Swarthmore College Peace Collection, 500 College Avenue, Swarthmore, PA 19081 USA

 

Resources on Civilian Public Service (CPS) at the Swarthmore College Peace Collection

Smokejumper in training
at Camp #103
 
One of the buildings at Camp #3

**Civilian Public Service (CPS) was an alternative service for conscientious objectors to war during WWII**
List of All CPS Camps

Archival Material
Collections to Search:
o Records of the American Civil Liberties Union: National Committee on Conscientious Objectors (DG 022)
o Records of the American Friends Service Committee (DG 002) [see Civilian Public Service & Prison Service Committee]
Women also worked in
CPS camps, such as
nurse Nancy Neumann
o Collected Papers of Bent Andresen (CDGA)
o Collected Records of the Association of Catholic Conscientious Objectors (CDGA)
o Papers of Harold Barton (CDGA) for CPS efforts in mental hospitals
o Collected Records of the Big Flats Defense Committee [Camp #46] (CDGA) [see also DG 040 & DG 056]
o Papers of Raymond & Helen Binford (CDGA) for Camp #19
o Records of the Center on Conscience and War [formerly NSBRO/NISBCO] (DG 025)
o Records of Civilian Public Service: Personal Papers & Collected Material (DG 056)
o Collected Records in the Subject File: Civilian Public Service
o Records of the Civilian Public Service Union (DG 008)
Men did all sorts of work in CPS,
here fixing a sink at Camp #52
o Papers of Julien Cornell (DG 010)
o Papers of Dorothy Detzer (DG 086) [see Series II, Box 3]
o Collected Papers of Albert Dietrich (CDGA: Albert & Frank Dietrich)
o Records of the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America: Committee on the Conscientious Objector (DG 048)
o Records of the Fellowship of Reconciliation (DG 013) for general material [see Section II, Subseries A-3, boxes 6-12; Section III, Series C, boxes 5, 13]; for Camp #7 & Camp #16 [see Section II, Subseries A-3, Box 6]
o Papers of Henry Leroy Finch Jr. (Roy Finch) (DG 195)
o Collected Records of the Glendora Strikers Defense Committee (CDGA)
o Collected Papers of Roy Kepler (DG 185)
o Records of the Metropolitan Board for Conscientious Objectors (DG 060)
o Collected Papers of Ward Miles & Alice Calder Miles (CDGA); he worked at Byberry State Hospital (Camp #49)
o Collected Records of the New York State Board for Civilian Public Service (CDGA)
o Records of NSBRO and/or NISBCO [see Center on Conscience and War (DG 025)]
o Collected Papers of Joseph C. Osborne (CDGA), a smokejumper at Camp #103
o Papers of Igal Roodenko (DG 161)
o Papers of John Nevin Sayre (DG 117) [see Series B; Series E; Series G]
o Collected Papers of Charles Schumacher (CDGA) for Camps #103 & #141
o Collected Papers of Roland F. Smith (CDGA) for Camps #19, 37, 49, 52, 62, & for CPS efforts in mental hospitals
o Collected Papers of Edward & Margaret Thomas (CDGA) re: Harold Blickenstaff
o Collected Papers of Untide Press (CDGA) featuring publications of Camp #56
Harold Blickenstaff was one of the CPSers who allowed himself to be starved in a human guinea pig experiment
Harold Blickenstaff?
 
 
o Records of the War Resisters League (DG 040) [see Series A, Boxes 31-34]
o Papers of Norman J. Whitney (DG 061)
o Collected Papers of Denny Wilcher (CDGA)
o Collected Papers of Jayne Tuttle Wilhelm & Paul A. Wilhelm (CDGA)
o Records of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom (DG 043) [see Section III, Series C]
o Collected Papers of John Wood Jr. & Jean Brown Wood (CDGA) for Camp #46

See also material re: CPS in the Audiovisual Collection, Button/Pin/Ribbon Collection, Ephemera Collection, and the Stamp/Sticker/Seal/Envelope Collection

See the CPS Camp Publications Database for information on the issues held by the SCPC.

For a short history of conscientious objection, see "Conscientious Objection in America: Primary Sources for Research"

For a list of medical experiments done in Unit 115 & 140, see "Human Guinea Pigs in CPS Detached Service, 1943-1946"
 
 
 
 


Photographs
Collections to Search:
o Photographs & Slides from the Records of the American Friends Service Committee: Civilian Public Service (DG 002) for numerous camps as well as misc. from unknown camps (includes one photo from School of Non-Violence, in 5"x7" Misc. box] & for chest x-rays of CPSers [oversized; restricted until 2020])
o Photographs (2) about the historical marker re: CPS in Philadelphia in 1996 from the Collected Records of the American Friends Service Committee (CDGA)
o Photographs from the Papers of Bent Andresen (CDGA) for Camps #16 & #148
o Photographs from the Papers of Raymond & Helen Binford (CDGA) for Camps #19 & #148
o Photographs from the Collected Records of the Church of the Brethren (Subject File: Brethren, Church of the) for group photographs of overseeing committee/s and/or of camp directors
o Photographs from the Records of the Center on Conscience & War [formerly NSBRO/NISBCO] (DG 025) for numerous camps as well as misc. from unknown camps
o Photographs from the Records of Civilian Public Service: Personal Papers & Collected Material (DG 056) for Camps #3, #14, #21, #23, #46, #52, #89, #94, #98 & #115.17 (Starvation Unit), as well as misc. photographs from unknown camps
One of the dorms where CPS men
slept during their terms of service
One CPS project had to do with working to
eradicate hookworms in Southern communities
o Photographs & Slides from the Collected Papers of Charles Schumacher (CDGA) for Camps #28, #37, #103 & #141
o Photographs from the Collected Papers of Paul Wilhelm & Jayne Tuttle Wilhelm (CDGA) for Camp #3 (Elkridge, Maryland) & Camp #135
o Slides from the Papers of George & Lillian Willoughby (DG 236) for Camp #94 (Trenton, North Dakota), 1944
o Photographs & Slides from the Collected Papers of John & Jean Wood Jr. (CDGA) Camp #46 & miscellaneous from unknown camps

Chart for Finding Photographs by Camp Number (see also misc. photographs in collections listed above)

Camp # Camp Name / Location Photographs / Slides Collection Removed From
01 (Richmond, Indiana) 5"x7" / 4"x5" DG 025
02 Glendora (San Dimas, California) all sizes [in 1 box] DG 002
02   5"x7" / 4"x5" DG 025
03 (Patapsco, Maryland) all sizes [in 1 box] DG 002
03   oversized DG 002
03   5"x7" / 4"x5" DG 056; Paul Wilhelm & Jayne Tuttle Wilhelm (CDGA)
04 (Grottoes, Virginia) 5"x7" / 4"x5" DG 002
06 (Lagro, Indiana) all sizes [in 1 box] DG 002; DG 025
09 Petersham, Massachusetts) all sizes [in 1 box] DG 002
10 (Royalston, Massachusetts) all sizes [in 1 box] DG 002
  (Royalston, Massachusetts) 5"x7" / 4"x5" Denny Wilcher (CDGA)
12 (Cooperstown, New York) all sizes [in 1 box] DG 002
14 (Merom, Indiana) all sizes [in 1 box] DG 002; DG 025
14   5"x7" / 4"x5" DG 056; Denny Wilcher (CDGA); David Stoffregen (CDGA)
14   oversized DG 025
16 (Kane, Pennsylvania) 5"x7" / 4"x5" Bent Andresen (CDGA)
18 (Denison, Iowa) 5"x7" / 4"x5" DG 002; DG 025
18   slides DG 056
19 Buck Creek Camp (Marion, North Carolina) all sizes [in 1 box] DG 002
19   5"x7" / 4"x5"; 8"x10" DG 025; Raymond & Helen Binford (CDGA)
19   5"x7" / 4"x5" Roland F. Smith (CDGA)
21 (Cascade Locks, Oregon) 5"x7" / 4"x5" DG 002; DG 056
23 (Coshocton, Ohio) all sizes [in 1 box]; oversized DG 002
23   5"x7" / 4"x5" DG 056
24 (Hagerstown, Maryland) 5"x7" / 4"x5" DG 025
25 (Weeping Water, Nebraska) 5"x7" / 4"x5" DG 002
26 (Chicago, Illinois) 5"x7" / 4"x5" DG 002
27 (Orlando, Florida) all sizes [in 1 box] DG 002
27   slides DG 056
28 (Mederayville, Indiana) 5"x7" / 4"x5" Charles Schumacher (CDGA)
30 (Walhalla, Michigan) 5"x7" / 4"x5" DG 002
31 (Camino, California) 5"x7" / 4"x5" DG 002
32 (West Campton, New Hampshire) all sizes [in 1 box] DG 002
33 (Ft. Collins, Colorado) slides DG 056
34 (Bowie, Maryland) all sizes [in 1 box] DG 002
35 (North Fork, California) all sizes [in 1 box] DG 002
36 (Santa Barbara, California) all sizes [in 1 box]; photo album / scrapbook in Oversized Photographs Collection DG 002
37 Camp Antelope (Coleville, California) 5"x7" / 4"x5" DG 025; Charles Schumacher (CDGA); Roland F. Smith (CDGA); Denny Wilcher (CDGA)
37   all sizes [in 1 box] DG 002
37   slides DG 056
39 (Galax, Virginia) 5"x7" / 4"x5" DG 002
42 (Wellston, Michigan) 5"x7" / 4"x5" DG 002
43 [Puerto Rico units] all sizes [in 1 box] DG 002
45 Shenandoah National Park (Luray, Virginia) 5"x7" / 4"x5" [1 photo] Conscientious Objection/Objectors (Subject File #1) [in collective box]
46 (Big Flats, New York) all sizes [in 1 box] DG 002
46   slides DG 056
46   5"x7" / 4"x5" DG 056; John & Jean Wood Jr. (CDGA)
48 (Marienville, California) 5"x7" / 4"x5" DG 002
49 Philadelphia State Hospital [Byberry] (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) all sizes [in 1 box] DG 002
49   5"x7" / 4"x5" DG 056 [includes images by Charles Lord]
51 Western State Mental Hospital (Fort Steilacoom, Washington) 5"x7" / 4"x5" DG 002
51   all sizes [in 1 box] DG 025
52 (Powellsville, Maryland) 5"x7" / 4"x5" DG 002; DG 056; Roland F. Smith (CDGA); Paul Wilhelm & Jayne Tuttle Wilhelm (CDGA)
52   slides DG 056
53 (Gorham, North Carolina) 5"x7" / 4"x5" DG 002
59 (Elkton, Oregon) 5"x7" / 4"x5" DG 002
59   slides DG 056
60 (Lapine, Oregon) 5"x7" / 4"x5" DG 002; DG 025
61 Duke University Hospital (Durham, North Carolina) all sizes DG 002
61   5"x7" / 4"x5" DG 025
62 Cheltenham School for Boys(Cheltenham, Maryland) 5"x7" / 4"x5" DG 002; DG 025; Roland F. Smith (CDGA)
62   slides DG 002
67 (Downey, Idaho) 5"x7" / 4"x5" DG 002
76 (Glendora, California) all sizes [in 1 box] DG 002
81 (Middletown, Connecticut) 5"x7" / 4"x5" DG 002
83 (Warren, Pennsylvania) 5"x7" / 4"x5" DG 002
84 (Concord, New Hampshire) 5"x7" / 4"x5" DG 002
89 (Oakland, Maryland) 5"x7" / 4"x5" DG 056
92 (Vineland, New Jersey) slides DG 056
94 (Trenton, North Dakota) 5"x7" / 4"x5" DG 002; DG 056;
94   slides DG 056; DG 236
98 (various locations) - Coast & Geodetic Survey 5"x7" / 4"x5" DG 056
99 Friends Ambulance Unit (China) [or possibly from camp #6?] all sizes [in 1 box] DG 002
100 (various locations) dairy herd testing 5"x7" / 4"x5" DG 002
101 Foreign Relief & Rehabilitation Project (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) 5"x7" / 4"x5" DG 002
103 Missoula Camp (Huston, Montana) smokejumpers 5"x7" / 4"x5" DG 025; Charles Schumacher (CDGA)
103   slides DG 056
103   all sizes [in 1 box] DG 002
104 (Ames, Iowa) 5"x7" / 4"x5" DG 002
104   slides DG 056
108 (Gatlinburg, Tennessee) 5"x7" / 4"x5" DG 002
114 Mt. Weather Camp (Bluemont, Virginia) 5"x7" / 4"x5" DG 002
115 (various locations) human guinea pig experiments 5"x7" / 4"x5" DG 002; DG 056
124 (Stockley, Delaware) 5"x7" / 4"x5" DG 002
129 Pennhurst Mental Hospital (Spring City, Pennsylvania) all sizes [in 1 box] DG 002
131 (Cherokee, Iowa) 5"x7" / 4"x5" DG 002
131   slides DG 056
135 (Germfask, Michigan) 5"x7" / 4"x5" Paul Wilhelm & Jayne Tuttle Wilhelm (CDGA)
140 (various locations) 5"x7" / 4"x5" DG 002
141 Camp Bernard (Gulfport, Mississippi) 5"x7" / 4"x5" Charles Schumacher (CDGA)
141   slides DG 056
148 (Minersville, California) 5"x7" / 4"x5" Bent Andresen (CDGA)
149 U.S. Forest Service (various locations) firefighters all sizes [in 1 box] DG 002
Designation "All Sizes" refers to 4"x5" photographs, 5"x7" photographs & 8"x10" photographs filed together in 8"x10" boxes

Published Secondary Sources
For a wide range of books and other published material on CPS, visit Swarthmore College's on-line catalog Tripod. Select "Subject" and enter "Civilian Public Service" for the broadest search results.

Links to Other Resources
o Mennonite Central Committee: Photograph Collection, Civilian Public Service, 1941-1947 (Goshen Archives, Mennonite Church USA)



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Subject File: Civilian Public Service
Swarthmore College Peace Collection

 

This page written by Anne Yoder, Archivist, Dec. 2004. Updated February 15, 2010