Swarthmore College Peace Collection

GWEN Project Records, 1985-1994

Collection: DG 202


Contact Information
Swarthmore College Peace Collection
500 College Avenue
Swarthmore, Pennsylvania 19081-1399
U.S.A.
Telephone: (610) 328-8557 (Curator)
Fax: (610) 328-8544
Email: wchmiel1@swarthmore.edu (Curator)
URL: http://www.swarthmore.edu/Library/peace/


Descriptive Summary
Repository
Swarthmore College Peace Collection
Creator
GWEN Project
Title
GWEN Project Records
Inclusive Dates
1985-1994
Call Number
DG 202

Language of Materials
Materials in English
Extent
7.9 linear feet [papers only]
Abstract
GWEN (Ground Wave Emergency Network was a grass roots organization founded in the mid 1980s. Mobilized citizens protested the establishment of a GWEN network, a plan by the U.S. Air Force to build a system of radiotowers around the U.S. for the purpose of maintaining military communications in the event of nuclear war. The GWEN Project was a national organization, headquartered in Amherst, Massachusetts. The co-directors were Nancy Foster and Lois Barber. In 1994, the U.S. Congress refused further funding for GWEN, calling it wasteful and unnecessary.

Administrative Information
Restrictions to Access
None
Usage Restrictions
None
Alternate Form of Material
None
Acquisitions Information
Gift of Nancy Foster 2001 [Acc. 01A-030]; 2003 [Acc. 03A-027]
Processing Information
This collection remains unprocessed
Preferred Citation
[Identification of item], in the GWEN Project Records (DG 202), Swarthmore College Peace Collection
Copyright Notice
Copyright is retained by the authors of items in these papers, or their descendents, as stipulated by United States copyright law

Online Catalog Headings
These and related materials may be found under the following headings in online library/archival catalogs.
See tripod record


Historical Background
GWEN (Ground Wave Emergency Network was a grass roots organization founded in the mid 1980s. Mobilized citizens protested the establishment of a GWEN network, a plan by the U.S. Air Force to build a system of radiotowers around the U.S. for the purpose of maintaining military communications in the event of nuclear war. The GWEN Project was a national organization, headquartered in Amherst, Massachusetts. The co-directors were Nancy Foster and Lois Barber. In 1994, the U.S. Congress refused further funding for GWEN, calling it wasteful and unnecessary.

Collection Overview
This collection contains files of various GWEN projects across the U.S.

Items removed:
Photographs

Arrangement of Collection
The GWEN Project records have not been processed and the files remain in the order in which they were donated. The files are listed in the two separate accession in which they were donated





Detailed Description of the Collection

Acc. 01A-030
Acc. 03A-027


Box 1 [Acc. 01A-030]
FOC Sites/Protests
Responses at FOC sites: overview
Sites: Final Operational Capability (FOC)
Cedarville (California): opposition to the FOC
Del Norte (Colorado): opposition to the FOC
Denmark (Maine): opposition to the FOC
Monson (Maine): opposition to the FOC
Traverse City (Michigan): opposition to the FOC -- Kingsley
Brainerd (Minnesota): opposition to the FOC -- Shepard
Hamilton (Montana): opposition to the FOC
Livingston (Montana): opposition to the FOC
Nevada: opposition to the FOC
Denton (North Carolina): opposition to the FOC -- CID
Kanab (Utah): opposition to the FOC
Nelson County (Virginia): opposition to the FOC -- Shipman
Medford (Wisconsin )—opposition to the FOC -- Chelsea
FOC: Protests Absent or Minimal
Brookston (Indiana): minimal protest against the FOC
Rockford (Idaho): minimal protest against the FOC
Accident (Maryland): minimal protest against the FOC
Missouri: minimal protest against the FOC -- Curryville and Dudley
Whitney (Nebraska): minimal protest against the FOC
Delaware (Ohio): minimal protest against the FOC
Tobyhanna (Pennsylvania): minimal protest against the FOC
Dandridge (Tennessee): minimal protest against the FOC
Crockett (Virginia): minimal protest against the FOC
Air Force announcements of preferred sites in uncontested locations
Other FOC sites of absent or minimal protest
Lobbying
Lobbying the House of Representatives, 1993
Lobbying the Senate, 1993
Lobbying and congressional action, 1990
Lobbying and congressional action, 1987
Lobbying and congressional action, 1986

Box 2 [Acc. 01A-030]
Lobbying (cont.)
Lobbying in Massachusetts
Representative Silvio Conte (Massachusetts), 1985-1991
Sen. Edward Kennedy (Massachusetts)
Sen. John Kerry (Massachusetts), 1985
Richard Bell (aide to Sen. John Kerry)
Representative Barney Frank, 1986-1993
Representative Mavroules (Massachusetts), 1986-1990
Representative Atkins and Representative Boland (Massachusetts)
Representative Studds (Massachusetts)
Other Massachusetts Representatives
Representatives. Machtley, Schneider, St. Germain, 1986-1990
Sens. Pell and Chafee (Rhode Island)
Representative Payne (Virginia), 1990-1993
Representative Sabo (Minnesota), 1993-1994
Sen. Hatfield (Oregon)
Senators Levin and Riegle (Michigan)
Other Representatives and Senators
Help from Peace Groups
Appeals and/or news releases to or by peace groups
Monday Lobby Group, 1990, 1993
Lobbying by local groups and individuals, 1990
Citizens for Participation in Political Action (Massachusetts)
Natural Resources Defense Council
Lobbying by peace organizations, 1987-1988
Physicians for Social Responsibility
20/20 Vision
Misc. peace groups
Air Force
Communication with Air Force Public Affairs and Director of GWEN Program
Air Force documents
Air Force documents: background
Environmental Assessment
Thin Line Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact, 1985
Thin Line Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact, 1982
Air Force’s sithholding of information
Scoping
Air Force Scoping Meeting, Washington (DC), September 25, 1986
Documentation for Foster statement at Scoping Meeting
Scoping submissions, Fall 1986
DEIS
Hearing: Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) re: FOC, June 8, 1987
Preparation for June 8, 1987 hearing on DEIS re: FOC
Written submissions for hearing on DEIS, June 1987
DEIS hearings in other cities, 1987
Final Environmental Impact Statement on FOC: Excerpts
Tower Sites
Thin Line sites
Shrinking GWEN network
Precise location of Thin Line sites
Air Force notification of tower sites: process and problems
FOIA Requests and Documents
Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests: help from National Security Archives
Documents secured under FOIA by Institute for Policy Studies
Documents secured under FOIA by GWEN Project

B
ox 3 [Acc. 01A-030]
Department of Defense
Department of Defense documents
Franklin Miller's defense of GWEN
Philosophy Behind GWEN
Protracted war strategy, through 1983
Protracted war strategy, 1984-1990
Critiques of protracted war strategy
Federal environmental regulations
C-Cubed: articles and bibliography
Shift in U.S. targeting strategy (Los Angeles Times), 1989 (July)
Documents for Reference
Documents for reference, 1990-1994
Documents for reference, 1987-1989
Documents for reference, 1986
Documents for rReference, thru 1985
Hearings, Votes, and Statements on GWEN
Hearings, votes, and statements by local and state governmental bodies
Changing Size of Network
Size of network
Funding for GWEN
Bulletin of Atomic Scientists
Foster article in Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, 1988 (November)
Follow-up articles on GWEN in Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, 1994 (January-February)
Contacts with editors in Bulletin of Atomic Scientists
Institute for Policy Studies
Institute for Policy Studies: Bill Arkin and Kathleen Clark
Center for Defense Information
Center for Defense Information: Admiral Carroll and Captain Bush
Center for Defense Information: Ronald Fraser
Approach to other Defense Analysts
Supportive Defense Analyst Michael Klare
Supportive Defense Analyst Adm. Noel Gaylor Ret.
Supportive Defense Analyst Allan Krass
Supportive Defense Analyst Peter Hayes
Letters to defense analysts
Approach to Defense Analyst Robert Aldridge
Approach to Defense Analyst Desmond Ball
Approach to Defense Analyst Bruce Blair
Approach to Defense Analyst Paul Bracken
Approach to Defense Analyst Ashton Carter
Approach to Defense Analyst Daniel Ford
Approach to Defense Analyst Thomas Powers
Approach to Defense Analyst John Pike, James Rubin
Approach to Defense Analyst John Steinbruner
Approach to Defense Analyst Jonathan Tucker

Box 4 [Acc. 01A-030]
Gwen Project Documents, Newsletters, Updates
GWEN Project documents, 1990-1994
GWEN Project documents, 1987-1989
GWEN Project documents, 1986
GWEN Project documents, 1985
No-GWEN News and Updates to Activists
Information packets, 1985
Mailing lists
Oral presentations on GWEN
Lois Barber’s Letters to the Editor; op-ed pieces by GWEN opponents
Questions on GWEN developed by GWEN Project
Mainstream press and wire stories, 1983-1994
Editorials re: GWEN
GWEN Project's press releases
Background information for the press; national press contacts
Press contacts (mostly initiated by reporters at tower sites)
Peace-oriented press
REColoradoN 1 (project censored)
REColoradoN 2
Lawsuits
Lawsuits: Conservation Law Foundation and State of Rhode Island
Conservation Law Foundation
Approach to Massachusetts Attorney General
Lawsuit: Lane County (Oregon)
Lawsuit:
township[?] of Little Egg Harbor (New Jersey)
Protest in Amherst
Amherst Selectboard
Amherst town meeting
Hampshire County commissioners hearings, 1985 (February.-April)
Contacts with county commissioners
Questions for the military at county commissioners hearings
Hearing, February. 12, 1985: William Arkin, Institute for Policy Studies transcript
Hearing, March 26, 1985: Lt Col Dale Condit, U.S. Air Force transcript
Hearing, April 16, 1985: Franklin Miller, Director, Strategic Forces Policy -- DOD transcript
Initial response to news of tower, 1984 (November-December)
Organizing against tower, 1985 (January)
Opposition to tower, 1985 (February)
Opposition to tower, 1985 (March)

Box 5 [Acc. 01A-030]
Opposition to tower, Amherst (Massachusetts), 1985 (April-October)
Local support for GWEN Project
Originals of Press Reports and Local Articles
News reports: Amherst area press
Letters to the Editor and op ed pieces: Amherst area press
Funding, Grants, Expenses
Peace Development Fund
Haymarket People’s Fund
CS Fund: funding exchange
Winston Foundation
Testimonials for funding sources
Budgets for grants
Expenses of Director (Foster)
Opposition at Tower Sites (Thin Line)
Opposition at Thin Line sites
Southeastern Massaschusetts, Cape Cod and Rhode Island Opposition to/at Thin Line Site/s
Cape Cod (Massachusetts) opposition to/at Thin Line site/s
S.E. Massachusetts opposition, including ACUSHNET to/at Thin Line site/s
Newsclippings re: S.E. Massachusetts opposition to/at Thin Line site/s
Little Compton (Rhode Island) opposition to/at Thin Line site/s
Newsclippings re: Little Compton (Rhode Island) opposition to/at Thin Line site/s
Westport (Massachusetts) opposition to/at Thin Line site/s
North Central Mass. Protests to/at Thin Line Site/s
Barre (Massachusetts) opposition (North Central, Massachusetts) to/at Thin Line site/s
Hubbardston (Massachusetts) opposition (North Central, Massachusetts) to/at Thin Line site/s
Gardner (Massachusetts) opposition (North Central, Massachusetts) to/at Thin Line site/s
Hardwick (Massachusetts) opposition (North Central, Massachusetts) to/at Thin Line site/s
North Brookfield (Massachusetts) Opposition (North Central, Massachusetts) to/at Thin Line site/s
Westminster (Massachusetts) Opposition (North Central, Massachusetts) to/at Thin Line site/s
Other North Central Massachusetts opposition to/at Thin Line site/s
Castine (Maine) opposition to/at Thin Line site/s
Penobscot (Maine) opposition to/at Thin Line site/s
Sherman (Maine) opposition to/at Thin Line site/s
Protests to/at Thin Line Site/s Outside of New England
California Opposition to/at Thin Line site/s: Chico and Bakersfield
Rocky Flats (Colorado) opposition to/at Thin Line site/s
Mechanicsvilled (IA) opposition to/at Thin Line site/s
Maryland opposition to/at Thin Line site/s: Hagerstown, Waldorf and Crownsville

Box 6
[Acc. 01A-030]
Onondaga (Holt, Michigan) opposition to/at Thin Line site/s
Polson (Montana) opposition to/at Thin Line site/s
Lacey (New Jersey) opposition to/at Thin Line site/s
Egg Harbor/ Little Egg Harbor (New Jersey) opposition to/at Thin Line site/s
Elmira (New York) opposition to/at Thin Line site/s
New Bern (North Carolina) opposition to/at Thin Line site/s
Eugene (Oregon) opposition to/at Thin Line site/s
Gettysburg (Pennsylvania) opposition to/at Thin Line site/s

Box 7 [Acc. 01A-030]
Harbor Creek (Pennsylvania) opposition to/at Thin Line site/s
Mequon (Wisconsin) opposition to/at Thin Line site/s
Actions at Thin Line tower sites (includes civil disobedience)
Sites with minimal protest opposing Thin Line
Massachusetts State Officials
Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis on GWEN
Recommendations to Governor Dukakis by Governor’s Advisory Council
GWEN as issue in Governor Dukakis’ presidential campaign, 1988
Congressional Documents
Congressional hearings, 1987-1989
Congressional hearings, thr
ough 1986
Reports to Congress


Box 8 [Acc. 03A-027]
FOC sties/protests
Lobbying [2 folders]
Help from peace groups
Environmental assessment, Scoping, Dies
Tower sites (thin line)
Department of Defense, documents for reference, Center for Defense Information
Approach to other defense analysts
GWEN Project documents
Correspondence with longwave club and photos of GWEN towers
Press contacts
Recon 1 (project censored)
Lawsuits, Conservation Law Foundation
Protest in Amherst (Massachusetts)
Clippings
Protest in Amherst (Massachusetts) 1985 (April - October)
Local fundraising
Funding, grants, expenses, Peace Development Fund, 1985
Funding, grants, expenses, Peace Development Fund, 1986
Funding, grants, expenses, Peace Development Fund, 1987-1990
Funding, grants, expenses, Haymarket People's Fund

Box 9 [Acc. 03A-027]
Opposition at Maine sites and opposition outside New England
Funding, grants, expenses, CS Fund, Funding Exchange
Funding, grants, expenses, Winston Foundation
Funding, grants, expenses, Ferry, Traprock, Topsfield
Funding, grants, expenses, directors' expenses
Opposition at thin line sites, Chronology, S.E. Massachusetts, Cape Cod, and Rhode Island
Thin line protests outside New England [2 folders]
Massachusetts state officials
Clippings [2 folders]
Requests for information, 1985
Requests for information, 1986
Requests for information, 1987