes DeVault case]
Form letters
Correspondence with government officials
Correspondence with government officials: James V. Bennett (Bureau of Prisons)
Correspondence with government officials: Linton M. Collins (Dept. of Justice)
Correspondence with government officials: Major General Lewis B. Hershey (Selective Service System)
Correspondence with government officials: Col. Lewis Kosch (Selective Service System)
Correspondence with government officials: Paul V. McNutt (War Manpower Commission)
Nominations for delegation to the President / petition to the President, 1945
Memorandums [i.e. rebuttals / writings about] to the Selective Service System
Correspondence etc. re: NCCO newsletter
Correspondence re: pamphlet on prison routine
Publicity [includes press releases]
Box 5 [off site]
Washington Office
Appeal cases
Correspondence etc. re: Stanley Murphy and Louis [Krawczyk-] Taylor
Correspondence etc. re: Stanley Murphy and Louis [Krawczyk-] Taylor (cont.) and re: George Kingsley
CPS problems: Germfask CPS camp (#135): court cases
CPS problems: Mancos CPS camp (#111)
CPS problems: Middletown CPS camp (#81): shut-down
CPS problems: Welleston CPS camp (#42): 6 COs arrested for attending church convention, 1945
CPS problems: Williamsburg CPS unit
CPS problems: correspondence / statement from COs dissatisfied with CPS [at camp #52, Powellsville,
CPS problems: correspondence and statements from COs dissatisfied with CPS, 1942 (December) - 1943 (February)
CPS problems: diary farms
CPS problems: income taxes for COs
CPS problems: pay for COs
CPS problems: pay and farm service for COs
CPS problems: re-employement of COs (?)
COs in the army
COs in the navy
COs in prison
COs in prison at Ft. Leavenworth [includes notes of interviews with Jehovah's Witness COs by Frank Olmstead]
COs in prison: compulsory inoculation
COs in prison: treatment of and/or parole of [see also COs in prison at Ft. Leavenworth]
Box 6 [off site]
Washington Office
Hopi Indian COs
Bail for COs
Parole for COs: general
Parole for COs: lists created of COs eligible for parole or those already paroled
Parole for COs: statistics created
Parole for COs: list of probation cases
Parole for COs: parole projects (A-C)
Parole for COs: parole projects (D-K)
Parole for COs: parole projects (L-O)
Parole for COs: parole projects (P-Y)
Parole for COs: parole projects (misc.)
Conference on Conscientious Objectors, New York (NY), September 26, 1940
Chicago Conference on Social Action for Men in Civilian Public Service . . ., Chicago (IL), April 12-18, 1943; and follow-up [38 COs who attended conf. were considered AWOL by govt. since all leaves had been cancelled by the SSS]

Box 7 [off site]
Washington Office
General Correspondence: A [collective file]
General Correspondence: Winslow Ames
General Correspondence: Ernest Angell [Chair, NCCO]
General Correspondence: Sally Avitabile (ACLU)
General Correspondence: Ba-Bl [collective file]
General Correspondence: Roger Baldwin, 1942 (December) - 1943 (April) (ACLU)
General Correspondence: Roger Baldwin, 1943 (May-December) (ACLU)
General Correspondence: Roger Baldwin, 1944 (ACLU)
General Correspondence: Roger Baldwin, 1945 (ACLU)
General Correspondence: Allen Barr, 1943 (July) - 1944 (January) (Northern California Service Board for Conscientious Objectors)
General Correspondence: Allen Barr, 1943 (January-June) (Northern California Service Board for Conscientious Objectors)
General Correspondence: Allen Barth (Washington Post)
Box 8 [off site]
Washington Office
General Correspondence: Wilson Hopkins Bent [staff]
General Correspondence: Bo-By [collective file]
General Correspondence: Albert Bofman
General Correspondence: Charles F. Boss Jr. (Commission on World Peace of the United Methodist Church)
General Correspondence: James Bristah [walked out of CPS 07/1943]
General Correspondence: James E. Bristol (Philadelphia Council for Conscientious Objectors)
General Correspondence: Mary D. Brite
General Correspondence: Ernest R. Bromley
General Correspondence: R. Boland Brooks [staff]
General Correspondence: Walter Bullen
General Correspondence: Thelma Burdg
General Correspondence: Ca [collective file]
General Correspondence: Don Calhoun (AFSC, Seattle Office)
General Correspondence: Lucy P. Carner
General Correspondence: Ch-Cz [collective file]
General Correspondence: Robert Chase
General Correspondence: Civilian Public Service Union
General Correspondence: Donald Clemmer (Bureau of Prisons)
General Correspondence: Marion Code
General Correspondence: Oliver B. Collier (World Fellowship Inc.)
General Correspondence: Joseph Conrad (AFSC, Northern Calif. Branch)
General Correspondence: Julien Cornell [attorney]
General Correspondence: Hayden Covington [attorney]
Box 9 [off site]
Washington Office
General Correspondence: D [collective file]
General Correspondence: Natalie Davies
General Correspondence: Anna M. Davis
General Correspondence: Harrison DeSilver [NY staff]
General Correspondence: Dorothy Detzer, 1942 (November) - 1943 (March) [includes letters from RogerBaldwin, Evan Thomas, Norman Thomas, A.J. Muste, Douglas Steere]
General Correspondence: Dorothy Detzer, 1943 (April-December)
General Correspondence: Arthur Dole (AFSC)
General Correspondence: Walter Domrese (parole officer, Sandstone Prison)
General Correspondence: E [collective file]
General Correspondence: Julius Eichel [includes letters; statements re: his 1942 arrest; CO matters; his brother Albert, a CO in prison; see also DG 131: Eichel Family Collection]
General Correspondence: Nathan Elliff [re: excessive bail for Jehovah's Witness COs]
General Correspondence: Ida Epstein (ACLU)
General Correspondence: F [collective file]
General Correspondence: Clifford Forster (ACLU Staff Council)
General Correspondence: Harrop Freeman [attorney]
General Correspondence: Paul Comley French (NSBRO)
General Correspondence: G [collective file]
General Correspondence: Howard B. Gill (Bureau of Prisons)
General Correspondence: Robert C. Grady
General Correspondence: Anna Melissa Graves
General Correspondence: Harold Guetzkow [CO?]
Box 10 [off site]
Washington Office
General Correspondence: H [collective file]
General Correspondence: R. Alfred Haessler (FOR)
General Correspondence: Lewis K. Hill [staff]
General Correspondence: John Haynes Holmes
General Correspondence: Violet Hosie
General Correspondence: Jessie Wallace Hughan
General Correspondence: Richard C. Hunter [CO?]
General Correspondence: Roy Headley [member of Washington Committee]
General Correspondence: George Houser (FOR)
General Correspondence: I [collective file]
General Correspondence: J [collective file]
General Correspondence: Jewish Peace Fellowship
General Correspondence: Rufus M. Jones
General Correspondence: K [collective file]
General Correspondence: Abraham Kaufman (WRL)
General Correspondence: Marjorie Swann Kendrick
General Correspondence: L [collective file]
General Correspondence: Frieda Lazarus (WRL)
General Correspondence: Frederick J. Libby (NCPW)
General Correspondence: Walter C. Longstreth
General Correspondence: William Lovell
General Correspondence: Erling H. Lunde
Box 11 [off site]
Washington Office
General Correspondence: M [collective file]
General Correspondence: Ruth MacAdam [NY Office staff]
General Correspondence: Charles Mackintosh (Los Angeles Council Committee to COs)
General Correspondence: Josiah Marvel (Quaker Emergency Service)
General Correspondence: Alexander Meiklejohn
General Correspondence: Orie O. Miller (MCC)
General Correspondence: Anne E. Moffett
General Correspondence: James P. Mullin (AFSC Prison Service Committee)
General Correspondence: A.J. Muste (FOR)
General Correspondence: N [collective file]
General Correspondence: Mary Northshield [ACLU bookkeeper]
General Correspondence: NSBRO
General Correspondence: O [collective file]
General Correspondence: Frank Olmstead
General Correspondence: Winslow Osborne (NSBRO)
Box 12 [off site]
Washington Office
General Correspondence: P [collective file]
General Correspondence: Charles Perry (parole officer, Federal Reformatory, El Reno, Oklahoma)
General Correspondence: Katherine Pierce (Episcopal Peace Fellowship)
General Correspondence: Randolph Phillips [staff]
General Correspondence: R [collective file]
General Correspondence: Walter Rae (The Conscientious Objector)
General Correspondence: Dorothy Medders Robinson (WILPF)
General Correspondence: Anna Rockel (WILPF, Pennsylvania Branch)
General Correspondence: Vivien Roodenko
General Correspondence: Frances Ransom (WRL)
General Correspondence: George Reeves [staff; in CPS by 1944]
General Correspondence: George Reeves: personal
General Correspondence: Grace Rhoads (WILPF)
General Correspondence: Constance Rumbough (FOR, Southern Headquarters)
General Correspondence: S [collective file]
General Correspondence: A.E. Schwarz (warden, Federal Correctional Institution, Texarkana, Texas)
General Correspondence: Mulford Q. Sibley
General Correspondence: William Sidis
General Correspondence: Don Stephens
Box 13 [off site]
Washington Office
General Correspondence: T [collective file]
General Correspondence: Eleanor Taylor
General Correspondence: Ellen Taylor
General Correspondence: Mary Taylor
General Correspondence: Elizabeth Thiermann
General Correspondence: Evan Thomas (WRL) [member of Committee]
General Correspondence: Norman Thomas [member of Committee]
General Correspondence: Jay Nelson Tuck (The Conscientious Objector)
General Correspondence: U [collective file]
General Correspondence: Carolyn Urie
General Correspondence: V [collective file]
General Correspondence: Walter Van Kirk (FCC)
General Correspondence: Sam Verne
General Correspondence: re: Floris de Balbian Verster
General Correspondence: Oswald Garrison Villard
General Correspondence: W [collective file]
General Correspondence: David C. Walden (AFSC)
General Correspondence: Ada Wardlaw (Pacifist Research Bureau)
General Correspondence: T.J.S. Waxter (Dept. of Public Works, Baltimore, Maryland)
General Correspondence: Dan West (Church of the Brethren, Board of Christian Education) [includes material re: School of Pacifist Living at CPS Camp #2, Cascade Locks, Colorado)
General Correspondence: Carle Whitehead [attorney]
General Correspondence: Bea Whitnah
General Correspondence: Stanley H. Williamson [re: attempt to set up American Field Service]
General Correspondence: E. Raymond Wilson (WRL)
General Correspondence: Y [collective file]
General Correspondence: William Young (editor Why? A Bulletin of Free Inquiry)
General Correspondence: Agnes Young
General Correspondence: M.R. Zigler (Brethren Service Committee)
Box 14 [off site]
Washington Office [unless otherwise noted]: Correspondence With/About Individual COs
Bernard and Hyman Abash
John Abbott
Rubin Abramowitz
William Aks
Edwin J. Akutowicz
Irving Albrecht
Barton Alexander
Robert Allen
Matthew Amberg
Alph Anderson [from New York Office files]
Dale Anderson
Verner Valfried Anderson
Pelham Hartly Andrews
James Arkin
Stewart Armstrong
Carl Atkins
Nathan Auerbach
Lewis Aumack
Roland M. Austin
Roger Axford
Herbert S. Bailey [from New York Office files]
George Baird
James Ball
William Banning
Nathan Noah Barad
Robert Barker
Don Barnett
Zolo George Barnett
Tom Bassett
Morris Basuk
Ivan W. Bean Jr.
Karl Beders
Aaron Belansky
Lloyd B. Belden [from New York Office files]
Guy Bell
Guy Bell [from New York Office files]
Don Benedict
Vincent Benfante
Purnell Benson [at CPS Camp #111, Mancos, Colorado]
Herman Berman [Socialist]
James Leroy Bernard
Herbert Bernstein
Don Berry
Box 15 [off site]
Washington Office [unless otherwise noted]: Correspondence With/About Individual COs
Arthur H. Bichy
Walter Biczykowski
Arthur Goodwyn Billings [Socialist]
Corbott Bishop [went on hunger strike; tube fed for 142 days]
J. Dale Blazier [from New York Office files]
]Mr.] Shirley F. Bodenstein
[Mr.] Shirley F. Bodenstein [from New York Office files]
Merwyn M. Bonnett
Lawrence Boren
Robert Borglund
Arthur Boross
John Botti
Francis Boudreaux
Weller Bourke [from New York Office files]
Eugene Bower
Whitney Bowles
Whitney Bowles [from New York Office files]
Seymour Brander [from New York Office files]
C. Maynard Briggs
Sylvio Broglio
Albert, Glenn and Ray Bronemann [brothers; from New York Office files]
Arthur Brown
Raymond L. Brown
Richard Brown
Grainger Browning
Clarence Bunyan [from New York Office files]
Robert L. Burch
Edward F. Burrows
Donald Burton
Wilbur Burton
Daniel Bury
Charles Butcher
Charles Butcher [from New York Office files]
Box 16 [off site]
Washington Office [unless otherwise noted]: Correspondence With/About Individual COs
John W. Carr
James Joseph Cassels [Cassells?]
Robert Cato
Otto E. Chady
William Charkas
Nathaniel Chernoff
Robert Chino
George Chreckjian
Arthur J. Christian
Benjamin L. Clandee Jr.
Bronson Clark
Gordon Clough
Joseph Coffin
Stuart Cole
Mario Collaci
Peter Conovelott [member of Russian Molakons; from New York Office files]
W. Roland Cook
Samuel Cooper
Harvey Corcoran [from New York Office files]
Rex Corfman
Carl Cortez [from New York Office files]
Gordon Coté
Marion A. Cox [from New York Office files]
Stanton C. Craigie
Richard Crum
Wilson R. Cunningham
Robert Currier
Frank M. Curtis
Kenneth Cuthbertson
Clarance W. Dahl
Otto Dahlke
Meredith Dallas
Homer L. Daniel
Lloyd Danser
Gerald P. Darrow
J. Henry Dasenbrock
Garland Davidson
Boyd B. Davis
Boyd B. Davis [from New York Office files]
Morris Davis
Allen Lape Davison
Milton de Laittre
Hugh S. Deale
Michael deBeausset
Jean DeBeltrand
David Dellinger
Theodore Dettweiler
William J. Dettweiler Jr.
Don Charles DeVault
Roy Kenneth DeVoss
Box 17 [off site]
Washington Office [unless otherwise noted]: Correspondence With/About Individual COs
John Dickinson
Ralph DiGia
Marvin Van Dilla
Cyrus and Rosham Dinshah [or Ghadiali?]
Wesley R. Doe
Philip Curtis Dolve
Louis Doucette
William DeWitte Downing
Croce Drogo
Harry J. Duke [Jehovah's Witness]
Ralph Dunkel
Lee Durling
Walter D. Dyck
Melvin Drumheller
Benjamin Dunajski
Gordon Dupee
Wilmot G. Durgin
John J. Dutko
Henry Dyer
Roscoe K. Earle
Russell W. Eddy
Bruce Edwards
Louis Ehrman
Albert Eichel [see also Julius Eichel]
Julius Eichel [from New York Office files]
Frank Emi [Japanese-American at Ft. Leavenworth]
William James Engelhardt
Edwin Milton Erland II
Lloyd Estes
Seymour Etkin
Benjamin Everingham
Casimir Fabianski
William Fairley
Nick Falbo [Jehovah's Witness; from New York Office files]
William Farquhar
Joe Felmet
James Hal Fichter [from New York Office files]
Roy Finch
Thomas Finucan
Chester A. Fishback
Walter Fisher
Sidney Hugh Fitch
Dale Leonard Fix
Box 18 [off site]
Washington Office [unless otherwise noted]: Correspondence With/About Individual COs
Harry Fleischman
Harold Flincker
Herbert S. Flory
Caleb Foote
Leonard Foster
Robert Fox
Roy Franklyn
Roy Franklyn [from New York Office files]
Russell Freeman
Robert Thomas Frei
Stephen E. Freschl
Robert Friend
Ira L. Fritz
Sol Gadol
Timothy Galfas [from New York Office files]
Edward Gall
Ernest Galletta
Ralph M. Galt
Paul Ganz
Larry Gara
Merritt Eugene Garst Jr.
Robert T. Gast
Henry Geiger
Willis E. Geist
John Gerlosky
Franklin German
John Gessel
Straughan Lowe Gettier
Sidney Giles
Otis Glebe
David M. Glixon
Gordon Goehring
Gordon Goehring [from New York Office files]
Abram B. Goldstein
Hans Goldstein
Howard Goldstein
Martin Goldwasser
Martin Goldwater [from New York Office files]
Box 19 [off site]
Washington Office [unless otherwise noted]: Correspondence With/About Individual COs
Walter Ford Gormley
Walter Ford Gormley [from New York Office files]
Y.L. Gosho
Christian Govertsen
Robert Preston Gowell
Curtis Gram
Morris C. Graves [Museum of Modern Art, NYC, had bought 16 of his works, 1942]
John H. Griffith
Murray Greenberger
Orien Greenough
James Griffith
Paul Gross
Sidney Gross
Joseph Guinn
Richard Gutow
Drayton S. Haff
Jerry Haigh
Andrew Hall
Richard Hall
John E. Hampton
Ed Hannewalt
Richard Hannibal
Stanley P. Harbison
Dean Harbour
Lawrence Harms
Morris Hart
Louis Hartl
Glenn E. Hartleb
Kenneth Hartrunft [from New York Office files]
Frank Hastings [nephew of Frank Olmstead]
Francis Hawes
William Hefner
Orville N. Henning
Gunther and Hubert Hermann
Logan Heusel
John Hewelcke
Robert Luis Heyden
Charles Higbee
Louis Hilbert
Lawrence Hillen
Wendell Hinkey
Box 20 [off site]
Washington Office [unless otherwise noted]: Correspondence With/About Individual COs
Walter Hodgson
Bill Holderith
Robert Holzhauer
Charles Hornig
Morris Horowitz
Edward Horstmann [from New York Office files]
Ted Horvath
Franklin Hosmer
John H. Howe
Townsend B. Hoyt
Raymond C. Huber
George Huffman
Elam Hummer
Glenn Hutchinson
David Hyder
Caesar Iaia
Hyman Ingram
Philip Isely [includes information re: CO(?) Jesse Jackson]
James F. Jackson
John C. Jackson [from New York Office files]
Francis A. Jennings
C. Boyd Johnson
C. Boyd Johnson [from New York Office files]
Harry Q. Johnson
Thorger W. Johnson
Travis Jones
Paul Johnson
Stanley D. Johnson
Ashton B. Jones (World Peace Car)
Ashton B. Jones [from New York Office files]
Lewis P. Jones [negro who refused to serve in "Jim Crow" army (not a pacifist)
Lewis P. Jones (negro who refused to serve in "Jim Crow" army (not a pacifist); from New York Office files]
Barney Junker
Morty Kamin
William F. Kamp
Max Kampelman
Max Kampelman [from New York Office files]
Walter Karn
Arthur Kassin
Gaylord Kast
Mathias Kauten
Mathias Kauten [from New York Office files]
Box 21 [off site]
Washington Office [unless otherwise noted]: Correspondence With/About Individual COs
Harold Daniel Keane
Christian H. Kehl
Elmer Kehrer
John Kellam
Earl and Roy Kepler [brothers; Earl died in 1943(?) as a result of burns sustained in an accident at a spike
camp of the San Dimas CPS Camp in Glendora, California]
Paul J. Kilfer [from New York Office files]
James King
Frank Lee Knocke
Glen Knorr
Albert Kochefko
William Kofler
Alexander King Kolansky
Frank Koop
Richard W. Van Korff
Charles Kraft
Milton Kramer
William Krebes
George Krouse
Clarence Willard Kruse
William Kuenning
Merle Kuhner
Nicholas Kurko
Joseph Labus
Duncan L. Lampman
Casimir Lanowick
Stephen Lapansky
Harold Lasky
Richard Lazarus
Roger Lee
Thomas J. Leonard
Lester Lermond
Robert A. Levin
E. John Lewis
Leonard W. Lewis
Norman Lewis
Norman Lewis [from New York Office files]
Harold Lischner
John Joseph Lombardo
John Joseph Lombardo [from New York Office files]
John J. Long
William Lovett
Lee Lovitt
George Lowes
William Edward Lowry [Jehovah's Witness; from New York Office files]
Box 22 [off site]
Washington Office [unless otherwise noted]: Correspondence With/About Individual COs
Walter Lubiniecki
Preston Luitweiler [from New York Office files]
Joseph Lulkovich
Jack [John Elliott] Magraw
Henry Maier
Glenn Mallison
Albon Man
A.J. [Armenag James] Manoukian
Robert Manry
Francis Marburg
Nicholaw Marcantonio
E. [Emanuel] Myron Marks
Joseph Marquardt [includes his brother COs George, Kar and Robert, and other family members]
John Marshall
Russell Martin
Theodore Matysik
Robert Mautner
Newt McClain
Eugene J. McClintock
Richard D. McClure
Ben H. McConnell Jr.
James F. McDaniel
Elliott McEldowney Jr.
John Michael McGrath [from New York Office files]
John McInteer
Hugh K. McKevitt
William McLeod
John Patrick McMann and James Joseph McMann [brothers]
Stanley McNail
Alan McRae
Box 23 [off site]
Washington Office [unless otherwise noted]: Correspondence With/About Individual COs
John Mecartney [went on hunger strike at Lewisburg Prison]
Albert Megginson [CO?; from New York Office files]
Joseph Meller
Glen Edwin Melton
John Menezes
Melvin Messner
David Metcalf
Samuel Meyer
Edward H. Meyerding
Gilbert Michel
Nick Migliorino [includes information re: COs at Germfask CPS Camp]
Ralph A. Migliorino
Bruce Miller
Glenn Miller
Phil Minor
Donald Paul Mitchell
Richard Mitchell
Claude Mollwo
Douglas A. Moody
Batsell Shelton Moore
Stuart Moore
Albert Moorman
William Moreland Jr.
David Morgan
Loran Morris
Van Cleve Morris
Rollin W. Moser
Joseph Moskovitz
Louis Moskovitz
John A. Mote
Joseph Motill
Stanley Mulowski
Lowell Naeve
Robert A. Napello
William Nazaroff
Reuben Neff
Ted Neff
Alexander Nelson
Francis H. Nelson
Ralph Nelson
Wallace Nelson
Wallace Nelson [from New York Office files]
Louis Nestor
Louis Nestor [from New York Office files]
William Neumann
Emmett Newby
Box 24 [off site]
Washington Office [unless otherwise noted]: Correspondence With/About Individual COs
Herbert Nichols
Oliver Nichols
Charles Nicolay
Arild Marndoff Nielsen
Ralph Norton
Garnel Edward Norwalt
Joseph Frederick Nunnally
Matias Ochada [Filipino; Jehovah's Witness; from New York Office files]
Herbert F. Oleson
Andrew Osgyan
Leslie Otto
Rodney Owen
George Owens
Leroy Owens
Walter H. Owens
Marshall Palley
Malcolm Parker [from New York Office files]
Robert Erskine Passmore
Harry Patton
Benjamin Pemberton
Howard Penley [Socialist]
Marvin Penner
Alfred Percivalle
Whitall N. Perry
Elward Phillips
Oliver Phillips
Roman Pohl
James E. Polley
Robert Poole
Robert S. Porter
Paton Price
George Proctor
George Proctor [from New York Office files]
Robin Rae
Alvin Raffel
Paul Rail
Allen Rakow
Worth Randle
James Warner Rankin [Jehovah's Witness]
James Warner Rankin [Jehovah's Witness; from New York Office files]
Max Ratner
Irving Ezra Ravin
Irving Ezra Ravin [from New York Office files]
Box 25 [off site]
Washington Office [unless otherwise noted]: Correspondence With/About Individual COs
Frederick U. Reel
Lloyd Rees
John Reets
Isaac Rehart
Ben L. Reid
Ernest Ricketts
Bruce F. Roberts
Glenn Robinson
Edward Rogg
Igal Roodenko [includes correspondence from when he was with the WRL Comm. on CO Problems, January-May 1944, after he had walked out of CPS, and before he was sentenced to prison; see also DG 161]
Igal Roodenko [from New York Office files]
Don Royer
Bayard Rustin
Raymond W. Sadoski [Jehovah's Witness]
Walker Sandbach [from New York Office files]
Ed Sanders [includes letter from Bayard Rustin]
J. Olcutt Sanders
Max Sandin
Max Sandin [from New York Office files]
Arnold Chase Satterthwait [from New York Office files]
Lloyd Scaff
Albert Schiavino
John Howard Schryver
Robert R. and Waldemar J. Schultze [brothers]
Edward O. Schweitzer [schoolteacher fired for his CO stance; includes newsclippings re: his case]
Edward O. Schweitzer [schoolteacher fired for his CO stance; from NY office files]
Howard Schoenfeld
Robert C. Searle Jr.
La Roy Seaver
Will Seeman
Joe Sekerek [Jehovah's Witness]
Abraham Seldner
Herman Seldner
Frank Severino [from New York Office files]
James Severino
Ralph Shaw
Joseph Sheketoff
Ted Shigeno
Thomas Shively
John A. Siegel
Bertram Silber
Jerome D. Silverstein
Albert Simon [includes letters of his wife, Emily Parker Simon (WILPF)]
Elery Simpson
Box 26 [off site]
Washington Office [unless otherwise noted]: Correspondence With/About Individual COs
Patrick J. Skach
Charles Sklover
John R. Slezak
Ernest Allyn Smith
Harlan M. Smith
Harry Smith
Robert V. Smith [CO? Jehovah's Witness; from New York Office files]
Robert W. Smith
Thomas Smith
Vincent Smith [Jehovah's Witness]
Wylie Smith
George Snyder
Archie Soderbeck
Edson Sower
John Lloyd Spaulding
Lewis Spink
Howard Spragg
Herbert Springer
George Stanley
Richard Stanewick
John R. Stefula
Beryl Stein
Martin Steinle
Lee Stern
John Stevenson
George Fairbank Stockdale
Quentin Stodola
Heber P. Stone
Oliver Ellis Stone
Oliver Ellis Stone [from New York Office files]
Richard Strachan
Joseph K. Striegel
Adam Stupak
Warren Stutts
Charles N. Suitt
Lloyd Sullivan
Clyde W. Summers [denied right to practice law after passing Bar exam in Illinois, because of pacifist stance]
Joseph H. Summers
Andrew, Rudolph and Theodore Sunal [brothers]
Marvin B. Sussman
William Sutherland
Box 27 [off site]
Washington Office [unless otherwise noted]: Correspondence With/About Individual COs
Robert Swann
Charles J. Swift
Charles R. Swift III
Robert Swink
Thaddeus Szymanski
Everett C. Taege
Jerome Tannenbaum
Primo Tasso
Arlo Tatum
Lyle Tatum
James N. Taylor
Richard Taylor
Walter G. Taylor
Ted Tekla
Larry Tesdell
D. Ian Thiermann
Charles F. Thomas
Fred Thornthwaite
John Nelson Thurber
Stephen Tichy
William Tilley
Ralph Townsend
John Tuomey
Wilson E. Vaughn
_______ Venhuizen [father and sons -- includes Albert, Klaas, Robert, Tonnis]
Herbert Vetter Jr.
James W. Vicary
Mike Waldner
Charles Walker
William V. Waring
Curtis Watson
James H. Watson
Rowland Watts
Box 28 [off site]
Washington Office [unless otherwise noted]: Correspondence With/About Individual COs
Herbert Weatherbee [Jehovah's Witness]
William G. Webb
Henry P. Weber [Socialist; sentenced to death; segregated at Ft. Leavenworth; see reference files for documents relating to his case]
Henry P. Weber (cont.)
Samuel L. Weberman
Saul Weberman [Rabbi]
Herbert Wehrly
Melvin Atwood Weightman
Emil M. Weiss
Hans L. Weiss
Earl Welch
Denny Welcher
Marcus Weston
Kerwin Whitnah
Harold Edwin Whitney
Vincent Whitney
Denny Wilcher
Russell J. Wilderman
Charles L. Wilhite
Enis, Meryl and Victor Willhite [brothers; Jehovah's Witnesses]
John A. Willard
Raymond J. Williams
Stanley H. Williamson
Alfred H. Wilson
[Harry] Leon Wilson
Harold Winchester
David Winner
William Allen Winslow
Box 29 (1/2 box) [off site]
Washington Office [unless otherwise noted]: Correspondence With/About Individual COs
Edwin Wintringham
Amos Woods
Walter Woodward
Donald Woolnough
Charles Worley
DeWitte Wyckoff
George Yamada
Donn Yarrow
Victor Yngve
Dan E. Yoder
Romain Zahm
Curtis L. Zahn
Franklin Zahn
Gordon C. Zahn
David Zernoske
Jack W. Zucker
Albert Zussman
Abraham Zwickel

Box 30 [off site]
Washington Office [Unless Otherwise Noted]: Reading / Reference Material
American Friends Service Committee (AFSC)
Civilian Public Service Union
National Council for Conscientious Objectors
National Service Board for Religious Objectors (NSBRO)
NSBRO: CPS Camp service reports
NSBRO: lists of COs and decisions re: their parole (granted, denied, etc.)
NSBRO: "Memorandum to the President Concerning Conscientious Objectors"
War Resisters League (WRL)
Legislation re: COs
British legislation re: COs
Canadian Selective Service regulations and COs
Army courts-martial procedures
Annual report of the U.S. Attorney General, June 1944
Hearing of Clara Schneider
Pamphlet "The Case of Eight Divinity Students" by Milton R. Konvitz
"Spectator Papers" by Norman Whitney (Syracuse Peace Council)
Misc. material
Box 31 [off site]
Washington Office [Unless Otherwise Noted]: Reading / Reference Material
CPS camp operations by SSS
Demobilization of men in CPS camps
Civil service COs
Parole for COs
Documents re: CO Henry P. Weber
Media coverage of hunger strike by COs Stanley Murphy and Louis Taylor
Lists of prisons; lists of COs in prison
Reports of visits to prisons where COs were incarcerated
Treatment of short-term offenders
Dept. of Justice report re: treatment of COs at Springfield (MO) Medical Center, March 1944
Dept. of Justice report re: selective service violation statistics, August 1943
Conf. on Prison Problems, Philadelphia (PA), September 15-16, 1945
Box 32 [off site]
Washington Office [Unless Otherwise Noted]: Reading / Reference Material
CO hearing: Shirley F. Bodenstein
CO hearing: Whitney Bowles
CO hearing: Robert Boland Brooks
CO hearing: Charles Butcher
CO hearing: Boyd B. Davis
CO hearing: Don Charles DeVault
CO hearing: Philip Dolve / Gerald Darrow / Lloyd Scaff
CO hearing: Nick Falbo
CO hearing: Willis E. Giese
CO hearing: Walter Ford Gormley
CO hearing: Joseph Heflin
CO hearing: Albert Herling / Francis Hall / William Allen Winslow / Howard Schoenfeld
CO hearing: Mathias Kauten
CO hearing: Winfred William Lynn
CO hearing: John Michael McGrath
CO hearing: Alois Stanley Mroz
CO hearing: Albert Herman Nelson
CO hearing: John Neubrand
CO hearing: Emmanuel Pollack
CO hearing: Frederick U. Reel
CO hearing: Igal Roodenko
Box 33 (1/2 box) [off site]
Washington Office [Unless Otherwise Noted]: Reading / Reference Material
CO hearing: Isaac Trainin
CO hearing: Melvin Atwood Weightman
CO hearing: Hans Weiss
CO hearing: Dervin Bartlet Wolfe
CO hearing: Jack Wolf Zucker

This file was last updated on October 4, 2017.