Swarthmore College Peace Collection

Helene Stöcker Papers, 1897-1994

Collection: DG 035

Contact Information
Swarthmore College Peace Collection
500 College Avenue, Swarthmore, PA 19081-1399 U.S.A.
Telephone: (610) 328-8557 (Curator); Fax: (610) 328-8544
Email: wchmiel1@swarthmore.edu (Curator)
URL: http://www.swarthmore.edu/Library/peace/

Descriptive Summary
Swarthmore College Peace Collection
Stöcker, Helene (1869-1943)
Helene Stöcker Papers
Inclusive Dates
Call Number
DG 035

Language of Materials
Materials in English and German
4.1 linear feet [papers only]
Dr. Helene Stöcker (1869-1943) was one of the first woman students to enter a German University. In the 1920s she helped found Germany's first woman suffrage organization, and later the Bund für Mutterschutz (Protection of Motherhood). Dr. Stöcker immigrated to the United States in 1941 under the sponsorship of friends and colleagues in the peace movement.

Administrative Information
Restrictions to Access
Usage Restrictions
Alternate Form of Material
Acquisitions Information
Gift of Helene Stöcker, George Zueler, Ellen Starr Brinton, and others, 1944 (44-132), 1952, 1989

Processing Information
Processed by Peace Collection staff; minor reprocessing and finding aid by Andrew Ciampa and Wendy E.Chmielewski, June 2009; reprocessed fully by Anne Yoder, Archivist, August 2016
Preferred Citation
[Identification of item], in the Helene Stöcker Papers (DG 035), Swarthmore College Peace Collection
Copyright Notice
Copyright is retained by the authors of items in these papers, or their descendents, as stipulated by United States copyright law

Online Catalog Headings
These and related materials may be found under the following headings in online library/archival catalogs.
See tripod record

Related Collections

Historical Background
Dr. Helene Stöcker (1869-1943) was born in Elberfeld, Germany. She was one of the first woman students to enter a German University, and also studied at the Universities of Glasgow and Berne, receiving her doctorate in 1901.

Stöcker's social activism began in 1902 when she helped found Germany's first woman suffrage organization. Three years later Stöcker was the driving force behind the Bund für Mutterschutz (Protection of Motherhood). She served as chair of this organization until 1933. The Bund was founded to assist unwed mothers and their children. It ultimately provided a forum for debate on sexuality, contraception and abortion, as well as establishing reform of laws in favor of all mothers and children. Dr. Stöcker was editor and founder of the monthly magazine The New Generation, which she published from 1905 until 1933.

Stöcker was active in the German and international peace movement from the World War I period onward. She attended the International Congress of Women at The Hague in 1919 and other early congresses of the Women's International League. Stöcker belonged to several other peace organizations including the War Resisters' International , Bund Neues Vaterland (New Fatherland League), Deutsche Friedensgesellschaft (German Peace Society), and the International Peace Bureau. She was an associate of the Dr. Ludwig Quidde, who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1927. Stöcker connected her work in pacifism with the work in sexual reform when Muttershutz added a pacifist plank to their platform calling for their supporters to work for "existing and flourishing life," and against brute force in war and the state.

Dr. Stöcker was driven out of Germany by the Nazis in 1933 and lived for periods in Switzerland, England, and Sweden. She immigrated to the United States in 1941, under the sponsorship of friends and colleagues in the peace movement, especially those in the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom. She died in 1943 in New York City.

Books and pamphlets Stöcker wrote include: Leibe, Moderne Bevolkerungspolitik, Lieben oder Hassen, Krieg und Altruismus, Verkunder und Verwirklicher, Die Frau und die Heiligkeit des Lebens, Sexualpedagogik, Krieg und Mutterschutz, and Kriegsdienst Verweigerung.

Significant correspondents include: Gertrud Baer, Emily Greene Balch, Mary Ritter Beard, Fenner Brockway, Gertrude Bussey, Ruth Gage-Colby, Dorothy Detzer, Lida Gustave Heymann, Dr. Karen Horney, Jessie Wallace Hughan, Alexandra Kollontai, Frederick J. Libby, Lola Maverick Lloyd, A.J. Muste, Tracy D. Mygatt, Mildred Scott Olmsted, Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence, Ludwig Quidde, Romain Rolland, Margaret Sanger, Rosika Schwimmer, Upton Sinclair, Agnes Smedley, and Bruno Springer.

Collection Overview
Stöcker materials in the Peace Collection came from several sources. The bulk was received after Dr. Stöcker's death from friends in charge of her affairs; this consisted of two large boxes and one suitcase, full of personal papers, books and periodicals. A large set of records, chiefly correspondence from 1940 to 1943, between Eva Wiegelmesser, secretary of the Women's International League Committee on Refugees and donors of funds to assist Dr. Stöcker was received in April 1952. More recent materials consist of photocopies of items from other archives and writings about Stöcker from other donors.

Many of Dr. Stöcker's papers, which were among belongings left in London, were subsequently destroyed in the bombing of that city during World War II.

The collection at Swarthmore consists of biographical material; a typed copy of Stöcker's unpublished autobiography, which includes her World War I diary; correspondence with friends and colleagues; pocket diaries and daybooks (1934, 1938-1940, and 1942); published and unpublished articles and reviews; and material about Helene Stöcker.

Items removed:

Arrangement of Collection and Finding Aid
This collection was completely reprocessed in August 2016 for better preservation techniques as well as a clearer arrangement of material. It is arranged by:
- Biographical information
- Correspondence
- Financial records, and fundraising to help Stöcker in America
Writings, including Stöcker's unpublished autobiography
- Reference material

Detailed Description of the Collection

Box 1
Biographical information
Lists of illnesses, cures, diets, and doctor/pharmacy bills, 1875-1942
Passports (Sweden, Switzerland)
Texts of speeches given, 1941-1942
60th birthday, 1929
70th birthday, 1939: speech and poem
70th birthday, 1939: media coverage
70th birthday, 1939: Danish media coverage
70th birthday, 1939: Dutch media coverage
70th birthday, 1939: German media coverage
70th birthday, 1939: Norwegian media coverage
70th birthday, 1939: Swedish media coverage
70th birthday, 1939: Swiss media coverage
German media coverage, 1939-1969
U.S. media coverage, 1941 [re: Stöcker in America]
Writings about Stöcker:
- Short biographies, 1939-1940 [in German and English]
- Mss. article "A Life in Fragments: Helene Stöcker's Lensabriss" by Regina Braker
- Published article "Philosophinnen Lexikon" by Barbara Helm
- Published article "Helene Stöckers autobiographisches Fragment zur Psychoanalyse" by Ludger M. Hermanns
- Mss. article "Dr. Helene Stoecker" by Johanna Wischer
- Mss. article "Helene Stöcker" by Dr. Hans Wehberg(?)
- Published document "Helene Stöcker: Sexualreformerin and Pazifistin" by Ingeborg Richarz-Simons
- Published article "Dr. phil. Helene Stöcker, 1869-1943: Sexualreformerin und Pazifistin" in Wuppertaler Biographien (p. 80-89)
- Published article "Helene Stöcker (1869-1943): Leben und Arbeit für die Gliechstellung der Frau"
- Pamphlet "Helene Stöcker: Die Frau und die Heiligkeit des Lebens," 1921
- “’In Fühlung treten’ Netzerke in der Frauen- und Friedenspolitik,” by Brigitte Rath and Barbara Heller-Schuh, 2016
Death; obituaries; invitation to centennial lecture

Box 2
Immigration: troubles, etc.
Immigration: correspondence with Wilus Washington, 1940
Letters of endorsement
German government documents/letters, 1933, 1937-1938, 1941
Financial records
Fundraising for Stöcker
- Miscellaneous
- Letters to/from Grace Crocker (Oberlaender Trust)
- Letters to/from Irene Roggeveen (American Committee for Christian Refugees Inc.)
- Letters to/from Eva Wiegelmesser (Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, Refugee Committee), 1940-1941
- Letters to/from Eva Wiegelmesser (Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, Refugee Committee), 1942 - 1943 (February)
- Letters of Eva Wiegelmesser to/from Gertrud Baer
- Letters of Eva Wiegelmesser to/from Emily Greene Balch
- Letters of Eva Wiegelmesser to/from Birth Control Federation
- Letters of Eva Wiegelmesser to/from Gertrude Bussey
- Letters of Eva Wiegelmesser to/from Ruth Gage-Colby
- Letters of Eva Wiegelmesser to/from Lilian Goodman
- Letters of Eva Wiegelmesser to/from Hannah Clothier Hull
- Letters of Eva Wiegelmesser to/from Eugenie Inteman
- Letters of Eva Wiegelmesser to/from International Relief Association / International Rescue and Relief
- Letters of Eva Wiegelmesser to/from Elizabeth Mower
- Letters of Eva Wiegelmesser to/from Charlotte Neisser
- Letters of Eva Wiegelmesser to/from Annette Roberts
- Letters of Eva Wiegelmesser to/from Rosika Schwimmer
- Letters of Eva Wiegelmesser to/from Mrs. George Selleck
- Letters of Eva Wiegelmesser to/from Dr. George Zuelzer
- Letters of Eva Wiegelmesser to/from miscellaneous persons

Box 3
Correspondence, 1897 [1 letter], 1906 [1 letter]
Lists of correspondents
Correspondence, circa 1939-1940
- A [collective folder; includes Devere Allen]
- Alltransport and Storage Ltd.
- American Friends Service Committee
- "Aufbau" (American Jewish Weekly in German and English)
- Ba-Bo [collective folder; includes Katherine Devereux Blake]
- Zonia Baber
- Gertrude Baer
- Angelina Balabanoff (Socialist Party, U.S.A.)
- Emily Greene Balch
- Roger Baldwin (American Civil Liberties Union)
- Max Barth
- Mary Beard
- Helen M. Beardsley
- Gertrud Berman
- Karl Beth
- Birth Control Federation of America Inc.
- Franz Boas
- Wilhelm Boerner
- Bo-Br [collective folder; includes Fenner Brockway]
- British Embassy
- Runham Brown
- Bruno and Hege Buchwald
- C [collective folder]
- Clem Cramer
- D [collective folder]
- Dorothy Detzer
- E [collective folder]
- Dora Ediger
- Albert Einstein [photocopies only; acc. 99A-027]
- Greta Engkvist
- Lucy Ernst
- F [collective folder]
- Hedwig Fischer
- G [collective folder]
- Ruth Gage-Colby (Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, St. Paul Branch)
- Lilian Goodman
- Georg Gretor

Box 4
Correspondence, circa 1939-1940
- H [collective folder]
- Elsa de Haas
- Fannina Halle (Yale University)
- Philippine Hannak
- Lilly Heber
- Lida Ustava Heymann
- Erna and Hans Hirsch
- A. Hollitscher
- Ellen Hörup [includes letters of others to E.H.; acc. 03A-019]
- Jessie Wallace Hughan
- Hannah Clothier Hull
- I [collective folder]
- Eugenie Intemann
- J [collective folder]
- Margaret Jaraczewsky
- K [collective folder]
- Hermann and Marlene Kesser
- Dora and Franz Kohler
- Hans Kohn (Smith College)
- Alexandra Kollontay (Envoy, URSS)
- Eric Koster
- Friedrich Krause
- L [collective folder]
- Frederick J. Libby (National Council for Prevention of War)
- Lola Maverick Lloyd (Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, Chicago Branch)
- Philipp Loewenfeld
- M [collective folder; includes A.J. Muste (Fellowship of Reconciliation)]
- Gilbert MacMaster [re: Jews in Baden]
- Minerva Booksellers
- Anne E. Moffett
- Tracy D. Mygatt
- N [collective folder]
- Charlotte Neisser
- Otto Neuberger (Library of Congress)
- New York Public Library
- N.Y.K. Lin, Nippon Yesen Kaisya
- O [collective folder]
- Emil Oprecht (Verlag Oprecht Zurich)
- P [collective folder]
- Alice Park
- The P.E.N. / The European P.E.N. in America
- Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence
- Harold Picton
- Frederick Pollock

Box 5
Correspondence, circa 1939-1940
- Ludwig Quidde, 1939 (May-October)
- Ludwig Quidde, 1939 (November) - 1940 (August)
- Ludwig Quidde, 1940 (September) - 1941 (February)
- R [collective folder]
- Clara Ragaz (Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, Swiss Section)
- Lily Reiff
- Elsa Reinhold
- Konrad Reisner (Haverford College)
- Matte(?) Ritter-Hahn
- Tilly Rosenberg
- Alys Russell
- S [collective folder]
- Grace (Mrs. Russell) Sabor
- Margaret Sanger
- John Nevin Sayre (Fellowship of Reconciliation)
- Sadie Sceli
- Annie von Scheltema (International Institut voor Sociale Geschiedenis)
- Adele Schmidt
- Rosika Schwimmer
- Hans Simons
- Upton Sinclair
- Agnes Smedley-
- ____ Smirnow (Consul)
- Bruno Springer, 1916 (December) - 1917 (February) [from H.S.]
- Bruno Springer, 1926 (August) - 1930 (May) [from H.S.]
- Bruno Springer, 1913-1921 [to H.S.]
- Lisa Stöcker
- Frederik Ström
- Sheba Strunskey (International Relief Association)
- Felix Strus
- T [collective folder]
- U-V [collective folder]
- Oswald Garrison Villard

Box 6 (1/2 box)
Correspondence, circa 1939-1940
- W [collective folder; includes Wilfred Wellock]
- Hans Wehberg
- M. Weibaut
- Hans Georg Wendrinder
- Jean Wilcox (Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, Minnesota Branch)
- C. Williamson (Columbia University Library)
- Mary Winsor
- Women's International League for Peace and Freedom: miscellaneous people
- World Woman's Part for Equal Rights
- Z [collective folder]
- Georg Zuelzer
- unidentified

Box 7
- Printed/published article "Antimilitarismo, Feminismo ed Edukado," 1922
- Printed/published article "Von Kamp gegen die Gewalt: Die Kriegsdienstverweiger in Österreich" in Bund der Kriegsdienstgegner, 1923
- Printed/published article "Weltfriedenskongress und Weltfrieden," 1924
- Printed/published article "Friedensreise über des Balkan" in Die Weltbuhne - Die Schaubuhne, 1929 (December 3)
- Printed/published article "Elisabeth Förster-Nietzche: Ein Wort zu ihrem Gedächtnis"in Schule u. Leben, 1936 (January)
- Printed/published article "For 25 Aar siden Af Helen Stöckers Optegnelser" in Mennesket og Magten, 1939 (August)
- Printed/published article "Havelock Ellis: Een persoonlijke herinnering van Dr. Helene Stöcker," circa 1930s [by Stöcker?]
- Printed/published articles in newspapers
- Printed/published pamphlet "Geschlechtspsychologie und Krieg," 1915
- Printed/published pamphlet "Lieben oder Hassen?," 1915
- Printed/published pamphlet "Zehn Jahre Mutterschutz," 1915
- Printed/published pamphlet "Menschlichkeit," 1916
- Printed/published pamphlet "Gewalt oder Verständigung," 1917?
- Printed/published pamphlet "Moderne Bevölkerungspolitik," 1917?
- Printed/published pamphlet "Sexualpädagogik Krieg und Mutterschutz," 1917?
- Printed/published pamphlet "Durch zum Rechtsfrieden: Ein Appel an Das Weltgewissen" co-written with Prof. Dr. Walther Schücking and Dr. Elixabeth Rotten, circa 1919
- Printed/published pamphlet "Kriegdienstverweigerung," 1922 ["Conscientious Objection"]
- Printed/published pamphlet "Kriegsdienstverweigerer in Deutschland und Österreich" co-written with Martha Steinitz and Olga Misar, 1923
- Printed/published pamphlet "Verkunder und Verwirklicher: Beiträge zum Gewaltproblem nebst einem zum ersten Male in deutscher Sprache veröffentlichten Briefe Tolstois," 1928
- Printed/published pamphlet "Artikel und Reden zu Helene Stockers 60. Geburtstag," 1929 (November 13)
- Printed/published pamphlet "Erotik und Altruismus," undated
- Printed/published pamphlet "Zur Geschichte der Geburtenregelung," undated [after 1928]
- Printer's galley "Antimilitarische Kongresse," 1921

Box 8
Writings [mostly from circa 1939-1940]:
- Published book Karoline Michaelis: Eine Auswahl Ihrer Briefe edited by Helene Stocker, 1912
- Published book Liebe: Roman von Helene Stocker, 1925, 1927
- Mss. parts for Neue Generation, 1906, 1908
- Mss. article "Aus dem Liebes-brief enier modernen Frau," 1897
- Mss. article "Bernard Shaw über den Krieg"
- Mss. review "Carr: Crisis"
- Mss. article "Dennklub - Kongress und Krieg"
- Mss. article "Der Freie-Blick-Komplex"
- Mss. article "Der unabhängige Geist under der Staat"
- Mss. article/review "Die Schicksalsfrage der Menschheit"
- Mss. article/chapter "Ein Kämpfer fuer Menschens hutz Joseph Popper-Lynkeus"
- Mss. article "Kamp für die Freiheit"
- Mss. article "Kleine Tragödie"
- Mss. articles [chapters?] beginning with the words "Kommt der Kriegs ins Land..."
- Mss. article "Kriegsopfer Wells"
- Mss. article "Letters to the Editor"
- Mss. article [chapter?] "Maurice Maeterlinck"
- Mss. article "Offner Brief an Oswald Garrison-Villard"
- Mss. article "Persönlichkeit oder Familienstand"
- Mss. article "Quidde als Mitkämpfer"
- Mss. article(?) "Reisenbericht . . . an Bord d. Nitte Maru, 23.3.41" [travelogue]
- Mss. article "Unsere Umwertung der Werte," 1897

Box 9 (1/2 box)
Writings [mostly from circa 1939-1940]:
- Mss. "Vor 25 Jahren: Aus dem Kriegstagebuch von Helene Stoecker" ["25 Years Ago: From the War Diary of Helene Stoecker"]
- Mss. article "Zum Krieg in Finnland"
- Mss. article "Zur Gesichte der 'Bewegung fur Mutterschutz und Sexualreform'"
- Mss. review of book Ich erlebte fünfzig Jahre Weltgeschichte by Berta Szeps-Zuckerkandle [book published in 1939]
- Mss. review of book Modern Dictatorship by Diana Spearman [book published in 1939]
- Mss. review of book The Dear Monster by G.R. Halkett [book published in 1939]
- Mss. review of book The Twenty Years' Crisis, 1919-1939 by Edward Carr [book published in 1939]
- Mss. article/review [handwritten title illegible]
- Short mss. articles/reviews, or incomplete mss.
Personal Writings:
- Pocket diary / datebook, 1934 (February-November)
- Pocket diary, 1938 (July-September)
- Pocket diaries, 1939 [4 volumes]
- Pocket diaries, 1940 [4 volumes]
- Pocket diary / datebook, 1942 (January-August)

Box 10

* parts of autobiography are filed here in date order (i.e., the date/s covered in each part); note that not all the chapters in Stöcker's outline exist
- Mss. autobiography "Lebensabriss": outline [typed October 24, 1940]
- Mss. autobiography "Lebensabriss": notes by Joshua Feinstein, 1987
- Mss. autobiography "Lebensabriss": "Kindheit, 1869-1892" [chapter 1]
- Mss. autobiography "Lebensabriss": "Von Kamp um das Frauenstudium, 1890-1899" [chapter 2]
- Mss. autobiography "Lebensabriss": "Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche" [re: circa 1895- ]
- Mss. autobiography "Lebensabriss": "Studienzeit, 1896-1901"
- Mss. autobiography "Lebensabriss": "Nietsche" [re: circa 1888-1889]
- Mss. autobiography "Lebensabriss": "Frühling, 1897" [chapter 4]
- Mss. autobiography "Lebensabriss": "Glasgow" [chapter 3; re:1899-1899]
- Mss. autobiography "Lebensabriss": "Bern" [chapter 5; re: 1900-1901]
- Mss. autobiography "Lebensabriss": "Rückkehr nach Bern" [re: circa 1900]
- Mss. autobiography "Lebensabriss": "Muchen, 1900" [chapter 8]
- Mss. autobiography "Lebensabriss": "Rückkehr nach Berlin, 1901" [chapter 6; re: 1901-1902]|
- Mss. autobiography "Lebensabriss": "1901-1905"
- Mss. autobiography "Lebensabriss": "Frühling, 1902"
- Mss. autobiography "Lebensabriss": "Erste Russlandreise, 1904"
- Mss. autobiography "Lebensabriss": "Lebensgemeinschaft, 1905" [chapter 9; re: 1905-1931]
- Mss. autobiography "Lebensabriss": "Sommer Reise, 1905" [chapter 10]
- Mss. autobiography "Lebensabriss": "B.f.M., 1905" [chapter 12 "Gründung des Bundes für Mutterschutz 1905"]
- Mss. autobiography "Lebensabriss": "B.f.M., 1905-1910"
- Mss. autobiography "Lebensabriss": "Reisen, 1905-1910/1911/1912"
- Mss. autobiography "Lebensabriss": "Sexuelwissenschaft: Gesellschaft zur Bekampfung der Geschlechtskrankheiten" [chapter 14; re: circa 1905-1925]
- Mss. autobiography "Lebensabriss": "Dr. Eduard David, 1906"
- Mss. autobiography "Lebensabriss": "Kopie" [re: 1906]
- Mss. autobiography "Lebensabriss": "Kampfe im B.f.M, 1909/1910" [chapter 13]
- Mss. autobiography "Lebensabriss": "Pschoanalyse, 1911/1912"
- Mss. autobiography "Lebensabriss": "Kriegstebuch" [War Diary, July 24, 1914 - January 30, 1915]
- Mss. autobiography "Lebensabriss": "War Diary, 1914-15" [in English]
- Mss. autobiography "Lebensabriss": "Kriegs___ [illegible], 1914-1917: Des Pazifismus verdächtig"
- Mss. autobiography "Lebensabriss": "Anti-kriegs-kongress im Haag, 1915"
- Mss. autobiography "Lebensabriss": "Helene an Bruno. Aus Briefen: Januar und Februar 1917" [chapter 16]
- Mss. autobiography "Lebensabriss":"Helene an Bruno" [re: circa 1917]
- Mss. autobiography "Lebensabriss": "Von 1933- "

Box 11
Notes on/for "Neue Generation," 1905-1909
Notes for autobiography
Library cards and book requests
Reading notes [4 folders]
Titles of books read or to be read [2 folders]
Address lists
List of possessions "23 pieces. Dr. H. Stöcker at no. 11, Sept. '39"
Reference material

Box 12 [card file box]
Address of contacts

This file was last updated on October 3, 2016