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click here for to see original photograph

LISTING OF PRIMARY SOURCES
Archival material is not available through interlibrary loan. Contact the institutions as listed for more information (see Contact Information page); be aware that many of these collections may have restrictions that Might limit use; if there is an on-line finding aid for the resources listed below, a link has been provided to them. All images used are the property of the Swarthmore College Peace Collection. C.O.=conscientious objection or objector; CPS=Civilian Public Service

A-E | F-L | M-R | S-Z

Corinne Marie Tuckerman Allen (1856-1931)
Papers, 1896-1927
0.5 linear feet
Allen was a social welfare and educational reformer. Her papers include letters from 1920 about C.O.s in the war prison camp at Ft. Douglas (UT).
Contact: Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute

#1 Mennonite C.O.s in WWI:
Reeb, Ward, Baer, Dave Derstine
William Charles Allen (1857-1938)
Papers, 1895-1937(CDGA)
0.75 linear feet
Allen was a member of the Philadelphia Yearly Meeting (4th and Arch Streets) of the Society of Friends, and was recorded as a Minister there in 1898 (circa). He lived for many years in San Jose (CA), and later moved to Denver (CO) in 1925 (circa). He was married in 1883 to Elizabeth C. Bromly. Allen was deeply opposed to war and wrote often about the problems of propaganda, censorship, conscription, imperialism, and the munitions industry. He contributed articles on the Christian's attitude toward war and its causes to over twenty church papers. Allen traveled widely, going twice to Asia, four times to Australia and New Zealand, and three times to South Africa. He wrote many articles about his experiences abroad; perhaps most significant were the ones which championed the rights of native peoples in South Africa. Allen worked against conscription in California, he was a strong advocate for the temperance movement, and he was actively interested in the Federal Council of Churches, to name a few involvements. He established the Peace Committee of the Churches of the Pacific Coast. Allen wrote several books, among them A Quaker in the Orient and War! Behind the Smoke Screen. His papers include correspondence (1914-1931), a transcript of his war diary (1917), and published and unpublished writings, including "An Appeal to Christians Regarding Militarism" (1901).
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

Alliance for Conscientious Objectors
Records, 1970-1974 (DG 088)
4 linear feet and 3.5 linear inches
The Alliance for Conscientious Objectors (AFCO), based in Seattle (WA), was known initially as Conscientious Objectors for Service Benefits (COSB). It was founded in 1970 by John Long, and by Paul Anderson, who served as its national coordinator. It changed its name in 1972 to represent a wider scope of purpose. During this time, C.O.s who performed two years of alternate service, the same period as those drafted into the military served, were not entitled to Veterans Administration benefits under the GI Bill of Rights. The COSB/AFCO worked to raise public awareness of this injustice, and sought redress through legal cases in the federal court system. On Dec. 11, 1973, the Justices of the Supreme Court heard oral arguments in two suits challenging the constitutionality of discrimination against veterans of alternate service. In its Feb. 1974 newsletter, the group announced its decision to disband and "pass its torch to the two professional organizations in the country, National Interreligious Board for Conscientious Objectors (NISBCO) and the Central Committee for Conscientious Objectors (CCCO)." It was felt that as a volunteer, nonprofit group, AFCO had reached a "plateau of achievement." It contributed its remaining funds to NISBCO and CCCO. This collection includes extensive correspondence with C.O.s, agencies working for C.O. rights, lawyers, reporters, branches and/or local groups, and others; outreach material that explained COSB/AFCO's position on issues and its sponsorship of events, etc.; and, legal case files that represented efforts to win benefits for C.O.s. A serious gap in information occurs because there are no meeting minutes or significant financial records. The records of this collection are restricted until the year 2040, in that anyone making reference to personal information from this collection must disguise it so that the identity of the individual/s concerned will not be disclosed.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection
#2 Postcard with picture of Christ in prison uniform, crown of thorns on his head, and ball and chain around his ankle

James Payne Alter (1919-1983)

Papers
15 linear feet
Alter, a Presbyterian missionary in India for many years, served three months at the Danbury Correctional Center as a C.O. in 1940-1941; information about this is included in his papers.
Contact: Divinity Library Special Collections, Yale University Library

American Civil Liberties Union
Records, 1917-1950 [microfilm reels 1-288]
Series 10 is comprised of a significant amount of correspondence re: conscientious objection, 1917-1921, 1927, 1940-1950.
Contact: Seeley G. Mudd Library, Princeton University / Swarthmore College Peace Collection

American Civil Liberties Union: National Committee on Conscientious Objectors
Records, 1940-1946 (DG 022)
13.25 linear feet
The Committee began ca. 1940 with offices in New York City and Washington (DC); it was organized to aid C.O.s in World War II after conscription began in the United States; operations ceased in 1946. The Washington (DC) office was first called Legal Service for Conscientious Objectors, and later, the Temporary Committee for Legal Aid to Conscientious Objectors (and/or Legal Service for Conscientious Objectors). The collection includes meeting minutes, financial records, general correspondence arranged by personal name or group name, correspondence by or about individual C.O.s, material about Civilian Public Service, and reference material. Correspondents include Roger Baldwin, Charles Boss Jr., James Bristol, Mary Brite, Ernest Bromley, Julien Cornell, Dorothy Detzer, Julius Eichel, Harrop Freeman, Paul Comly French, Anna Melissa Graves, Alfred Haessler, Jessie Wallace Hughan, Rufus Jones, Abraham Kaufman, Frieda Lazarus, Erling Lunde, James Mullin, A.J. Muste, Vivien Roodenko, Evan Thomas, Oswald Garrison Villard, and E. Raymond Wilson. The records of this collection are restricted until the year 2020, in that anyone making reference to personal information from this collection must disguise it so that the identity of the individual/s concerned will not be disclosed.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

American Friends Service Committee

Records, 1917-
WWI era: letters of C.O.s giving insight into their difficulties & the abuse they suffered from military authorities (General Administration: Conscientious Objectors); letters of C.O.s and others who went to France, Germany & Russia (ca. 1917-1920s) to do relief work through the AFSC (Foreign Service).
Contact: American Friends Service Committee Archives

American Friends Service Committee:
- Civilian Public Service Records, 1940-1947 (DG 002)
- Prison Service Committee Records, 1943-1947 (DG 002)

CPS 278.25 linear feet; PSC 5.75 linear feet
Organized in 5 series plus appendices: Section 1. CPS administrative files; Section 2. Case files (including medical files) of men in CPS; Section 3. CPS camp publications; Section 4. AFSC Prison Service Committee records; Section 5. Later accessions; Appendices: Reference lists of CPS camps, CPS project units, and religious denominations with number of men in CPS. All series except Section 3 have restrictions.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

#3 "The Shadow" vs. "The Solid Reality" drawn by Florence Andrews in one of her letters to her C.O. husband, Bennett, who was in prison at Danbury, July 29, 1943
[click here to read full letter]

American Friends Service Committee, Madison, Wisconsin Area Committee
Records, 1964-1974 (Mss. 886)
1.4 cubic feet
The Madison AFSC was established in 1966 to promote local draft resistance, draft counseling, and anti-war activity. The collection primarily documents the C.O. program, including records on some of the individuals counseled. Photographs include an image of a draft card burning protest in the Madison City Council Chamber in 1968.
Contact: Wisconsin Historical Society Archives

Amnesty Information and Action Center
Records, 1971-1977 (DG 114)
3 linear feet
The Center was established in 1972 in Ann Arbor (MI) to bring about amnesty decisions on behalf of those Americans who refused to participate in the Vietnamese Conflict; founded and run by Dwight S. Large and Frances K. Large for the purpose of distributing material to and coordinating networks of persons interested in all aspects of amnesty and reconciliation; sponsored by the Methodist Church; ceased operation in 1973. Its records include correspondence, articles and published material, statements on amnesty issued by church groups and other organizations, as well as subject files on amnesty, the draft, and conscientious objection.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

Bent Andresen (1908-1991)

Papers, 1928-1991 (CDGA)
5 linear inches
Andresen was a Quaker C.O., environmentalist and protestor against the death penalty and the nuclear arms race. He took part in a human guinea pig experiment as part of his alternate service in Civilian Public Service in WWII, walked out of CPS as a protest against the bombing of Hiroshima, was arrested and imprisoned. His papers include biographical information (including his hunger strikes while in prison), correspondence, his 1945 diary, and photographs.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

Bennett W. (1906-1994) and Florence N. Andrews (1913- )

Papers, (DG 208)
20 linear inches
Bennett Andrews, from Philadelphia (PA), was a pacifist and absolutist C.O. to war. He went to Danbury prison for his beliefs during World War II, 1943-1946. He and Florence had married in 1938. Bennett was a musician and music teacher; Florence worked for the American Friends Service Committee for a time. Their papers contain all the letters and postcards the couple wrote to each other while he was in prison, as well as manuscripts Florence created from the letters.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

Association of Catholic Conscientious Objectors
Records, 1940-1946 (CDGA)
0.25 linear inches
This group was closely related to the Catholic Worker Movement; it administered several Civilian Public Service camps in New England during WWII.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection


Newton Diehl Baker (1871-1937)
Letters, 1914-1937 (Humanities-Mss.)
0.3 linear feet
Baker was the United States Secretary of War during WWI. His correspondence includes comments about C.O.s in that war.
Contact: New York Public Library, Humanities and Social Sciences Library, Manuscripts and Archives Division
#4 "A C.O. Send-Off. The lucky ones
are - Wortsmann, Lunde & Blair,
October 20, 1919"

Roger Nash Baldwin (1884-1991)
Papers, 1885-1991 (MC005)
14.25 linear feet
Baldwin was a prominent civil libertarian and the Executive Director of the American Civil Liberties Union from 1920-1950. He was called up for military service in 1918, but as a C.O. refused to go. His arrest, trial and conviction made headlines; he was in prison for a year. Baldwin adopted two boys who had come to the attention of the Juvenile Court, Oral James and Otto Stolz. James followed his adoptive father to prison as a C.O. during World War I, while Stolz served in the army in France. Baldwin's papers include correspondence, writings and subject files, as well as personal and other photographs (including 1919 prison photos of C.O. Julius Gruenberg).
Contact: Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library, Princeton University

David W. Basinger (1896-1987)
Papers, 1918, in World War I Conscientious Objectors -- Private Papers Collection (II-MS-26)
1 folder
Basinger was an unmarried Mennonite farmer who was inducted into the army on April 30, 1918. In spite of refusing military service or to wear a uniform, he was discharged from Camp Sherman (OH) in Dec. 1918. His papers include furlough and discharge papers, several photographs (probably of Camp Sherman), and a notebook dated May 31, 1918, with lists of C.O.s that include names, where the men were from, and occasional personal information about them.

Contact: Menno Simons Historical Library and Archives, Eastern Mennonite University

Howard K. Beale (1899-1959)
Papers, 1913-1959 (Mss. 98)
7.4 cubic feet
Beale was an American history professor at the University of North Carolina and the University of Wisconsin. His papers include correspondence and literature from his time as an advisor to C.O.s during WWII.
Contact: Wisconsin Historical Society Archives

Atlee Beechy (1914-2000)
Papers, 1937-2000 (Hist. Mss. 1-222)
7 boxes
Beechy, a college professor, served in Civilian Public Service from 1943-1946, and then as director of Mennonite Central Committee Europe from 1946-1949. His papers include CPS correspondence from 1944-1947, material about the I-W Coordinating Board from 1959-1965, and reflections about CPS and items from CPS reunions, 1975-1994. The papers also show his ongoing pacifist stance through the Vietnamese Conflict and into the 1990s.
Contact: Goshen Archives, Mennonite Church USA

Jay W. Beede (1922- )
Papers, ca. 1942-1952 (FMS 52)
Jay Willis Beede is a 1949 graduate of Earlham College. His papers contain material that relates to his status as a C.O. in 1942 and 1950.
Contact: Arthur and Kathleen Postle Archives and Friends Collection, Earlham College

Ward Edward Beery (1892-1968)

Papers, ca. 1917-1918, in World War I Conscientious Objectors -- Private Papers Collection (II-MS-26)
1 folder
Beery was a Mennonite C.O. whose papers include lists of C.O.s at Camp Lee (VA), as well as a photocopy of his notebook in which other men (all C.O.s?) wrote sentimental verses.
Contact: Menno Simons Historical Library and Archives, Eastern Mennonite University

Rhine Wiegner Benner (1889-1974)
Papers, 1910-1959 (I-MS-55)
5 linear inches
Benner was a Mennonite minister and missionary in Job (WV). He was given a certificate of exemption from military service on Aug. 14, 1917, but then he and L.J. Heatwole were convicted of counseling Mennonites against buying war bonds; they were taken to court and each fined $1,000. His papers [found in two notebooks] include letters from Christian Good and S.M. Burkholder (ca. 1915-1925), as well as documents and newsclippings of the court case.
Contact: Virginia Mennonite Conference

Berkeley Free Church

Records, 1959-1976 (GTU 89-5-16)
23.5 feet
This collection contains extensive records of a hippie church in Berkeley (CA), the members of which were involved in all the current issues of student unrest and anti-Vietnam War activities, including anti-war protests, draft resistance, and conscientious objection.
Contact: Graduate Theological Union Archives

Bethel College: Academic Dean P.S. Goertz
Records, 1930-1949 (MLA.III.1.A.3.a)
3.75 cubic feet
This series of the Bethel College records includes correspondence and subject files on education in Civilian Public Service and on the Civil Public Service Training Corps.
Contact: North Newton Archives, Mennonite Church USA

Raymond (1876-?) and Helen Binford
Collected Papers, 1941-1946 (CDGA)
5 linear inches
Quakers and educators, the Binfords served as camp directors of Civilian Public Service Camp #19 (Marion, NC) and later of Camp #108 (Gatlinburg, TN). They conducted research under the auspices of the Pacifist Research Bureau.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

#5 Postcard "Discharged! Break him?!
Hell!! He's not even bent!!"

Paul Blanshard
Papers, 1912-1979 (851649 Aa/2)
30.3 linear feet
Blanshard was an author and a social and religious commentator. See box five of his papers for his statement before the Senate Subcommittee on Armed Services concerning conscientious objection and the draft, March 12, 1963.
Contact: Bentley Historical Library, University of Michigan

Albert Bofman (?-1977)
Papers, 1943-1948 (CDGA)
0.5 linear inches
Albert Bofman was imprisoned (1943-1945) for his opposition to war and militarism. He became interested in social reform, particularly in the plight of prisoners. In 1950 he formed the U.S. Committee Against Militarism. His papers contain copies of his letters written May 1943 - Jan. 1945 while in prison, and his mss. "Maladministration and Human Relations in a Federal Prison: A Report based on the Federal Prison Sandstone, Minnesota, 1943-1945" (Nov. 1948).
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

Daniel I. Bolef
Papers
Bolef was an advisory physicist at Westinghouse Research Laboratories from 1953 to 1963, and joined Washington University in 1963 as Professor of Physics. His papers (in Series VII) include material about Selective Service, draft resistance and draft counseling, as well as his correspondence and notes on draft cases. Some of the files are restricted.
Contact: Washington University Libraries, Dept. of Special Collections

Aldine Brenneman (1894-1985)
Papers, 1917-1918, in World War I Conscientious Objectors -- Private Papers Collection (II-MS-26)
1 folder
Brenneman was a Mennonite C.O. at Camp Lee (VA) who refused to drill or to do work for the military. His papers consist of a photocopy of his Sept. 1917 - Feb. 1918 diary.
Contact: Menno Simons Historical Library and Archives, Eastern Mennonite University

Fred Briehl (1892-1974)
Papers, 1911-1974 (3474)
8 cubic feet
Briehl was a Socialist C.O. in WWI who spent two years in prison for his stance. His papers contain correspondence with friends and family members (1911-1947); diaries (1917-1920) written primarily when Briehl was in prison for refusing to serve in the armed forces during World War I; correspondence with various politicians and the media concerning current affairs (1917-1970); legal documents pertaining to lawsuits, property and patents (1942-1961), and the 1955 House Un-American Activities Committee investigation of summer camps; tape recordings of interviews and events (1962-1978); videotapes of home movies taken by Briehl, a clip from "Native Land," a 1942 documentary on civil rights in which Briehl acted, and a documentary film, "Fred Briehl" by Charles Gershwin and Michael Mitchell, containing clips from his home movies and interviews during 1970-1971; student notebooks and papers (1914-1920); scrapbooks and newsclippings (1915-1974); correspondence, broadsides, handouts and speeches relating to activities in the Communist Party and the Dairyman's League, the Farmer's Union, and the Farmer's Emergency Committee; records from Briehl's dairy farm (1927-1944); issues of The Farm Front, published by the New York Farm Commission of the Communist Party, (1943-1959) and edited by or with Briehl; and, pamphlets and miscellaneous publications concerning communism, socialism, agriculture, pacifism, and radical causes.
Contact: Cornell University Library, Rare & Manuscript Collections


Nicholas Broughton (1916- )
Papers, 1940-1947
1 mss. box
Broughton was a C.O. who served at CPS Camp #76 (Glendora, CA) from 1942 to 1946. His papers include memoirs and printed matter relating to conscientious objection in the United States during WII.
Contact: Hoover Institution Library and Archives, Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace, Stanford University


Harry A. Brunk (1898-1990)

Papers, 1763-1986 (I-MS-13)
10 linear feet
Brunk was an author, historian and professor. His papers includes a manuscript of brief retrospectives of experiences of CPS men and women from Zion-Trissels Mennonite Church (Harrisonburg?, VA) in 1941-1946.
Contact: Virginia Mennonite Conference

Naomi Shank Brunk (1912- )
Papers, ca. 1934-1952 (I-MS-48)
2 linear feet
Brunk's scrapbook, entitled "Memories of my days spent at the Civilian Public Service Camp #20, Wells Tannery [Sideling Hill], PA," contains correspondence, photographs and postcards that document her role as the camp's dietician and the work and activities of the camp. The photographs include portraits of the camp buildings as well as the personnel and men who were in service there. Her other scrapbook, kept ca. 1944-1945 while she was dietician at the La Plata Unit in Puerto Rico, includes photographs of CPS men, the Mennonite General Hospital, Puerto Rican scenery and people, as well as farewell verses, letters and photographs given to Brunk when she had completed her assignment in 1945.

Contact: Virginia Mennonite Conference

#6 Group of Dunkard C.O.s in WWI

Chester Bruvald
Papers, 1935-1982
8.5 cubic feet
The collection consists of the correspondence, printed materials, and legal case files of a Minneapolis (MN) lawyer and pacifist. Bruvald became active in the peace movement while a law student at the University of Minnesota in the late 1930s. In 1940, he registered as a C.O. and received an agricultural deferment which lasted until sometime in June 1945, when he lost the deferment and then spent the next 14 months in a conservation camp. After Bruvald passed the state bar exam in 1947 he began a law practice that defended many C.O.s and anti-war protestors. He was also concerned with the cooperative movement and worked with a number of housing, credit union, food, farming, and health care cooperatives. His papers consist largely of files documenting Bruvald's casework in these two broad areas as well as his early association with pacifist organizations and the Minneapolis No-Conscription Campaign. There are case files (1948-1975) of many C.O.s, many of them argued before the Minnesota Supreme Court, the Eighth District Court of Appeals, and the U.S. Supreme Court which heard the landmark case of Gutknecht v. United States. Some of this material is restricted.
Contact: Minnesota Historical Society

John Butler

Papers, 1862-1885 (MS. 559)
0.4 linear feet
Butler was a Quaker from Salem (OH). His correspondence, journals and diaries relate to his activities as a delegate from the Ohio Yearly Meeting of Orthodox Friends, and include material on exemption of Quakers from military service during the Civil War and their opposition to war.
Contact: Western Reserve Historical Society Archives/Library

Camp Waldport
Records, 1943-1945 (Bx 034)
4.5 liner feet
This Civilian Public Service camp (#56) was one of three alternative service camps for conscientious objectors in Oregon during World War II. It was established in 1942 and administered by the Civilian Public Service of the Mennonite Church. The camp's main work was in reforestation of Blodgett Peak Burn, a forest that had been heavily logged during World War I and had suffered devastating wildfires thereafter. The work was often dangerous; five men died during the three years the camp was in operation. Camp Waldport was also the home of the Fine Arts Group, made up of CPSers who were writers, painters and others involved with the arts. The collection includes records and publications of the Untide Press, a camp project that published writings by poet William Everson and others, issues of the camp newsletter ("The Tide"), correspondence, and miscellaneous material.
Contact: University of Oregon Libraries

CCCO / An Agency for Military and Draft Counseling
see: Central Committee for Conscientious Objection

#7 Amnesty Demonstration,
May 11, 1946

Center on Conscience and War
Records, 1940- (DG 025)
648 linear feet
Formed in 1940 as the National Service Board for Religious Objectors (NSBRO); changed its name to National Interreligious Service Board for Conscientious Objectors (NISBCO) in 1970, and to The Center on Conscience & War (CCW) in Dec. 1999; works to defend and extend the rights of C.O.s; founded by the historic peace churches (the Society of Friends (Quakers), Brethren and Mennonites) to provide a unified approach to the federal government in matters concerning conscientious objection and alternative services; headquartered in Washington (DC). The collection includes meeting minutes of the Board of Directors and Consultative Council (1943-1969), correspondence (1940-1973), memoranda, literature and releases, financial records, statistics, subject files, newspaper clippings, photographs, and motion pictures. In addition to the administrative records of the Washington office, the 1940-1947 records include correspondence, reports, and publications of 151 Civilian Pubic Service camps, together with case files of men assigned to CPS camps and of the men who were reclassified or imprisoned. Additional case files covering the period 1949 to 1973 contain information about men who performed alternative service (1-W classification) and about men who sought help with problems relating to military service and/or classification. All case files are restricted.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

Center on Conscience and War
Records, 1978-
5 linear feet

The Center was founded in 1981 as a component of Pax Christi USA to deal with questions related to conscription, conscientious objection and alternative service [not to be confused with the group listed above]. The collection includes administrative records and correspondence, as well as the papers of co-founder Gordon Zahn.
Contact: University of Notre Dame Archives

Central Committee for Conscientious Objection
Records, 1948- (DG 073)
130.75 linear feet
The CCCO was founded in 1948 following passage of the Selective Service Act. Called the Central Committee for Conscientious Objectors until 1969 and then named the CCCO / An Agency for Military and Draft Counseling, it developed a nationwide network of military and draft counselors and attorneys. Most active during the Korean and Vietnam wars, the CCCO today promotes such issues as amnesty, repatriation, and counter-recruitment, and is involved in such efforts as GI counseling, peace community building, and intensive third world outreach. It took on its historic name of Central Committee for Conscientious Objection again in 2000 (circa). Its records include administrative files, publications/releases, staff files, individual case files, and subject files, as well as photographs and audiovisuals. The bulk of the CCCO records are draft and military counselors' case files and legal files. Correspondents include Douglas Farnsworth, James Feldman, E. Curry First, Steve Gulick, Jon Landau, Robert K. Musil, Robert A. Seeley, Arlo Tatum, George Willoughby, Irene Wren, and Eric E. Wright. This collection has some restrictions.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

William Henry Chamberlin (1897-1969)
Papers, 1912-1930, 1940-1969
7 linear feet [includes 40 diaries on microfilm]
Chamberlin was an author, journalist, conservative intellectual, as well as a C.O.. His papers contain writings about conscientious objection, his time at Haverford College, and other subjects (includes his "Confessions of an Individualist"), as well as a dissertation on Chamberlain by Debra Mulligan (1997).
Contact: Providence College, Phillips Memorial Library Archives

Civilian Public Service: Personal Papers and Collected Materials
Records, 1940- (DG 056)
14 linear feet
Civilian Public Service (CPS) was set up to provide alternative service for C.O.s during WWII. This unique church-state partnership established a program in which over 12,000 men performed "work of national importance" primarily in camps administered by the historic peace churches (the Brethren, Friends, and Mennonites). The papers in this document group have been collected from numerous men and women who were connected to Civilian Public Service and those who have studied the subject. It contains correspondence, biographical information, writings, interviews, recollections, and other items documenting life under the CPS system. Members of CPS, their heirs, and various scholars have all contributed to this collection of material. It is an open collection in the sense that new material continues to be added as donors request that the Peace Collection archive their files. In addition, this collection includes material gathered on various CPS camps and projects [most significantly, the records of CPS camp #46 in Big Flats (NY)]. The collection is organized into three series. Series I contains material that documents the experience of individuals connected to CPS, primarily authored during the CPS years. It is not in alphabetical order by name, but in the order in which it was received by the Peace Collection. Series II contains material about specific CPS camps and projects, collected from various sources. The items in this series may duplicate what is in other C.O. or CPS collections in the Peace Collection. Series III contains documents about CPS reunions, questionnaires from those investigating CPS, and memoirs, often written long after the years spent in CPS. Correspondents include Howard W. and Mary Alice Alexander, Purnell H. Benson, Franklin H. Briggs, Samuel Cooper, Rex M. Corfman, Henry W. Dyer, William M. Fuson, Harold S. Guetzkow, Channing B. Richardson, Russel I. Smith, Richard S Sterne, Eugene S. and Louise Wilson, Harold P. Winchester, and Curtis Zahn. Parts of this collection have restrictions.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

Civilian Public Service Union

Records, 1944-1946 (DG 008)
3.5 linear feet
The Civilian Public Service Union was organized at the beginning of 1944 in the CPS camp at Big Flats (NY). Men at other camps and units quickly joined the group. CPSU, a union for "drafted workers conscientiously opposed to war," was formed to provide an organized means of communication and group action among men in all sections of CPS and to combat the waste and injustice of the CPS system itself. Ralph C. Rudd served as chairman from late 1944 until the CPSU was disbanded in early 1946. This collection contains a proposed constitution, scattered meeting minutes, correspondence (1943-1945), CPSU Newsletter, statements, releases, financial records, membership and contact lists, and research data on use of manpower in CPS. Also in the collection are the records of local units in various CPS camps, including #46 (Big Flats, NY), #52 (Powellsville, MD), #81 (Middletown, CT), #94 (Trenton, ND), #130 Pownal, ME), #135 (Germfask, NC), and #140 (Jaundice Unit).
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

Gordon R. Coffin
Papers, 1942-1946 (FMS 105)
Gordon Reid Coffin was a Quaker C.O. during WWII. This collection of correspondence, photographs and other documents concerns his experiences in Civilian Public Service, especially the CPS camp in Coshocton (OH).
Contact: Arthur and Kathleen Postle Archives and Friends Collection, Earlham College

Committee for Amnesty for All Objectors to War and Conscription
Records, 1945-1948 (CDGA)
10 linear inches
The Committee was formed following the end of WWII; its purpose was to arouse public support for amnesty for all war objectors, regardless of the basis of their objection. A.J. Muste served as Chair; Philip Randolph and Emily Greene Balch were also involved with the Committee.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

#8 Ft. Leavenworth (KS), 7th Wing Sub-Basement, Solitary Cell, ca. 1918-1919; caption "Behind the Wooden Doors Are Bars; the board and blankets shown are the facilities granted for the sole respite from the monotony of solitary"
Julien D. Cornell (1910-1994)
Papers, 1940-1947 (DG 010)
3.25 linear feet
Cornell was a member of the Religious Society of Friends, and a 1930 graduate of Swarthmore College. He practiced law in New York City, with a special interest in civil liberties. During WWII, he handled many cases for C.O.s, as well as advising many other C.O.s about their various problems with the legal system. He served as Counsel for the American Civil Liberties Union's National Committee on Conscientious Objection (NCCO), and chaired the Lawyers Committee of the Metropolitan Board for Conscientious Objectors. He was the author of The Conscientious Objector and the Law (1943) and a supplement entitled Conscience and the State (1945). He was considered an expert on legal issues regarding conscientious objection and Civilian Public Service, and was consulted by many lawyers throughout the country for his opinions. Perhaps most notable was his work as the defense attorney for Ezra Pound, who was accused of treason during WWII. This collection includes files about many cases handled by Cornell during WWII. He divided them between "Cases Handled" and "Habeas Corpus Cases Handled," though there are some Habeas Corpus cases which were not separated by Cornell out of the "Cases Handled" section for some reason. Habeas Corpus cases were civil suits instituted by the appellant after all avenues had been tried via the court system of appeals. The cases handled by Cornell were for C.O.s released from military prisons because they were illegally inducted despite their refusal to take the oath of induction. It should be noted that the General Correspondence files include many letters to/from C.O.s and others concerned with them, and some of these refer to C.O.s who have individual folders further on in the collection. Correspondents include Ernest Angell, Roger Baldwin, A.J. Muste, Rosika Schwimmer, Agnes Young, and many others. In 1968, Cornell donated 10 bound volumes of court records showing the legal treatment of C.O.s (1940-1948). Included in some of the volumes are newsclippings about the C.O.s or their cases. Of particular note is volume five which includes reviews of Cornell's books, as well as 1943 correspondence about The Conscientious Objector and the Law from Evan Thomas, A.J. Muste, Clarence Pickett, Julius Eichel, Allen Barr, Roger Barr, Oswald Garrison Villard, John Steinbugler, Judge Edward F. Waite, Eugene Sherpick, John Nevin Sayre, Theodore Neumann and Harrop Freeman. These bound volumes are in the SCPC's book collection [called Legal Papers of Julien Cornell]. The records of this collection are restricted until the year 2020, in that anyone making reference to personal information from this collection must disguise it so that the identity of the individual/s concerned will not be disclosed.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

Dept. of Military and Veterans' Affairs
Records (RG-19)
Civil war records about conscientious objection include:
- C.O. depositions, 1862 (2 boxes; Series 19.15; Microfilm Reels 505-507). Contains standard forms that state why men refused to bear arms; little personal information besides names and counties.
- Records of Drafted Men and Substitutes, Including County and Township Draft Lists,...and Lists of Deserters and C.O.s, ca. 1862, 1864-1865 (7 boxes; Series 19.59)
Contact: Pennsylvania State Archives
#9 Ft. Leavenworth (KS), U.S. Disciplinary Barracks, ca. 1918-1919

Ulysses DeRosa (1892-?)
Papers (CDGA)
1 linear inch
DeRosa was a Quaker C.O. whose papers include one letter written while at Ft. Riley (Sept. 16, 1918) and his mss. autobiography "Odyssey of a WWI conscientious objector" (ca. 1980).
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

Robert T. Dick
Papers, 1941-1993 (MsbMS 563 [by appointment only])
2 linear feet
Rev. Robert Tyrell Dick was an ordained Universalist Church minister. He was a C.O. in WWII, and was awarded the Adin Ballou Peace Award in Georgia in 1981. His papers include material re: his status as a C.O. and his participation in Civilian Public Service.
Contact: Andover-Harvard Theological Library, Harvard Divinity School

Draft Counseling and Information Center (Madison, Wis.)
Records, 1968-1974
1.2 cubic feet
This center was a volunteer draft counseling service, primarily operated by University of Wisconsin students. The collection includes counselor training material, statements to draft boards, C.O. claims, and a subject file. Missing are files on individual counselees.
Contact: Wisconsin Historical Society Archives

Draft Counseling Association
Records, 1969-1972 (MS. 4104)
0.2 linear feet
This counseling center was located in Cleveland (OH) and advised men of their legal rights within the draft registration process, and informed them of options and methods to avoid military service during the Vietnamese Conflict, including helping them to obtain C.O. status. The collection contains correspondence, pamphlets and draft counseling material.
Contact: Western Reserve Historical Society Archives/Library

Henry Drinker (1734-1809) and Elizabeth Sandwith Drinker (1734-1807)
Papers, 1777-1778 (Coll. no. 854)
1 box
In Sept. 1777, Henry Drinker refused to formally declare his loyalty to the United States government and as a result was taken prisoner (along with other prominent Philadelphia Quakers) and subsequently exiled to Winchester (VA), where he remained until April 1778. The correspondence between Henry and his wife, Elizabeth, relates to his arrest, imprisonment and resulting forced exile. His letters home discuss his physical, and in particular, spiritual well-being, his concern for the welfare of his children as well as news of other exiled Friends, and efforts to present their case before Pennsylvania. and Virginia authorities. Elizabeth Drinker's letters to her husband relate family and neighborhood news, Friends' visits and efforts on behalf of the exiles, as well as her constant concern for her husband.
Contact: Haverford College Library Special Collections

Arthur Dunham (1893-?)
[link to finding aid itself does not currently work as of 12/03 because of a glitch in the Bentley web site, but by clicking this link you can go to the Bentley site; then choose Online Finding Aids (EAD) under Access to Collections; choose Simple Search and type in "Arthur Dunham" and then choose Full Text for the appropriate entry]
Papers, ca. 1900-1980 (85623 Aa/2)
32.2 linear feet
Dunham was a social worker in Massachusetts and Pennsylvania, a professor of community organization at the University of Michigan, a pacifist imprisoned as a C.O. during WWI, and a founding member of the Ann Arbor Society of Friends. His memoir "Voices in the Wilderness" provides a narrative of his imprisonment at Ft. Riley and Ft. Leavenworth.
Contact: Bentley Historical Library, University of Michigan

Mary Emma (Showalter) Eby (1913-2003)
Papers, 1935-1936, 1944-1952 (II-MS-22)
4 linear feet
Eby was a dietician for CPS Camp #4 at Grottoes (VA); she was provided with her room, board, furniture, medical care and a stipend of $40 a month. Her papers include correspondence, memorabilia, and a photocopy of her diary (Jan. 1 - April 19, 1944), kept while travelling to CPS camps as a consulting dietician, as well as a scrapbook -- called "Snatches of My Life at Grottoes, July 27, 1942 - 1944" -- which contains photographs of Eby, CPS personnel and the men who served at the camp, and camp buildings.
Contact: Menno Simons Historical Library and Archives, Eastern Mennonite University

J. Edgar Edwards [link to finding aid itself does not currently work as of 12/03 because of a glitch in the Bentley web site, but by clicking this link you can go to the Bentley site; then choose Online Finding Aids (EAD) under Access to Collections; choose Simple Search and type in "J. Edgar Edwards" and then choose Full Text for the appropriate entry]
Papers, 1938-1973 (85142 Aa/2)
5 linear feet
Edwards was a minister and the director of Guild House religious cooperative in Ann Arbor (MI). His papers include material about the teach-ins in 1965 & 1967 at the University of Michigan on the war in Vietnam, draft counseling, conscientious objection, and Students for a Democratic Society, etc.
Contact: Bentley Historical Library, University of Michigan

#10 Group of C.O.s [cropped]; David
(or Julius) Eichel on right,
ca. 1918-1919
Eichel Family
Papers, 1916- (DG 131)
3.25 linear feet
Julius, David and Albert Eichel (brothers) were absolutist C.O.s to war, as was Julius' wife, Esther, and their son Seymour. They championed the right of the individual to be free from government oppression or interference. Raised in the Jewish faith but grounding their convictions in Socialism, David and Julius were imprisoned as C.O.s in WWI; Albert was imprisoned in WWII, as was Seymour in 1957. Their papers include correspondence between Julius and David, and with their parents and friends, while the brothers were in prison; David's diary while a C.O.; writings by Julius, including descriptions of his prison experiences during WWI and his arrest during WWII, statements of his philosophy of absolute conscientious objection, and articles for various periodicals of the War Resisters League; personal memorabilia of Julius and his wife, Esther Eichel; material relating to William James Sidis, an absolutist C.O. who corresponded and worked with Julius before and during WWII, including periodicals edited by Sidis for organizations he started and articles written about him after his death; material relating to the Absolutist War Objectors Association and its newsletter (1943-1947) the Absolutist (and the earlier Weekly Prison News Letter); writings of other C.O.s, newsclippings, and mail from other organizations; and many letters between Seymour and his parents while he was in prison, as well as newsclippings of Esther's picketing of the White House.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

Episcopal Peace Fellowship
Records, 1939- (DG 118)
5.5 linear feet
Founded Nov. 1939 as the Episcopal Pacifist Fellowship, an association of pacifist members of the Protestant Episcopal Church which sought to discover and unite pacifists within the church and to influence its membership regarding Christianity and peace. The basis for affiliation was gradually broadened to include "those working for reconciliation" who were not necessarily absolute pacifists; thus the name change in 1966 to Episcopal Peace Fellowship. The organization has sponsored educational projects (publications, lectures, workshops, conferences), provided counseling and financial support for C.O.s, and has contributed to pacifist projects in other countries. The EPF has been affiliated with the Fellowship of Reconciliation since 1939. Records consist of correspondence (1939-1973), annual reports, meeting minutes of the executive committee (1939-1973), bylaws, policy statements, membership lists, and publications. Includes published and unpublished speeches and sermons delivered by John Nevin Sayre, founder and chairman. Correspondents include Winslow Ames, Arthur W. Blaxall, John Pairman Brown, Charles Fisher, Thomas Lee Hayes, W. Appleton Lawrence, Enrico C.S. Molnar, Tracy D. Mygatt, Katharine C. Pierce, John Nevin Sayre, Kathleen Whitaker Sayre, Paul Wilson Sullivan.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

Orval Etter
Papers, 1944-1957 (Micro 805)
Available on 6 reels of microfilm
Etter was the San Francisco (CA) and Far West executive secretary of the Fellowship of Reconciliation. His papers include information about work with C.O.s, as well as details about of the activities and concerns of west coast pacifists during the post-WWII years and the height of the Cold War.
Contact: Wisconsin Historical Society Archives
#11 Drawing of C.O. Esteban G. Caban of Puerto Rico
by "Whitey" Matysik,
Oct. 17, 1945

William Everson (1912-1994) [also known as Brother Antoninus]
Papers, ca. 1947-1970 (BANC MSS 75/5 c), 30 linear feet
Additional Papers, 1931-1995 (BANC MSS 82/1 c), 42.4 linear feet
Everson was a C.O. in WWII, and served at the Civilian Public Service camp in Waldport (OR). There he wrote poetry and became involved in the camp's fine arts printing venture called Untide Press. For some years a Dominican lay brother, he left the Order in 1969 to marry his third wife. By the time of his death, he was a world-famous poet. His papers include biographical information, correspondence, unpublished and published writings, hand printings of Everson's works, notebooks, and audiovisual material. See also the oral history interview of him conducted in 1968 (Regional Oral History Office: Catalogue I), as well as the imprint "Waldport: an interview with William Everson" by Guido Palandri (non-circulating; may be used only in The Bancroft Library).
Contact: Bancroft Library, The University of California, Berkeley

A-E | F-L | M-R | S-Z

Henry A. Fast (1894-1990)
Papers, 1936-1990 (MLA.MS.49)
39.15 cubic feet
Fast was a minister, high school teacher, and college professor who served in the Medical Corps in WWI, and worked for the General Conference Mennonite Church as its field secretary (1936-1940) and peace secretary (1940). He was the general director of the Mennonite CPS camps (1940-1943), and director of Mennonite Central Committee (MCC) service in Europe (1951-1953). He taught at Bethel College from 1943 until his retirement in 1961. His papers document his involvements with Mennonite CPS, MCC and NSBRO, as well as the activities of the historic peace churches in areas of peace, conscription, and CPS.
Contact: North Newton Archives, Mennonite Church USA

Fellowship of Reconciliation (U.S.)
Records, 1915- (DG 013)
170+ linear feet
The FOR had its origin in England a few months after the outbreak of the first World War; in 1915 a U.S. group was formed and is still in existence today. Much of the agenda of the FOR has been determined by the wars which have dominated the 20th century, with its principal focus on the prevention of war, supporting disarmament and arms control, and opposing conscription and the militarization of society. In wartime the FOR has worked extensively with C.O.s by providing counseling, help for dependents, special attention to men in prison or alternative civilian service, and help with legal assistance. War victims have been a special concern. Intervals between wars have afforded opportunities for working on social problems in an effort to reduce the causes of conflict. The collection includes meeting minutes, correspondence, project files, files of executive directors and other staffpersons, newsletters of the national office, regions and branches as well as other resources produced, and photographs.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

Michael Ferber
Papers, 1967-1969 (CDGA)
1 linear inch
Ferber, part of the Resistance, turned in his draft card to William Sloane Coffin, Jr., who delivered it, along with 280 others, to the U.S. Justice Department in Oct. 1967. In Jan. 1968, Ferber was indicted on conspiracy charges, along with Coffin, Dr. Benjamin Spock, and others. Although declared guilty, the decision was reversed in the U.S. Court of Appeals in July 1969, on grounds that the "Boston 5" were denied a fair trial. He was supported by the Defense Committee. His papers include biographical information re: his activism and trial, a legal document for the U.S. Court of Appeals, and Ferber's writings.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

Film Collection
Audiovisual, n.d. (film #70)
10-15 mins. [black & white, no sound]
This film records a visit to CPS [camp? office?] by Henry A. Fast; some footage is very dark.
Contact: North Newton Archives, Mennonite Church USA

Roy [Henry Le Roy] Finch
Papers, 1940-1969, 1990 (DG 195)
11 linear inches
Finch was a philosopher, a pacifist, and a C.O. in World War II. He served in Civilian Public Service Camp #37 (Coleville, CA) and at state hospitals in Trenton (NJ) and Williamsburg (VA). He was an editor of magazines, including Alternative and Liberation; involved with and then disassociated from the American Forum for Socialist Education; and affiliated with the Fellowship of Reconciliation and War Resisters League. His papers include correspondence, administrative files, flyers and handbills, minutes of meetings, newspaper clippings, and periodicals regarding pacifist and C.O. activities. Correspondents include Dave Dellinger, Sidney Lens, A.J. Muste, and Denny Wilcher.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

M. [Mary] Eleanor Fitzgerald (1877-1955)
Papers, 1915-1974 (UWM Manuscript Collection 13)
2.3 cubic feet
Papers of a Wisconsin labor advocate, political lecturer, and theatrical manager. Included are correspondence, passports and diaries, plays and programs, memorabilia, and photographs documenting Fitzgerald's activity in the anarchist/labor movement, the Provincetown Playhouse, and other theatrical companies. Through her involvement with the anarchist movement, Fitzgerald met Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman, joining them in the publication of the Mother Earth Bulletin around 1906. During World War I (1914-1918) she turned her attention to the "political prisoners" -- the C.O.s. She raised money for their bail and defense and spoke in their behalf. She also co-edited The Blast: Revolutionary Labor Weekly at this time. She left the movement in 1918 when Goldman and Berkman were deported.
Contact: University of Wisconsin--Milwaukee, Division of Archives & Special Collections

#12 Ft. Leavenworth (KS), 7th Wing; caption "'Open' Cells In Tiers For the Better Type of Prisoners." The men are confined in this wing except when at work or at mess. They have no outdoor recreation, but may read, write, converse, and play checkers"
Osmond K. Fraenkel (1888-1983)
Diaries [Excerpts], 1933-1968 (MC 192)
0.21 linear feet
Fraenkel was a New York City lawyer who served on the ACLU's Board of Directors, and as one of its general counsel from 1954-1977. This collection contains typed excerpts from his diaries, with Fraenkel's editorial comments, as well as a chronological appendix of the court cases he worked on, including U.S. v. Miller involving freedom of expression and the burning of draft cards.
Contact: Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library, Princeton University

Solomon Frazer
Prison letters, 1864-1865 (RecGrp SC/042)
1 folder
This collection is a compilation of photocopies & typescripts of the letters of Frazer, written while he was imprisoned at Salisbury Confederate Prison as a religious objector to the Civil War; also included are letters from several other Quakers, some of whom were also imprisoned.
Contact: Friends Historical Library

Paul Comly French (1903-1960)

Papers, July 1940-Dec. 1946 (CDGA)
4 linear inches
French was the Executive Director of the National Service Board for Religious Objectors during World War II. His diary (typescript) details his work with the NSBRO and his many meetings and trips with other groups, with religious leaders, and with the military, to set up and administer Civilian Public Service for C.O.s. After his wife died in 1944, his diary becomes more personal and reflects his loneliness and the terrific strain he was under in his position.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

Friends Committee on National Legislation
Records, 1940- (DG 047)
198 linear feet
FCNL is a Quaker lobby group established in 1943 to bring conscience and spiritual values to the political process in Washington; it grew out of the work of Friends War Problems Committee. This collection is comprised chiefly of correspondence and reference files about and with the American Friends Service Committee, A Quaker Action Group, Friends Coordinating Committee on Peace, and other organizations of the Society of Friends; information on Central Committee for Conscientious Objectors, Committee for Nonviolent Action, Consultative Peace Council, Federal Council of Churches (later National Council of Churches), Fellowship of Reconciliation, National Council for Prevention of War, National Peace Conference, National Service Board for Religious Objectors, SANE, and the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom; material of and relating to FCNL staff members including E. Raymond Wilson, Edward F. Snyder, George I. Bliss, Wilmer A. Cooper, Jeanette Hadley, Charles H. Harker, and Frances E. Neely; records and correspondence of several affiliated committees including the Friends Committee on Legislation of Northern California, the Friends Committee on Legislation, Southern California Section, and the Illinois-Wisconsin Friends Committee on Legislation; records of the Friends War Problems Committee; and material from the Civilian Public Service Fund Committee of the Philadelphia Yearly Meeting (1941-1946). Includes reference files relating to disarmament, conscription, universal military training, conscientious objection, pacifism, the United Nations, the Vietnamese Conflict, civil liberties, and civil rights. Correspondents include Stephen L. Angell, Emile Benoit, Charles J. Darlington, Thomas A. Foulke, Paul Comly French, Hugh B. Hester, Dorothy H. Hutchinson, J. Stuart Innerst, Homer A. Jack, Samuel R. Levering, Mary Cushing Niles, Philip Noel-Baker, Victor Paschkis, Lawrence Scott, Annalee Stewart, John M. Swomley, and George Willoughby.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

Albert M. Gaeddert (1907-2002)
Papers, 1936-1956 (MLA.MS.50)
18.6 cubic feet
Gaeddert was a minister, the first director of CPS Camp #5 (Colorado Springs, CO), and Assistant Director (and later Director) of Mennonite CPS. He later served on the staff of Mennonite Central Committee. His papers includes reports of visits to C.O.s camps and of conferences, and documentation on the I-W program (1953-1959).
Contact: North Newton Archives, Mennonite Church USA

Gustav Raymond Gaeddert (1895-1972)
Papers, 1917-1918 (MLA MF MSS 169)
1 volume [1 reel of positive microfilm]
Gaeddert was drafted in 1917 and sent to Camp Funston, where he refused to wear the uniform and was assigned to kitchen work with other C.O.s. He later served at Camp Dodge (IA) and was furloughed to the mental institution in Independence (IA). His papers consist of one diary (Oct. 1917 - Aug. 1918), in which he described physical mistreatment of some CPS, and various religious and recreational activities in camp.
Contact: North Newton Archives, Mennonite Church USA


Ernest G. Gehman (1901-1988)
Papers, 1927-1979 (II-MS-55)
9 linear feet
Gehman was very concerned that Civilian Public Service would allow Mennonite C.O.s who served in it to be influenced negatively by the ideas and customs of others. He wrote to the FBI and asked for their opinion about whether the Fellowship of Reconciliation and the Federal Council of Churches had communist or socialist connections. His papers include correspondence with Sanford Shetler and others of like mind re: CPS, a "Report of a Meeting Related to the Civilian Public Service Program, Called by the Executive Committee of the Virginia Conference, March 17, 1942," and Gehman's notes about such peace and/or CPS leaders as Rufus Jones, Arthur Swift Jr., Paul French, Walter Van Kirk, Charles Boss Jr., Orie O. Miller, Paul Furnas, and A.J. Muste, about their supposed communist/socialist leanings [see box 5].
Contact: Menno Simons Historical Library and Archives, Eastern Mennonite University

General Board of Church and Society of The United Methodist Church
Records, 1912-1994
20 cubic feet
In 1960, the Methodist Church merged three agencies, the Board of Temperance, the Commission on World Peace, and the Board of Social and Economic Relations, into the Board of Christian Social Concerns. In turn, this agency was merged in 1968 with the Commission on Christian Social Action of the Evangelical United Brethren, to form the Board of Christian Social Concerns; the agency's name was changed to its current one in 1972. The Board's records include meeting minutes from the Conscientious Objectors Committee, 1944-1946.
Contact: General Commission on Archives and History of The United Methodist Church

#13 Postcard produced by People's Freedom Union promoting amnesty for C.O.s, 1919

General Board of Church and Society of The United Methodist Church: Division of Human Relations and Economic Affairs
Records, 1950-1986
67 cubic feet
The General Board of Church and Society is the social concern agency for The United Methodist Church. The Division of Human Relations and Economic Affairs dealt with such issues as the denomination's stand on the economy, racism, and church-state relations. The Division's records contain material about C.O. David Teegarden (1971-1973), as well as a 1968 file on C.O.s.
Contact: General Commission on Archives and History of The United Methodist Church

General Board of Church and Society of the United Methodist Church: Division of World Peace
Records, 1928-1990
82 cubic feet
The General Board of Church and Society is the social concern agency for The United Methodist Church. The Division of World Peace dealt with such issues as the denomination's stand on war and the military, economic issues, and conscientious objection. The Division's records contain a rich mine of correspondence, subject files, and slides, etc. about C.O.s from WWII on, including information about Civilian Public Service.
Contact: General Commission on Archives and History of The United Methodist Church

General Conference Mennonite Church: Commission on Overseas Mission
Audiovisual (MLA.VII.A.4.h)
5 min. length [includes color and sound]
This film "If There Be Peace" is about a C.O. who becomes a draft counselor in Kansas. Presented by Mennonite Churches and Church of the Brethren; conceived by James Fairfield; directed by John Clayton; narrated by George Bassett. The end of the film is cut off.
Contact: North Newton Archives, Mennonite Church USA

General Conference Mennonite Church: Committee on Exemptions
Report to the Committee, 1917-1918 (MLA.I.L.1)
0.5 cubic feet
This series contains 1381 survey forms. Each GC Mennonite who registered for the draft was asked to fill out a form on which he could note his name, address and home church, and answer various questions about his draft and camp experience.
Contact: North Newton Archives, Mennonite Church USA

Gibas Family
Papers, 1939-1997 (P2356)
0.25 cubic feet
Andrew Gibas was born in Sept. 1913, and Grace Braden Gibas was born in Aug. 1916. The couple was married June 11, 1939 in Chicago. In early 1944, Andrew registered as a C.O. and was drafted into the Civilian Public Service camp at Wellston (MI). The family moved to Minneapolis when Andrew took a chemistry position with the experiment on starvation which was being conducted at the University of Minnesota. After his release from CPS, Andrew took a job as chemist for Grace-Lee Products and later for LaMaur. The Gibases were early experimenters in cooperative living, sharing households with two other families during the early 1940s in Chicago. In 1948, the family moved twelve miles from Minneapolis to the experimental cooperative community of Circle Pines. The collection includes information on CPS during World War II, C.O.s, and the Minnesota C.O. semi-starvation experiment, as well as newspaper publishing (the Gibases published the Circle Pines local newspaper, the Circulating Pines).
Contact: Minnesota Historical Society

#14 C.O.s outside guardhouse at Ft. Riley (KS) "awaiting court-martial," ca. 1918: (l-r) Morris Franklin, B. Stein, J. Brandon, G. Zeidler, F.K. Hennessey, F.K. Bru___

Harold S. Gray (1894-1972) [link to finding aid itself does not currently work as of 12/03 because of a glitch in the Bentley web site, but by clicking this link you can go to the Bentley site; then choose Online Finding Aids (EAD) under Access to Collections; choose Simple Search and type in "Harold S. Gray" and then choose Full Text for the appropriate entry]
Papers, 1896-1972 (851418 Aa2 Uam)
12.5 linear feet
Gray was a C.O. in WWI and in WWII, Professor of Economics at Central China University (1922-1926), and founder of the farming cooperative Saline Valley Farms (MI). His papers include diaries, notebooks, and other material from throughout his life. Of particular note is extensive correspondence that shows the development of his views toward war during his service with the YMCA in England (1916-1917), working with German prisons of war, and his subsequent refusal to serve in the American army which led to his imprisonment at Ft. Leaveworth and at Alcatraz. The papers also include material on the actions of other C.O.s, and attempts to free C.O.s from prison. Correspondents include Brent D. Allinson, Roger N. Baldwin, William Arthur Dunham, Sherwood Eddy, Ammon A. Hennacy, Frederick J. Libby, Erling H. Lunde, A.J. Muste, Kirby Page, John Nevin Sayre, Emma Mattoon Thomas, Evan W. Thomas, and Norman M. Thomas. See also the book about his C.O. experiences in WWI called Character "Bad" : the story of a conscientious objector, as told in the letters of Harold Studley Gray edited by Kenneth Irving Brown (available through interlibrary loan).
Contact: Bentley Historical Library, University of Michigan

Harold Wallace Hackett Jr. (1921-1980)
Papers, 1942-1980 (711 GL, Special Collections Library)
112 items
Hackett served in CPS during WWII. His papers provide a description of his CPS experiences, as well as his life as a teacher in Japan, his visit to China in the 1940s, and his final illness.
Contact: Bentley Historical Library, University of Michigan

Alice Hamilton (1869-1970)
Papers, 1909-1965 (A-22; A/H 217; Vt-34)
2 linear feet
Hamilton was a physician who was the first woman professor at Harvard University. She also served at Hull-House in Chicago (IL) and as a researcher of industrial poisons for the U.S. Dept. of Labor, among other roles. Her papers include published articles and/or speeches about conscientious objection.
Contact: Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute

Asa M. Hertzler (1889-1958)
Papers, ca. 1918-1919, in World War I Conscientious Objectors -- Private Papers Collection (II-MS-26)
1 folder
Hertzler was a Mennonite C.O. who went to France to work for the Friends Relief Service in Jan. - June 1919. His papers include his draft cards, passport and travel permit, postcard photographs of the Friends Mission building, soup kitchen and orphans in France, and photographs of Camp Lee (VA).
Contact: Menno Simons Historical Library and Archives, Eastern Mennonite University

Peter Cornelius Hiebert (1878-1963)
Papers, 1914-1958 (MLA.MS.037)
18.5 cubic feet
Hiebert was a pastor and college teacher who served for 33 years as Chair of the Mennonite Central Committee (MCC), as well as in several Mennonite Brethren administrative posts. His papers contain documentation of CPS (1940-1948) and various MCC and Mennonite Brethren relief and resettlement projects.
Contact: North Newton Archives, Mennonite Church USA

Jerome Himelhoch (1916-2001)
Papers, 1930s-1990s (SL: 11/4/1)
41 boxes
Himelhoch taught sociology at several universities including NYU, Brandeis, Goddard College, and New College in Sarasota (FL) before joining the faculty of the University of Missouri-St. Louis in 1968 until his retirement in 1984. Himelhoch was active in the peace movement in the late 1930s while attending Harvard University. He served in the Army Medical Corps as a psychiatric social worker during World War II. The bulk of his papers contain sample data from his Vermont Youth Study in the late 1950s and early 1960s. There is one folder of letters to his wife, Myra, describing his induction and processing into the military during the late 1940s, his treatment as a C.O., and his observations of attitudes and customs in the military.
Contact: University of Missouri - St. Louis Archives

#15 Painting by George Hay,
made while in west Texas in 1943
as a "pioneer member of CPS #98 -
the Coast & Geodetic Survey group"

Wray Hoffman
Papers, 1917-1919 (CDGA)
1 volume hand-written diary
Hoffman was a Quaker C.O. in WWI, whose diary provides a detailed account of his conscription into the 304th Engineers at Camp Meade (MD) and his experiences there and in France and Belgium working for the Friends Bureau Office of the American Red Cross.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

C. Douglas Hostetter (1944- )
Papers, ca. 1960s-2000 (Hist. Mss. 1-718, 4-278, 6-235, 9-7, 10-3, 12-10)
Upon graduation from Eastern Mennonite College in 1966, Hostetter was immediately draft eligible. He was granted C.O. status by the local draft board in Harrisonburg (VA), and he volunteered to do his alternative service with Mennonite Central Committee in Vietnam as part of the PAX program, where he worked from July 1966 to June 1969. Hostetter's papers include draft cards and identity cards, journals, correspondence and photographs from this time period. Hostetter was Executive Secretary of the Fellowship of Reconciliation from 1987-1993, and later was their Interfaith/International Secretary. Besides his papers, photographs are also available.
Contact: Goshen Archives, Mennonite Church USA

John H. Howe (1913-1997)
Papers, 1925-1989 (N-14)
115 cubic feet
In 1932 Howe joined the Taliesin Fellowship of Frank Lloyd Wright, in Spring Green, Wisconsin, becoming a charter member of the Fellowship and apprentice to Mr. Wright. Howe was incarcerated at the federal prison in Sandstone, Minnesota during World War II for refusing to respond to his draft notice, claiming conscientious objector status. After his release in 1946, Howe rejoined Mr. Wright at Taliesin, and later working for the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation until 1967. Howe then moved to Minnesota and opened an office, which he maintained until his retirement in 1992. Howe's papers document his life's work as an architect; of particular note are the architectural drawings made while imprisoned at Sandstone, letters written and received while at Sandstone (see section of finding aid under "Personal Files, 1932-1992"), tape recordings of a broadcast interview with John Howe (1973), and an oral history (1989) covering his life and career.
Contact: Northwest Architectural Archives, University of Minnesota Libraries

William Reed Huntington (1907-1990)
Papers, 1930s-1970s (Coll. no 1181)
14 boxes; also 8 boxes and 5 scrapbooks in the pamphlet group file
Huntington served as a director of the Quaker United Nations office and was active in the American Friends Service Committee. In 1958, he was a crew member on the Golden Rule, sailing into the South Pacific to protest atomic testing there by the U.S. In WWII, he was co-director of CPS Camp #46 (Big Flats NY). He was the founder of Conscience Bay (NY) Meeting. He was concerned with Soviet/American relations in the critical period 1947-1954. His papers relate to the ship Golden Rule; church and war conferences in Algeria, 1949-1950; QUNP / AFSC disarmament work in the 1960s; and C.O.s and CPS. Only a preliminary finding aid is available.
Contact: Haverford College Library Special Collections.

Illinois Oral History Collections
Oral histories (tapes, transcriptions, memoirs, collateral files), 1971-1991
These interviews were conducted by students in Collum Davis' oral history classes at Sangamon State University. They include interviews with WWII C.O.s.
Contact: University of Illinois at Springfield Archives / Special Collections

International Voluntary Service
Records, 1952-1996 (XI-14)
11 boxes
Many C.O.s in the 1950s and 1960s did their I-W service through IVS.
Contact: Goshen Archives, Mennonite Church USA

I-W [1-W] Service
Records, 1951-1958 (MLA.V.21)
1 cubic feet [unprocessed]
This collection includes I-W sponsors' manuals issued by the Mennonite Central Committee (MCC) and the Mennonite Board of Missions and Charities; meeting minutes of the I-W Planning and Evaluation Conference at Elkhart (IN) in April 9-10, 1957; and, periodic listings by MCC of additions, changes and releases of I-W men at sponsoring institutions.
Contact: North Newton Archives, Mennonite Church USA


Harold G. Johnson (1915- )
Interview, 1992 (SC 2365; Tape 1297A)
0.1 cubic feet (transcript of interview) and 2 tape recordings
This interview of Hal Johnson was conducted on June 25, 1992 and focuses on his memories of WWII, including his attempt to gain C.O. status, his eventual deferment to work on penicillin with a chemical company, his brothers' experiences seeking C.O. status (one of them went to prison), and his affiliation with the Christadelphians.
Contact: Wisconsin Historical Society Archives

Sylvester Jones (1875-1949)
Papers, 1941 (SC 30)
Jones was a Quaker pastor, missionary in Cuba, and businessman in Chicago (IL). His diary, kept from March 12 to Oct. 17, 1941, concerns his work as director of Civilian Public Service for the central region. Also included are newsclippings about CPS and the establishment of work camps for C.O.s.
Contact: Arthur and Kathleen Postle Archives and Friends Collection, Earlham College

#16 WWI C.O.s: Morris Trasken (left), John Bertolet (top), William Kantor (center), Harry Clave (right)

William Marx Kantor (1893-?)
Papers, ca. 1917-1920 (CDGA)
2.5 linear inches
Kantor, born of Russian Jewish parents in Philadelphia (PA), became a socialist and an absolutist C.O. to World War I. He was imprisoned for his pacifist convictions and became acquainted with members of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers); Kantor eventually became a convinced Friend himself. His imprisonment sites included Camp Meade, Fort Jay, Fort Leavenworth, and Alcatraz, from which he was dishonorably discharged in 1919. His papers include his draft card, regulation booklets, meal passes, notices re: incarceration, and dishonorable discharge at Ft. Leavenworth and Alcatraz prisons; his manuscripts "Horrors of Alcatraz" (1920), "Conscientious Objection" (1920), "A Conscientious Objector is Born," "Memoirs of a World War One Conscientious Objector," and "Journal of a Modern Convinced Friend"; and, reference material on conscientious objection, as well as postcards from U.S. War Prison Camp, C.O. Internment, Fort Douglas (UT).
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

Roy C. Kepler
Papers, 1940-1985 (DG 185)
6.25 linear feet
Kepler was a radical pacifist; a C.O. during WWII, during which he was active in political organizing in Civilian Public Service camps; owner of a paperback bookstore in Berkeley (CA); worked with draft resisters during the Vietnamese Conflict; a founder of the Pacifica Foundation and public radio in Berkeley (CA); and active with the War Resisters League, particularly West Coast branches; also with the Peacemakers, the Committee for Nonviolent Action, the Institute for the Study of Nonviolence, the Third Camp, and other groups advocating nonviolent social change. His papers include correspondence, manuscripts, minutes of meetings, newspaper clippings, periodicals, reference files, photographs, posters, and audiocassettes.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

Jesse Kersey (1768-1845)
Papers, 1817 (Misc. Mss. 1817 8mo 5)
Letter, dated Aug. 5, 1817, to Samuel Bettle, Clerk of the Yearly Meeting, inquiring about the course to be pursued by urban Friends concerning conscientious rights and likely reactions of civil authorities.
Contact: Friends Historical Library

John Culber King (1920- )
Papers, 1945-1947
King was a C.O. during WWII; his papers consist mostly of correspondence between him and his wife, Jean, while he was imprisoned at Danbury (CT). This collection has restrictions.
Contact: Bentley Historical Library, University of Michigan

Lloy A. Kniss (1897-1979)
Papers, 1918-1919, 1971, in World War I Conscientious Objectors -- Private Papers Collection (II-MS-26)
1 folder
Kniss was a Mennonite C.O. whose papers include his draft cards, induction notice and honorable discharge, a photograph of Kniss and other C.O.s [at Camp Sherman? (OH)], and his published memoir I Couldn't Fight: the Story of a C.O. in World War I (1971).
Contact: Menno Simons Historical Library and Archives, Eastern Mennonite University

Dennis Koehn (1952- )
Papers, 1970-1972, 1989 (MLA.MS.137)
0.45 cubic feet
Koehn, a graduate of New High School (KS) in 1970, refused to register with the Selective Service System on his 18th birthday. His papers include material resulting from his trials in the District Court and the Court of Appeals in 1972. Koehn was convicted and sentenced to the Federal Youth Center (Englewood, CO), where he served an 18 month sentence.
Contact: North Newton Archives, Mennonite Church USA

Henry Peter Krehbiel (1862-1940)
Papers, 1872-1940 (MLA.MS.12; MLA MF MSS 169)
21.6 cu. ft., 1 reel of positive microfilm
Krehbiel was a farmer, businessman, and minister who began publication of several Mennonite newspapers. During WW I he served on the Exemption Committees of the General Conference Mennonite Church and its Western District Conference. Later he was involved in refugee resettlement, the conferences of Historic Peace Churches, and the Peace Committee of the General Conference Mennonite Church. These papers document the activities of the Mennonite Exemption Committees in negotiating with the federal government, supporting Mennonite C.O.s, advocating better treatment of C.O.s by Army and prison officials, and corresponding with individual C.O.s.
Contact: North Newton Archives, Mennonite Church USA

Virgil H. Kruel (1918- )
Papers, 1941-1990 (FMS 68)
Kruel was a C.O. during WWII. His papers contain correspondence, pamphlets, forms and other material that document his experiences as a C.O. and his service in Civilian Public Service from 1943 to 1946.
Contact: Arthur and Kathleen Postle Archives and Friends Collection, Earlham College

#17 Letter to Frances Witherspoon, of the New York Bureau of Legal Advice, from Mrs. Anna Zeidler, 1918 (written in a mixture of German and English) [click here to read full letter]

Frieda Langer Lazarus (1898-1968)
Papers, 1932-1949 [part of Schwimmer-Lloyd Collection]
2.2 linear feet
This collection consists of correspondence and printed matter relating to Lazarus' work on behalf of C.O.s and other anti-war efforts.
Contact: New York Public Library, Humanities and Social Science Library, Manuscripts and Archives Division

Josiah Woodward Leeds (1841-1908)

Scrapbooks, 1872-1907 (Coll. no. 1102)
22 volumes
Josiah Leeds joined the Society of Friends in 1870. He was the author of numerous tracts and was active in his opposition to what he perceived as damaging to the public welfare. In 1877, he published a United States history textbook notable for its lack of battle illustrations. Some areas of interest to Leeds included temperance work, peace, crime, prison reform and the abolition of the death penalty, plain attire, simplicity of worship and legislation to control "vice."
Contact: Haverford College Library Special Collections

Alfred H. Love (1830 1913)
See: Universal Peace Union (DG 038) listed below; Series 2 includes Love's 1848-1912 diaries [on microfilm reels 13:-11-18]; also one box of personal items, correspondence, passport, photographs, etc. When drafted in 1863, Love refused to serve in the Union army or to pay for a substitute to go in his place. He also did not allow his woolen commission business to sell goods in support of the war effort. As a result, his business suffered, and he also endured criticism from those who found his absolutist pacifism too uncompromising. He was one of the founders of the Universal Peace Union in 1866; he edited its periodicals, as well as served as its president until his death.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

Harold Ludwig (1921- )
Interview, 1992 (SC 1422; Tape 1299A)
0.1 cubic feet (transcript of interview; 2 tape recordings)
This interview was conducted on July 21, 1992, and focuses on Ludwig's experiences as a C.O. in WWII. He discusses his upbringing in a Jewish neighborhood on Chicago (IL); the influence of Socialist thought on his beliefs and attitudes; the effect of being a C.O. on his family and the Jewish community; his service in a Civilian Public Service camp in Maryland and after at a state mental hospital in Connecticut, and other C.O.s he met.
Contact: Wisconsin Historical Society Archives

Erling H. Lunde
Papers, 1918-1976 (CDGA)
1 linear inch
Erling Lunde was imprisoned as an absolutist C.O. during WWI. Through his correspondence with his father, Theodore H. Lunde, atrocities against imprisoned C.O.s, including fatalities, were publicized. His papers include correspondence and booklets, as well as the published record of his courts-martial "Defense of Erling H. Lunde: conscientious objector to war, made before a court martial at Camp Funston, Kansas, October 15, 1918."
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

Alice Niles Lynd & Staughton Lynd
Papers, 1965-1971 (DG 099)
10.25 linear feet
Alice Niles Lynd and Staughton Lynd were Quakers, authors, and activists in the civil rights and peace movements, who have worked individually and together on many labor and pacifist projects. Alice Lynd, draft counselor, nursery school teacher, and writer, worked with the American Friends Service Committee and directed day care and health center projects in Chicago (IL). Staughton Lynd (b. 1929), historian and community organizer, taught at Spelman College and Yale University. He directed freedom schools during the Mississippi Summer Project (1964) and was chairman of the first march against the Vietnam War in Washington (DC) on April 17, 1965. Later that year he visited Hanoi, North Vietnam. He graduated from law school in 1976, then practiced labor law. Their papers contain scattered correspondence (1965-1971), mss. drafts and revisions of publications written by the Lynds, subject files, statements and articles by C.O.s, C.O. case files and counseling manuals, newsletters, articles, newsclippings, and sound recordings. Materials relating to the writings and publication of We Won't Go by Alice Lynd, and The Resistance by Michael Ferber and Staughton Lynd, form a substantial part of the collection. Correspondents include Paul Bert Denison, Richard Dodge, Stanley Faulkner, Larry Gara, Ann Fagan Ginger, Carl Haessler, David Hartsough, Francis Heisler, Bradford Lyttle, Thomas Rodd, F. Paul Salstrom, Jeffrey Shero, and Arlo D. Tatum. There are some restrictions for this collection.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection


A-E | F-L | M-R | S-Z

Maryland State Assembly
Records [online]
A search of the Archives of Maryland Online using the term "conscientious" brought up numerous references to persons who could not conscientiously bear arms in debates and laws from 1750-1867. See http://search2.mdarchives.state.md.us/
Contact: Archives of Maryland Online

#18 Seven WWI C.O.s on a sawhorse: Stine, Watts, Strosbaugh, Horlacher, Johnson, Russell Keadle, "Big Fritz" Gerhart

John H. McCandless (1920-1990)
Papers, 1944-1988 (RecGrp RG5/205)
11 linear feet
McCandless was a Quaker C.O. in WWII, who opened his own printing press in 1958. He authored numerous books and articles, and was involved in New Call to Peacemaking, the Faith & Life Movement, and the Friends Consultation on Membership. His papers include personal items as well as the records of the Hemlock Press.
Contact: Friends Historical Library

Meiklejohn Civil Liberties Institute
Records: Anti-War Collections, 1954-1974
Series 5 includes draft counseling material, case files of the West Coast Lawyers Selective Service Panel, and case files of C.O.s.
Contact: Bancroft Library, The University of California, Berkeley

Mennonite Central Committee, 1920-
Records, 1918-2002 (IX)
Over 1,000 linear feet
MCC was begun in 1918 as a relief organization for the Mennonite Church, but it has since also done much work on peace and social justice issues. Its records include material about the Civilian Public Service camps administered by MCC (1941-1947) and the I-W program for C.O.s during the Korean Conflict and the Vietnamese Conflict which MCC oversaw. MCC has continued to support C.O.s through to the present. Documentation for MCC's work with C.O.s can be found in such series as Correspondence (1931-1989), Reports (1931-1984), Minutes (1920-1990), and Photographs (1919-1989).
Contact: Goshen Archives, Mennonite Church USA

Mennonite Church, Peace Problems Committee
Records, 1917- (I-3-5)
75 boxes
This committee was established in 1917 to meet with authorities in Washington to work out procedures for men who wished to be C.O.s during WWI, and to respond to the various problems and abuse suffered by C.O.s stationed in army camps. In 1935-1947, it worked with other historic peace churches to establish Civilian Public Service. In 1953 it helped to set up policies for C.O.s and provided pastoral services for I-W men. Thereafter, it was involved in many activities to promote peace and social justice. Its records include a vast amount of correspondence and other material that document the Committee's work through the years.
Contact: Goshen Archives, Mennonite Church USA

Merion Preparative Meeting of Friends [Hicksite] (1827-1951)
Records, 1940-1943 (RecGrp RG2/Ph/M47)

1 folder
This collection consists of reports & correspondence concerning conscientious objection in Merion Friends Meeting (PA) during WWII.
Contact: Friends Historical Library

Metropolitan Board for Conscientious Objectors
Records, 1940-1980 (DG 060)
7.5 linear feet
This Board, located in New York City, served as a non-sectarian free advisory service for C.O.s in WWII to provide counseling and legal aid in metropolitan New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. It was established by the United Pacifist Committee in 1940 and disbanded in 1980. Its records include meeting minutes, correspondence, case records and visitor files, legal papers, policy statements, organizational literature, information on strikes at Civilian Public Service camps, and phonotapes. Box 26 has restrictions until Jan. 01, 2015.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

Michigan Fellowship of Reconciliation
Records, 1940-1957 (851326 Bj 2)
2 linear feet
The collection contains correspondence, printed material, and other papers from the files of the editors of the Michigan F.O.R. News, largely related to the peace movement and the problem of conscientious objection. Correspondents include A.J. Muste, Scott Nearing, Wallace F. Nelson, Martin Niemoller, Bayard Rustin, John Nevin Sayre, Rebecca Shelley and John M. Swomley.
Contact: Bentley Historical Library, University of Michigan

Midwest Committee for Military Counseling
Records, 1977-1995 (DG 187)
1.75 linear feet
Founded in 1976 as an outgrowth of the Midwest Office of the Central Committee for Conscientious Objectors (which had closed in 1976) and its predecessor, the Midwest Committee for Draft Counseling; provided counseling, training sessions and public education; worked with counselors, attorneys, community groups and religious bodies on behalf of potential recruits to the military and people on active military duty; ceased operation in 1995 or 1996. Its records include correspondence, administrative files, flyers and handbills, minutes of meetings, newspaper clippings, publicity materials, reference files, memorabilia, audiocassettes, slides, reel-to-reel tapes, videocassettes, photographs, and posters.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

Ernest H. Miller (1889-1973)
Papers, 1919, 1921, 1958-1959, 1972 in World War I Conscientious Objectors -- Private Papers Collection (II-MS-26)
2 folders
Miller was a Mennonite C.O. at Camp Funston (KS) and Camp Lee (VA); he was sentenced to prison at Ft. Leavenworth, but only served 19 days before he was discharged. In 1919-1921, he served with the American Committee for Relief in the Near East. His papers include a letter from Robert Fox, whom Miller had seen while Fox was in solitary confinement at Ft. Leavenworth; passport and papers re: relief work; his mss. memoir "Experiences of a C.O. in World War I" (1972); and several items re: 1958-1959 reunions of WWI C.O.s.
Contact: Menno Simons Historical Library and Archives, Eastern Mennonite University

Ernest E. Mills (1917- )
Papers, 1941-1986 (FMS 38)
Mills was a Quaker businessman and farmer in Henry County (IN). His papers contain material on genealogy, his efforts to obtain C.O. status during WWII, and his and his parents' peace work in Indiana Yearly Meeting.
Contact: Arthur and Kathleen Postle Archives and Friends Collection, Earlham College

Adam H. Mumaw (1888-1974)

Papers, 1918-1919, ca. 1960s-1974, in World War I Conscientious Objectors -- Private Papers Collection (II-MS-26)
1 folder
Mumaw was a married Mennonite C.O. at Camp Zachary Taylor (KY), where he was mistreated for his stance, and then discharged in Jan. 1918. His papers include a published booklet of the names of C.O.s at Camp Taylor in 1918; his order of induction, draft cards and discharge; and variations of his memoir re: being a C.O. (ca. 1960s-1974).
Contact: Menno Simons Historical Library and Archives, Eastern Mennonite University

John R. Mumaw (1904-1993)
Presidential Papers, 1941-1969 (II-B-4)
36 linear feet
Mumaw was a minister and the President of Eastern Mennonite School/College. His papers in this collection include correspondence to/from/about C.O.s and their problems with Selective Service, particularly men enrolled at the time at Eastern Mennonite School/College, 1941-1948 [see box 2].
Contact: Menno Simons Historical Library and Archives, Eastern Mennonite University

John R. Mumaw (1904-1993)
Papers, 1923-1982 (I-MS-37)
19.5 feet
Mumaw was a minister and the President of Eastern Mennonite School/College. His personal papers collection includes a folder of correspondence regarding the possibility of EMC hiring I-W men in 1952-1953 and 1959 [see box 2].
Contact: Virginia Mennonite Conference

#19 Prison patch of William Kantor, worn on pant leg or sleeve at Alcatraz prison, June-Nov. 1919

National Civil Liberties Bureau
Subpoenaed Files, 1917-1919 (L0031) [by the Lusk Committee, Joint Legislative Committee to Investigate Seditious Activities]
5.25 cubic feet
The NCLB was formed in 1917 to protect free speech and civil liberties of citizens and to assist in the defense of C.O.s during the war (in 1920, the NCLB changed its name to the American Civil Liberties Union). During its investigation, the Lusk Committee charged that the NCLB was engaged in a number of seditious activities which undermined the nation's efforts in WWI, including encouraging men to register as C.O.s in order to escape military duty. Subseries 2 of this collection includes correspondence between the NCLB and C.O.s from 32 states and in 12 army camps.
Contact: New York State Archives


National Council Against Conscription

Records, 1944-1960 (DG 052)
4.5 linear feet
Formed in 1945 as the National Council Against Peacetime Conscription Now; name changed in 1946; ceased operation 1959. Collection contains correspondence (1944-1960), meeting minutes, news releases, articles, newspaper clippings, filmstrips and sound recordings, pamphlets and NCAC literature, and material concerning other anti-conscription groups. Includes subject files on topics such as universal military training, conscription of women, C.O.s, race relations in the armed forces, and the American Legion; congressional correspondence with leaders of various House and Senate subcommittees; and information on Brig. Gen. Herbert C. Holdridge, a former NCAC ally who mounted two presidential campaigns. Correspondents include Bruce Barton, Charles F. Boss, Louis Bromfield, Henry J. Cadbury, Roscoe S. Conkling, John Dewey, Albert Einstein, Harry Emerson Fosdick, John Haynes Holmes, Ray Newton, Richard W. Reuter, Eleanor Roosevelt, John M. Swomley, and E. Paul Weaver.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

National Interreligious Service Board for Conscientious Objectors (NISBCO)
See Center on Conscience and War

National Service Board for Religious Objectors (NSBRO)
See Center on Conscience and War

Wallace Floyd Nelson (1909-)
Papers, 1941-1960 (CDGA)
2 linear inches
Wally Nelson was an African American C.O. and World War II absolute pacifist who illegally walked out of the Civilian Public Service Camp #23 near Coshocton (OH). He was imprisoned for his walkout in a segregated federal prison in Danbury (CT). He had a long history of activism, participating in 1934 in the student strike on the campus of the University of Chicago. In 1946 he participated in the Journey of Reconciliation, the first freedom ride bus trip in the South. In the 1950s he was the first full-time traveling secretary for the Congress for Racial Equality (CORE). From 1948 forward, Wally and his wife Juanita were war tax resisters. His papers include correspondence, writings and reports.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

New York Bureau of Legal Advice
Collection, 1917-1920 (CDGA)
7.5 linear inches
The Bureau, first known as the New York Bureau of Legal First Aid, operated from April 6, 1917 to the autumn of 1919 when its assets were turned over to the People's Freedom Union. The Bureau assisted men who were subject to the draft process, and defended the legal rights of C.O.s, many of whom were socialists and foreign-born aliens from combatant nations. The Bureau fought against the deportation of members of the International Workers of the World. It predated the similar National Civil Liberties Bureau and confined its activities to New York C.O. cases. Its records include an extensive newspaper clipping file, C.O. court-martial transcripts, and lists of names of C.O.s, draft board appeals, and prison time durations.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

David Nolan
Papers, 1960-1987 (Mss. 773)
2.4 cubic feet; 104 photographs
Nolan was a writer, social activist and staff member of the U.S.-China Peoples' Friendship Association. Limited personal papers include biographical clippings, copies of articles and papers, information on his status as a C.O. during the Vietnamese Conflict, and photographs.
Contact: Wisconsin Historical Society Archives

#20 Nancy Foster Neumann, Dietician at CPs Camp #94 in Trenton (North Dakota)
"Oral History V.N.: Oral History from a Tactical Fighter and a Conscientious Objector"
Video, 1986 (Videorecording 273)
Oral history from the 1986 Friends General Conference.
Contact: Friends Historical Library

Pacific Counseling Service and Military Law Office
Records, 1969-1977
This group provided counseling to G.I. war resisters, among other activities. This collection documents their work, and also includes correspondence and other material re: the Center for Servicemen's Rights/G.I. Project Alliance, the Central Committee for Conscientious Objectors, the Liberated Barracks, and Stop Our Ship, etc.
Contact: Bancroft Library, The University of California, Berkeley

PAX Archives, 1951-1976
Records, 1945-2001 (Hist. Mss. 1-927)
8 boxes
Most of the material in this collection was gathered at the 5th PAX reunion in Sept. 2001. It contains material from 28 men who were C.O.s and served around the world in various locations for their I-W service.
Contact: Goshen Archives, Mennonite Church USA

James Peck
Autobiography, 1969, +1974
0.1 cubic feet (SC 162)
Peck's autobiography "Underdogs vs. Underdogs," printed about 1969 with additional chapters added in 1974, provides information about his youth, development as a pacifist and imprisonment during WWII, and his participation in demonstrations for civil rights, peace, Indian rights, and other causes.
Contact: Wisconsin Historical Society Archives

James Pemberton (1723-1809)
Papers, 1777-1812 (RecGrp Pemberton MSS)
2 inches
Collection made up chiefly of letters from Pemberton to his wife, Phebe, which include information about his exile in Winchester (VA) with other C.O. Quakers during the Revolution.
Contact: Friends Historical Library

Philadelphia Council for Conscientious Objectors
Collection, 1943-1952, 1957 (CDGA)
3 linear inches
The Philadelphia Council for Conscientious Objectors was formed jointly by the American Friends Service Committee and the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom in May 1943 by Philadelphia area pacifists concerned with the needs of C.O.s and their families. It preceded the Central Committee for Conscientious Objectors but overlapped it in functions. Council members offered character testimonials at court hearings for C.O.s. The Council's activities were suspended in 1952. This collection contains correspondence, meeting minutes, form letters, and flyers and other printed matter.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

Philadelphia Yearly Meeting of Friends [Hicksite] (1827-1955)
Collected Material on the Quaker Peace Testimony, 1780-1917 (RecGrp SC/095)
1 folder
Collection contains extracts from meeting minutes in which the Quaker stance on war and conscientious objection were discussed, mostly from the Civil War era.
Contact: Friends Historical Library

#21 The "Reds" at Camp Dix (NJ),
July 16, 1918: 1/ Steven Stanley,
2/ Bruno Grunzig, 3/ Ronald Hotson,
4/ Fred Thiel, 5/ George Mueller,
6/ David Eilenberg, 7/ Rudolph Vrana, 8/ Leo Robbins

Robert Pickus
Papers, 1947-1969
0.6 cubic feet [15 reels of microfilm]
Pickus was a peace advocate whose papers reflect his leadership in Acts for Peace and its successor, Turn Toward Peace, and includes the groups' activities re: C.O.s and other interests.
Contact: Wisconsin Historical Society Archives

Dwight Platt (1931- )
Papers, ca. 1947-1990 (MLA.MS.200)
In 1951, Platt refused to register with the Selective Service System and was sentenced to one year and a day in prison. His papers includes a scrapbook of newspaper clippings and court transcripts and proceedings, ca. 1951-1956. Platt is a former teacher of biology at Bethel College.
Contact: North Newton Archives, Mennonite Church USA

David H. Ranck (1895-1968)
Papers, 1917-1918, in World War I Conscientious Objectors -- Private Papers Collection (II-MS-26)
1 folder
Ranck was a Mennonite C.O. at Camp Meade (MD). His papers consist of a photocopy of his June 1917 - ca. June 1918 diary.
Contact: Menno Simons Historical Library and Archives, Eastern Mennonite University

Resistance [Organization]
Records, 1967-1968 (CDGA)
5 linear inches
The Resistance was an American movement which grew out of opposition to the Vietnamese Conflict and to the introduction of a new draft law, effective July 1967, which was interpreted as "an attempt to buy off student dissent." Moving from protest rhetoric to public dissent actions, Resistance members demonstrated non-cooperation with Selective Service by burning their draft cards on April 15, 1967. On Oct. 16, 1967, thousands turned in their draft cards as a political statement that conscience would not be intimidated by the threat of imprisonment. The Resistance had cells in many cities across the United States. It also had an English counterpart called Stop It, composed of Americans living in Great Britain who appealed to fellow Americans there to oppose the draft. This collection includes correspondence, flyers and other printed matter, and reference files on draft resistance.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

Esther Biddle Rhoads
Papers, 1885-1979 (MSS 1153)
29.5 linear feet
Rhoads was an American Quaker missionary who spent almost 40 years in Japan. Her papers reflect that one of her interests was conscientious objection.
Contact: Haverford College Quaker and Special Collections

Samuel H. Rhodes (1880-1957)
Papers, 1916-1957 (I-MS-18)
37 linear inches
Rhodes was a Mennonite bishop in Virginia. His papers includes material about Virginia Mennonite Conference's views on CPS, as well as lists of drafted and deferred Mennonites from Virginia during WWII.
Contact: Virginia Mennonite Conference

Channing B. Richardson (1917- )
Papers, 1968-1972 (CDGA)
1 linear inch
Channing Bulfinch Richardson was a Quaker C.O. who served in Civilian Public Service during WWII. He was involved in draft counseling during the Vietnamese Conflict, and was a professor at Hamilton College. His correspondence includes letters responding to requests for support of C.O. status applications written by former students and/or Quaker acquaintances. He wrote letters on their behalf to various draft boards. See also Civilian Public Service: Personal Papers & Collected Materials listed above.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

#22 Extract of letter (#41 of 76) from Igal Roodenko to his sister, Vivien, re: being locked in his cell for a week
for having kept wheat bread in his locker while incarcerated in Sandstone(?) prison, March 24, 1946

Igal Roodenko (1917-1991)
Papers, 1935-1991(DG 161)
3.3 linear feet
Roodenko was a pacifist, peace and civil rights activist, advocate of nonviolence, and printer. He was born in New York (NY) and graduated from Cornell University. He was an absolutist C.O. who served 20 months in a federal prison for draft refusal during and after WWII. He was a member of the War Resisters League Executive Committee from 1947 to 1977; WRL Chair from 1968 to 1972; served on boards of the A.J. Muste Memorial Institute and the Consortium on Peace Research and Development (COPRED); and, was active in Men of All Colors Together. His papers include correspondence, newspaper clippings, periodicals, reference files, administrative files, and photographs. Correspondents include Paul J. Furnas, Lewis Hill, Glenn Hutchison, Paton Price, George Reeves, Evan Thomas, and Carle Whitehead; of particular note are the many letters written between Igal and his sister, Vivien Roodenko, while he was in prison.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

Edward Alsworth Ross (1866-1951)
Papers, 1859-1969 (Wis Mss. RV; Micro 927)
15 cubic feet [40 reels of microfilm]
Ross was a supporter of liberal causes and an influential sociologist at the University of Wisconsin. After he retired from active teaching in 1937, he lectured frequently on behalf of temperance education, worked for the American Committee for the Defense of Leon Trotsky, and aided the American Civil Liberties Union during the early years of WWII in support of C.O.s and of other attempts to offset wartime hysteria.
Contact: Wisconsin Historical Society Archives

Bayard T. Rustin (1912-1987)
Papers, 1947-1987 (CDGA)
2 linear inches
Rustin was a Pennsylvania-born, African American Quaker who was concerned with nonviolence, socialism, civil rights, race relations, and international relations. He was connected with the Fellowship of Reconciliation, American Friends Service Committee, War Resisters League, Congress of Racial Equality, and Committee for Nonviolent Civil Disobedience against Military Segregation. He was imprisoned during WWII for draft refusal based on his absolute pacifism. His papers include his writings and speeches. Photographs of Rustin are also available.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

Bayard T. Rustin (1912-1987)

Papers, 1942-1987 [bulk 1963-1980] (mm 93077373)
20 linear feet
See above for biographical information. His papers include correspondence, memoranda, speeches, notes, photographs and other material that document his leading role in the African American civil rights movement, his advocacy for international human rights and social reform, and his pacifism. The papers were microfilmed before they were received at the Library of Congress; a copy of the film is available for research use in the Manuscript Reading Room.
Contact: Manuscript Division, Library of Congress


A-E | F-L | M-R | S-Z

Max Sandin (1889-1971)
Papers, 1918-1967 (MS. 3542)
0.5 linear feet
Sandin was a Russian born Jewish C.O. who emigrated to the United States in 1910. He settled in Cleveland (OH) and became active in several anti-war organizations. His papers, a portion of which are in Yiddish, contain correspondence, legal records, newsclippings, annotated calendars, and his autobiography "I Was Sentenced to Be Shot," which details his life and anti-war activities.
Contact: Western Reserve Historical Society Archives/Library

Joseph Scattergood (1808-1877)
Bound volume "An Account of the Free Quakers," 1781-1885 (RecGrp SC/113)
1 volume, 36 x 26 cm.
This volume contains Scattergood's collection of original & manuscript copies of documents relating to the Free Quakers, who disagreed with the strict disownment policy for members of the Society of Friends who fought in the Revolutionary War. The papers include petitions, published editorials, accounts of prominent members of the Free Quakers, and correspondence.
Contact: Friends Historical Library

H.B. Schmidt (1901-1984)
Papers, 1948-1971 (MLA.MS.134)
4.3 cubic feet
Schmidt was a pastor for the Tabor Mennonite Church (Goessel, KS) from 1941 to 1957, the Hopefield Mennonite Church (Moundridge, KS) from 1958 to 1970, and other churches. He assisted many young men in establishing C.O. status with the Selective Service System. His papers include correspondence (1952-1971) with young men seeking advice or assistance with draft classification problems, with Mennonite Central Committee officials, and with other groups concerned with classification issues. They also contain information regarding the creation and operation of the I-W program.
Contact: North Newton Archives, Mennonite Church USA

#23 Thirteen Socialist C.O.s
at Camp Meade, 1918

Mark A. Schmucker (1960- )
Papers, 1980-1987 (Hist. Mss. 1-350)
2 boxes
Schmucker's papers contain correspondence, articles and newspaper clippings regarding the court case convicting him in Oct. 1982 of failing to register for the draft. He was ordered to pay a $4,000 fine and was sentenced to three years of probation. He was a 22 year old student at Goshen College at the time, and the third person in the nation to be prosecuted after a 1980 presidential proclamation reinstating draft registration.
Contact: Goshen Archives, Mennonite Church USA

Charles Schumacher (1919- )
Papers, 1930-2003 (CDGA)
22.5 linear inches
Charles Schumacher was born in Bluffton (OH) in 1919. His college degree was in chemical engineering; he later earned an M.S. in chemistry at the University of Akron (OH). He married Mary Koontz on Jan. 28, 1950; they had five children. Schumacher, a member of the General Conference Mennonite Church, chose C.O. status during WWII. He entered Civilian Public Service on Jan. 24, 1944 and served at three different locations: at CPS Camp #28 in Medaryville (IN) for about 6 months; at CPS Camp #103 in Missoula (MT) where he worked as a smokejumper with the U.S. Forest Service for about 2 years; and at CPS Camp #141 in Gulfport (MS). Most of his collection of papers is made up of correspondence from his men and women friends during the years he was in CPS. Also of interest are letters from his fiancée and other papers that document the break up of their plans to wed because of her mother's hatred of C.O.s.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

Selective Service System
Records, 1926-1971 (Record Group 147)

The subset of this mammoth collection that might be of most interest to most researchers is 147.2.2, which is made up of the World War II records. It includes case files of conscientious objectors, including indexes, and locator cards for conscientious objectors sent to Civilian Public Service camps.
Contact: U.S. National Archives & Records Administration

Shakers
Leaflets/Pamphlets:
- "A declaration of the society of people, commonly called Shakers: shewing their reasons for refusing to aid or abet the cause of war and bloodshed, by bearing arms, paying fines, hiring substitutes, or rendering any equivalent for military services," 1815 (BX9789 W2E5)
- "A declaration of the society of people in New Lebanon, in the county of Columbia, and Watervliet, in the county of Albany, commonly called Shakers. To the respectable Legislature of the State of New York," 1816 [protesting against the militia law of the State of New York in a plea for exemption from military service and from "all fines and taxes in lieu thereof"] (BX9787 M531)
- "An address to the state of Ohio protesting against a certain clause of the militia law enacted by the legislature at their last session: and shewing the inconsistency of military power interfering with persons and property consecrated to the pious and benevolent purposes of the Gospel / by order of the United Society, called Shakers," 1818 (BX 9787 M169 Vault)
- Memorial of the society of people of Canterbury, in the county of Rockingham, and Enfield, in the county of Grafton, commonly called Shakers" [re: C.O.s in New Hampshire], 1818? (BX 9787 M533 1818a)
- "To the legislature of the state of New York, now in session. The memorial of the United Society of Believers (commonly called Shakers) of the towns of New-Lebanon and Watervliet" [re: C.O.s in New York], 1823 (BX9787 M533 1823a]
- "In Senate, January 10, 1826. (Presented by Mr. Jordan.) The memorial of the United Society, (commonly called Shakers,) of New-Lebanon and Watervliet. To the Legislature of the state of New-York" [re: protest against the militia acts of 1823 and 1824, under which such members of the Society "as are liable, according to law, are subjected to militia fines, or a commutation in lieu thereof, or in default, to suffer imprisonment"), 1826 (BX9789 W2S6)
- "Remonstrance of the United Society, called Shakers, against the passage of a certain law. to the Honorable the legislature of the state of New-York" [re: the militia laws], 1830 (BX 9787 N532 1830)
Contact: Western Reserve Historical Society Archives/Library

William Short
"A matter of conscience: GI resistance during the Vietnam war, photographs, 1968-1969"
12 Photographs (Archives JC016)
In the late 1960s, Short refused to return to combat; he served two months in a stockade and then received a general discharge. In 1986, he and his wife, Willia Seidenberg, began interviewing war protesters and taking their pictures. In 1992, the portraits and some text from the interviews were shown at the Addison Gallery of American Art in an exhibit entitled "A Matter of Conscience" and a companion booklet was published [available through interlibrary loan].
Contact: Healey Library, Archives and Special Collections Department, University of Massachusetts Boston

Timothy Showalter (1887-1957)
Papers, 1868-1956 (I-MS-6)
4 linear feet
Showalter's collection includes lists of draft age and/or registered Mennonite men in Rockingham County (VA), ca. WWII.
Contact: Virginia Mennonite Conference

Smokejumper's Oral History Collection [Civilian Public Service]
Sound recordings, 1982-1986 (OH 133)
Collection includes:
- oral history interviews with 35 men who were involved with smokejumping as part of their alternate service in CPS during WWII
- oral history interview with H. Lee Hebel entitled "Lutheran C.O.'s experiences during the war"
- oral history interview with George S. Leavitt entitled "Problems of obtaining C.O. status and work"
- oral history interview with Lewis Berg entitled "Math teacher's C.O. experiences"
Contact: Maureen and Mike Mansfield Library, K. Ross Toole Archives, The University of Montana

J. Lloyd Spaulding (1914-1995) and Blanche Spaulding
Papers, ca. 1933-1993 (MLA-MS.359)
8.15 cubic feet [unprocessed]
J. Lloyd Spaulding, raised a Methodist in Iowa, was a teacher of economics at Bethel College. During WWII, his application for C.O. status was rejected by the Presidential Appeal Board on the basis that his objection to war was personal rather than religious. After working voluntarily at a CPS camp, he refused induction, spent time in prison at Sandstone (MN), was paroled to CPS Camp #24 (Hagerstown, MD), and served with the NSBRO. His papers document his interaction with the Selective Service System, his time in CPS and in prison, as well as his and his wife's later careers.
Contact: North Newton Archives, Mennonite Church USA

John L. Stauffer (1888-1959)
Papers, 1906-1959 (I-MS-17)
21.5 linear feet
Stauffer was a Mennonite bishop in Virginia. His collection includes correspondence with men who were serving in CPS in 1944-1945, as well as a pamphlet by Sanford G. Shetler "The Civilian Public Service Program: An Analysis and Evaluation of Its Origin and Present Operation" [see box 5].
Contact: Virginia Mennonite Conference

Bob Stocksdale (1913-?)
Oral History Interview, 1996 [part of the Regional Oral History Office: Catalogue II Collection]
Stocksdale was a pioneer wood-lathe artist. His interview includes reference to Civilian Public Service camps in WWII.
Contact: Bancroft Library, The University of California, Berkeley

Grant M. Stoltzfus (1916-1974)
Papers, 1942-1974 (II-MS-29)
16 linear feet
Stoltzfus was an important 20th century Mennonite historian. His papers include background material, notes and manuscripts about his research into C.O.s from the Revolutionary War through WWII. Of particular interest are interviews he conducted [available on three reel-to-reel tapes and in transcript form] re: C.O.s in WWII, with:
1) Selective Service personnel General Lewis B. Hershey, Colonel Louis Kosch and Kenneth McGill, Nov. 8, 1968 (tape #297);
2) Mennonite Central Committee director [?] Orie O. Miller, Oct. 19, 1968 (tape #296/298);
3) NSBRO personnel Joseph N. Weaver, May 25, 1972 (tape #299);
4) NSBRO chair M.R. Zigler, Oct. 9, 1968 (tape #296/298).
Contact: Menno Simons Historical Library and Archives, Eastern Mennonite University

John H. Sweitzer (1917-1992)
Papers (SC 211)
Sweitzer was manager of Plant and Purchases at Earlham College from 1952 to 1983, and an active Quaker. His small collection includes material relating to his service as a C.O. in Civilian Public Service during WWII.
Contact: Arthur and Kathleen Postle Archives and Friends Collection, Earlham College

Robert P. Tabak (1950- )
Papers, 1968-1985 (M86-086)
0.4 cubic feet
This collection consists of material collected by Rabbi Tabak between 1968-1970 and 1971-1972, when he worked as a draft counselor in Madison (WI) while attending the University of Wisconsin.
Contact: Wisconsin Historical Society Archives

#24 Unknown man after taking part in human guinea pig starvation experiment in CPS
during WWII
Ralph T. Templin (1896-1984)
Papers, 1913-1996
12 cubic feet
Templin was a missionary to India, an educator, publisher and social activist, who refused to pay taxes, did not register for the draft during WWII, and refused to appear before the House Committee on Un-American Affairs during the McCarthy era. His papers include correspondence with/about C.O.s Julius Eichel and his son Seymour, and other material.
Contact: General Commission on Archives and History of the United Methodist Church

Edward & Margaret Loring Thomas
Papers, 1917-1952 (CDGA)
3 linear inches
Edward Thomas was a chemist and chemical patent lawyer in New York City; his wife Margaret Loring Thomas had been active in settlement work and a teacher of home economics before marriage; both were activist, pacifist Quakers. Papers include Edward Thomas' correspondence on behalf of refugees and prisoners of war (1917-1918) through the Emergency Committee for the Assistance of Germans, Austrians, and Hungarians in Distress; correspondence with C.O. Harold Blickenstaff (1943-1945); writings of Edward and Margaret Thomas; and material about the Institute of Politics (1926).
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

Norman Thomas (1884-1968)
Papers, 1904-1967 (Humanities-Mss.)
97 linear feet [85 microfilm reels]
Thomas was an American Socialist leader who became active in the peace movement during WWI. He founded the National Civil Liberties Bureau (renamed the American Civil Liberties Union) with Roger Baldwin. He became an active member of the Socialist Party of America, was co-director of the League of Industrial Democracy, and edited The World Tomorrow. He was the brother of Evan Thomas, a C.O. in WWI. Thomas' papers include much correspondence, diaries, speeches, writings and other material.
Contact: New York Public Library, Humanities and Social Sciences Library, Manuscript and Archives Division

Thomas Thrush
Published letter "A letter addressed to the King by Thomas Thrush, on resigning his commission as a captain in the Royal Navy, on the ground of the unlawfulness of war" [printed 1825] (Humanities-Genrl Res. YFX p.v.14, no. 5)
Contact: New York Public Library, Humanities and Social Sciences Library, Manuscript and Archives Division

Roy H. Umble (1913- )
Papers, 1932-1985 (Hist. Mss. 1-176)
14 boxes
Umble was a C.O. who served in various Civilian Public Service camps during WWII: #29 at Medaryville (IN), #57 at Hill City (SD), and #18 at Denison (IA). From Nov. 1944 to Feb. 1945 he served as Educational Director for Mennonite Central Committee. His papers include his extensive correspondence from 1943-1945. Also available are CPS photographs.
Contact: Goshen Archives, Mennonite Church USA

Unitarian Universalist Association, Dept. of Social Justice (1964- )
Records, 1976-1985 (Ms bMS 1086 [by appointment only])
2.10 cubic feet
Project files include correspondence re: conscientious objection.
Contact: Andover-Harvard Theological Library, Harvard Divinity School

Unitarian Universalist Service Committee, Conscientious Objector Program
Records, 1968-1972 (MsbMS 16069 [by appointment only])
2.45 cubic feet
Collection includes correspondence and reports, etc.
Contact: Andover-Harvard Theological Library, Harvard Divinity School

Unitarian Universalist Fellowship of Social Justice (1908- )
Records, 1914-1967 (bMS 530)
This collection includes material about conscientious objection in 1951-1954.
Contact: Andover-Harvard Theological Library, Harvard Divinity School

United Pacifist Committee
Records, 1938-1947 (CDGA)
2.5 linear inches
Organized following a Pacifist Conference in New York City in Feb. 1938; made up of a group of peace organizations that changed somewhat from year to year. Subcommittees were set up to plan activities such as poster walks, working for liberal candidates during election year, and helping C.O.s by giving legal aid and counsel (this sub-committee established the Metropolitan Board for Conscientious Objectors in 1940). The United Pacifist Committee's most important activity was its annual United Pacifist Conference, held from 1938 to 1944. Its records include correspondence, meeting minutes, reports, and material about the conferences it sponsored yearly.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

United States: Adjutant General's Office
Records, 1917-1925 (MLA MF MSS 71-72)
2 reels of positive microfilm
These selected pages from the Adjutant General's Office's central files were compiled in 1955 to document Mennonite C.O.s in WWI, from files at the National Archives (RG 94, 383.2 - 383.5).
Contact: North Newton Archives, Mennonite Church USA

United States: Army -- Continental Commands
Records, ca. 1917-1919 (MLA MF MSS 73)
1 reel of negative microfilm
These selected pages were compiled in 1970 by James Juhnke to document Mennonite C.O.s in WWI from files at the National Archives (RG 393).
Contact: North Newton Archives, Mennonite Church USA

United States: Department of Justice
Records, ca. 1917-1919 (MLA MF MSS 70)
1 reel of positive microfilm
These selected pages were compiled in 1955 to document Mennonite C.O.s in WWI from files at the National Archives (RG 60).
Contact: North Newton Archives, Mennonite Church USA

United States: Selective Service System
Records, ca. 1917-1919 (MLA MF MSS 69)
1 reel of positive microfilm
These selected pages were compiled in 1955 to document Mennonite C.O.s in WWI from files at the National Archives (RG 163).
Contact: North Newton Archives, Mennonite Church USA

United States: War Department -- Office of the Judge Advocate General (Army)
Records, ca. 1917-1919 (MLA MF MSS 171A-171C)
3 reels of positive microfilm
This collection contains 98 case files of 131 C.O.s court-martialled during WWI. Most defendants belonged to Mennonite or Amish denominations, though a few were affiliated with the Old German Baptist Brethren or with the Wesleyan Methodists. Ten non-Mennonites were a part of a group of 41 court-martialled together and their records are included on the microfilm, though their names are not listed in the table of contents. Compiled in 1975 by Duane Goerz and Carol Edwards, under the direction of James Juhnke and Robert Kreider from files at the National Archives (RG 153).
Contact: North Newton Archives, Mennonite Church USA

United States: War Department -- Office of the Judge Advocate General (Army)
Records, ca. 1917-1919 (MLA MF MSS 74)
1 reel of negative microfilm
This collection contains records of the joint court-martial of 41 C.O.s, and of four individual court-martials, during WWI (it contains two court-martial records not included on the three-set microfilm listed above). Compiled in 1969 from files at the National Archives (RG 153).
Contact: North Newton Archives, Mennonite Church USA

Untide Press
Records, 1943-1955 (CDGA)
2.5 linear inches
Begun in 1943 at the Civilian Public Service camp for C.O.s in Waldport (OR); William Everson was a founder and director of the camp's Fine Arts Group, from which many contributors were drawn. Ten monographs were published by the press: the first Ten War Elegies by Everson was published in April 1943; moved to Pasadena (CA) in 1946 or 1947, after the camp was demobilized. Collection includes ten monographs published by Untide Press; three issues of The Illiterati (printed by the Untide Press), publication notices, and two letters between William Everson and Will Ransom.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection [note: the Bancroft Library also has some material from this Press]

Universal Peace Union
Records, [1846-1866], 1867-1923, 1938 (DG 038)
12.5 linear feet [19 microfilm reels]
The UPU was founded in 1866 to remove the causes of war; championed international arbitration, arbitration in labor disputes, and such causes as suffrage, temperance, anti-militarism, and Indian rights; Alfred H. Love (1830-1913) was a principal organizer and served for many years as president of the UPU; dissolved in 1920 . Records include meeting minutes (1891-1920), scattered correspondence, membership lists, financial and serial subscription records, scrapbooks, memorabilia, and photographs; together with diaries (1848-1912) and other personal papers of Alfred H. Love and a small collection of personal papers (ca. 1891-1915) of Mary Frost Ormsby Evans. Includes material relating to the Pennsylvania Peace Society. Correspondents include Clara Barton, Arabella Carter, Amanda Deyo, Mary Frost Ormsby Evans, Julia Ward Howe, Belva A. Lockwood, and Alfred H. Love.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

Virginia Mennonite Conference Civilian Public Service Support Committee
Records (I-F-1)
1 linear foot
This committee formed in 1942 to assist the Virginia Mennonite Conference men who went to serve at a number of CPS camps during WWII. Included is a large amount of correspondence, financial records, questionnaires filled out by some of the men, and numerous lists of the men at various times with such information as their home addresses and the camps they were in.
Contact: Virginia Mennonite Conference

#25 Letter to New York Bureau of Legal Advice from
Maurice Goldstein, telling of his treatment as a C.O.
who refused to handle a gun, March 8, 1918

Arend Vlaskamp (1895-1974)
Papers, 1917-1919 (SC 155)
Vlaskamp was an accountant and Quaker from Muncie (IN) who attended Earlham College from 1914 to 1917. His papers consist of material relating to his work in France as as C.O. with the Friends Reconstruction Unit during WWI.
Contact: Arthur and Kathleen Postle Archives and Friends Collection, Earlham College

Charles C. Walker (1920- )
Papers, 1957-1983 (CDGA)
1 linear inch
Walker, a Quaker, was imprisoned as a C.O. in WWII; was on the field staff of the Fellowship of Reconciliation (1948-1960); served as College Program Director for the Middle Atlantic Region of the American Friends Service Committee; was Director of Field Studies for the Nonviolent Action Research Project, Haverford College (1970s); was an originator of the Appeal and Vigil at Fort Detrick (1959, 1961, 1971-1973); and, was active in A Quaker Action Group, the Friends Peace Committee, and Peacemakers. He is the author of several book and pamphlets on nonviolence and peacemaking. His papers include biographical information, and reports and other of his writings.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

David C. Wedel (1908- )
Papers, 1942-1971 (MLA.MS.242)
0.75 cubic feet
Wedel was a pastor and educator, CPS camp director (1941-1942), and president of Bethel College. His papers include 2 reels of 8 mm. film documenting CPS Camp #8 (Marietta, OH) [possibly filmed by in 1942 by H.C. Overmyer]. as well as material from the 50th reunion of CPS Camp #8. The films are available on video.
Contact: North Newton Archives, Mennonite Church USA

Jonathan Whipple (1794-1875)
Papers, 18-- (CDGA) [microfilm reel 61]
1 folder
Whipple's diary ("or autobiography") relates his upbringing by pacifist parents, his refusal to serve in the army during the War of 1812, and the threats of fines and imprisonment that he was given, but that were never carried out.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

Roland White (1908- )
Papers, 1920-1977 (U.S. Mss. 128A)
4.8 cubic feet
White was an editor of the Dubuque Leader (IA). His papers (accession M91-228) include documents concerning his WWII anti-draft and C.O. activities.
Contact: Wisconsin Historical Society Archives

Norman J. Whitney (1891-1967)
Papers, 1938-1967 (DG 061)
7 linear feet
Norman Jehiel Whitney was a Quaker peace leader, educator and writer, who worked as the national secretary for peace education and as a peace consultant for the American Friends Service Committee, and counseled many C.O.s. His papers include correspondence (1940-1967), published articles and transcripts of speeches by Whitney, biographical notes; and other papers, chiefly relating to his activities as friend and counselor to C.O.s, particularly those in Civilian Public Service camps during WWII. Includes material relating to the Syracuse Peace Council; correspondence relating to the New York State Board for Civilian Public Service and its efforts to counsel and assist C.O.s in New York State; information about Civilian Public Service, including correspondence and some meeting minutes (1940-1946); material relating to the American Friends Service Committee (1958-1967); and correspondence with and information about the Metropolitan Board for Conscientious Objectors, National Service Board for Religious Objectors, and Pacifist Research Bureau. Correspondents include Stephen G. Cary, Harrop A. Freeman, Paul Comly French, Paul J. Furnas, Philip E. Jacob, Abraham Kaufman, Evan W. Thomas, Robert S. Vogel, Mildred C. Whitney, and Harold P. Winchester. This collection is restricted until 2020, in that anyone making reference to personal information from this collection must disguise it so that the identity of individuals will not be disclosed.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

David Thoreau Wieck (1921- )

Papers, 1942-1969 (CDGA)
2.5 linear inches
Wieck was born in Illinois, attended Columbia University, and was a member of the American Student Union, and the Young Communist League (1935), which he resigned from due to his objection to undemocratic functions of the group. He was imprisoned after failing to obtain C.O. status from his draft board during WWII. Wieck participated in hunger strikes and the "Jim Crow" Strike of 1943, protesting unequal treatment of African American C.O.s. He later protested the Korean and Vietnam wars. His papers include prison correspondence (1943-1946) and post-prison writings.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

#26 CPS internee at Germfask CPS camp in jacket that reads on back "Leo the Brat, Camp Germfask, Minersville, Cal. Slave Labor Camp. Selective Service System," May 1946

Paul A. Wilhelm (1916- ) & Jayne Tuttle Wilhelm (1917-1980)
Papers, 1934-1978 (CDGA)
12.5 linear inches
Paul A. Wilhelm served in three Civilian Public Service Units: Camp #3 (Patapsco, MD).; Camp #52 (Powelsville, MD); and Camp #49 (Philadelphia (PA) State Hospital). He registered as a Baptist C.O. but became a Quaker after his marriage to C. Jayne Tuttle in 1943. Jayne Tuttle Wilhelm was a native of Helena (MT), who went to New York in 1940, where she met Paul Wilhelm. She also became a Quaker, having been raised as an Episcopalian. These papers illuminate the experiences of a Civilian Public Service participant and his female counterpart. Paul Wilhelm later became an architect; Jayne Wilhelm was an artist and art teacher in public and private schools.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

Lawrence Hezekia Williamson (1893-1963)
Papers, 1917-1918 (SC/196)
Williamson was an Indiana Quaker, and a member of Knightstown Monthly Meeting. The five folders of his papers contain letters written by Williamson to his family while at Camp Zachary Taylor in Lexington, Kentucky, as a C.O. in WWI, and other related papers, including the transcript of his court-martial trial in 1918. Williamson was offered and accepted deferment into the American Friends Reconstruction Unit, ca. 1918- .
Contact: Friends Historical Library


George [& Lillian] Willoughby (1914-2010)
Papers, 1913-2010
24.5 linear feet
When he was drafted, Willoughby was granted conscientious objector status, and opted to enter alternative service. He arrived at Trenton Civilian Public Service (CPS) Camp (North Dakota) in January 1944, where he worked as a land surveyor and then as the camp dietician. He transferred to Alexian Brothers hospital in Chicago (Illinois) in September 1944, at the same time that his wife, Lillian, also found work there as a dietician.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

Winslow Wilson (1912-1997)

Papers
0.53 cubic feet
Wilson was an absolute C.O. and adamant Christian pacifist. He was arrested while serving a church in Brownsdale (MN) when he decided that the Selective Service Act was immoral in light of the Gospel's teaching on pacifism. Wilson was 28 years old at the time with a wife and two small children. He was incarcerated at the Federal Correction Institution in Sandstone (MN) from Jan. 28, 1941 to Nov. 17, 1941. His papers include a diary (1944-1945), correspondence, Bible study notes which he created while in prison, and some reminiscence manuscripts of his childhood and family genealogy.
Contact: General Commission on Archives and History of The United Methodist Church

Harold P. Winchester

Papers
1 cubic foot
Winchester served in a CPS camp in New Hampshire during WWII. His papers consist of correspondence, diary entries, and his subsequent thesis.
Contact: Dept. of Special Collections and University Archives, Marquette University Libraries

Wisconsin Department of Military Affairs
Misc. Records, 1966-1968 (Series 1158)
0.4 cubic feet
This miscellaneous collection includes records of the Dept., such as handouts and surveys concerning the handling of C.O.s and other topics.
Contact: Wisconsin Historical Society Archives

Women's Committee to Oppose Conscription
Records, 1942-1948 (DG 068)
7.5 linear feet
Founded in 1943 as the Committee to Oppose the Conscription of Women (also known as National Committee to Oppose the Conscription of Women) primarily among church women for the purpose of expressing opposition to the proposal that the draft be extended to include women; in 1944 name changed to Women's Committee to Oppose Conscription. Its records are comprised chiefly of correspondence, together with scattered meeting minutes (1942-1947), financial records, memoranda, speeches and radio broadcasts, press releases, pamphlets and leaflets, bibliographies, reference files, and newspaper clippings, relating to the committee's efforts to defeat legislation for the drafting of women, including a proposal to draft nurses, and its post war efforts to defeat peacetime conscription and universal military training. Correspondents include Emily Greene Balch, Frances K. Chalmers, Sarah N. Cleghorn, Dorothy Detzer, Elsie Wright Elfenbein, Paul Comly French, Eleanor Garst, Georgia Harkness, Jessie Wallace Hughan, Pearl A. La Force, Frederick J. Libby, A.J. Muste, Tracy D. Mygatt, Mildred Scott Olmsted, Katharine C. Pierce, Mercedes M. Randall, Elsie Schomer, Vida D. Scudder, Annalee Stewart, John M. Swomley, E. Raymond Wilson, and Frances Witherspoon.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection

World War I C.O. Reunions
Records, 1963-1982 (MLA.V.19)
0.15 cubic feet [unprocessed]
These records include correspondence, mailing lists, and reports concerning reunions held by WWI C.O.s.
Contact: North Newton Archives, Mennonite Church USA

World War I Collection

Records, 1914-[1917-1920], 1935
1.3 cubic feet
This collection consists of photocopied documents about Mennonites in the WWI era, collected by Allan Teichroew, from the National Archives (U.S. Army Continental Commands, Department of Agriculture, Department of Justice, Department of State, Post Office Department, War Department, and the House of Representatives Military Affairs Committee), the Library of Congress (Henry J. Allen, William E. Borah, George W. Norris, Harlan Fiske Stone, Thomas S. Walsh, Woodrow Wilson, and Leonard Wood), the University of Iowa Library (Christian Ramseyer), and the Minnesota State Archives (Sixth District Court cases and records of the Cottonwood County Public Safety Association). The bulk of the material relates to C.O.s and interactions between Mennonites, the military, and the justice system. Other topics include free speech and civil liberties in war time, and Mennonites in Mexico, Paraguay and Canada.
Contact: North Newton Archives, Mennonite Church USA
#27 Lew Ayres
with unknown man

Paul W. Yinger
Papers, 1928-1992 (GTU 93-10-01)
1 Box (5 inches)
A Congregational pastor, Yinger was a chaplain in the army during WWII serving on New Guinea. He became friends with the actor Lew Ayres (1908-1996), best known for his roles in the 1930 "All Quiet on the Western Front", and as Dr. Kildare in the film series. Ayres, a C.O., was serving as a non-combatant on New Guinea as a hospital orderly. Yinger's papers contain correspondence (bulk 1944-1946), articles, newsclippings, a script from "This is Your Life" (1956), and material authored by Ayres.
Contact: Graduate Theological Union Archives

Young Friends of North America: Committee on Conscription
Records, 1968-1971 (DG 083)
1.75 linear feet
The Young Friends of North America, an open fellowship of Friends between the ages of 18 and 30, established a Committee on Conscription in the fall of 1968 to facilitate communication among Friends who were involved with draft resistance; and, collected information from members of the Society of Friends who had refused to cooperate with conscription since the 1940s as well as Friends who were currently imprisoned for draft resistance. Its records include questionnaires and accompanying statements on the draft and on the concept of sanctuary made by various monthly and yearly meetings of the Society of Friends, epistles, and declarations; together with a small quantity of correspondence addressed to Peter M. Blood, chairman of the committee, and information on draft resistance among members of other denominations, notably the Church of the Brethren and the Mennonite Church.
Contact: Swarthmore College Peace Collection


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If you would like to have primary archival sources from your institution added to this list,
please contact Anne Yoder at ayoder1@swarthmore.edu



Created by Anne M. Yoder (Archivist, Swarthmore College Peace Collection), Feb. 2003; modified Nov. 2007