Swarthmore College Peace Collection, 500 College Avenue, Swarthmore, Pennsylvania 19081 U.S.A.

 

SANE, Inc. (DG 58)

 

Records, 1957-1987
 

 

Document Group: DG 58

Size: 199 linear feet (60.7 meters); 514 boxes

Provenance: Deposited by SANE, Inc., SANE/FREEZE, Peace Action and individuals active with SANE, 1964-1994

Restrictions: None

Microfilm: None

Finding Aids: Checklist prepared by Eleanor M. Barr, 1983, Series G revised May 1985; Major revisions, 1994


This finding aid is the property of the Swarthmore College Peace Collection


 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 


Historical Introduction

The National Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy was initiated in 1957 by an ad hoc committee called together by Norman Cousins and Clarence E. Pickett to consider what could be done to halt atmospheric nuclear testing. Their intent was not to form a new organization but to focus American opinion on the facts and dangers of the nuclear age. On November 15, 1957 a full-page advertisement appeared in The New York Times which began: "We are facing a danger unlike any danger that has ever existed."

The country-wide response to this ad launched SANE as a national organization and resulted in the formation of 130 local chapters with 25,000 members by the summer of 1958. National headquarters were established in New York, with Trevor Thomas serving as executive secretary and with Cousins and Pickett continuing as co-chairmen. A Washington office was opened in 1960 when Sanford Gottlieb was hired as Political Action Director. National headquarters remained in New York until the summer of 1970 when the two offices were consolidated in Washington. In November 1987, SANE merged with the Nuclear Weapons Freeze Campaign to form SANE/FREEZE (later called Peace Action).

SANE was formally incorporated in Delaware on July 23, 1958 as the National Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy, Inc. The name of the organization was officially changed in 1969 to SANE, Inc./A Citizens' Organization for a Sane World. In 1982, the name was again changed to SANE, Inc./The Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy. In December 1983 SANE, Inc. was incorporated as a non-profit corporation in the District of Columbia. Two other corporate entities related to SANE were the National SANE Education Fund and SANE PAC. The National SANE Education Fund (NSEF) was set up in 1978 as a charitable and educational organization to which individuals and foundations could make tax-deductible contributions. These funds could be used only for purposes of research and education. SANE PAC (political action committee) was established in 1981 as a separate legal entity which could directly participate in elections by making contributions to candidates or by providing staff and volunteers to campaigns, etc. Funds for SANE PAC could be raised only from SANE members. The finances for these three entities had to be kept entirely separate, although it was possible for NSEF to provide funding to SANE, Inc. for educational activities or for SANE PAC to reimburse SANE, Inc. for staff time spent on SANE PAC activities.

Leadership of SANE has been provided by the following chairmen and co-chairmen:
1957-1964 Norman Cousins and Clarence Pickett
1964-1967 H. Stuart Hughes and Benjamin Spock
1967-1970 H. Stuart Hughes
1970-1973 Edward U. Condon and Seymour Melman
1973-1974 Seymour Melman and Wayne Morse
1975-1979 Seymour Melman and Andrew Young
1979-1984 Seymour Melman and William Winpisinger
1985-1987 Marcus Raskin and William Winpisinger
and by the following executive directors:
1957 Trevor Thomas
1958-1960 Donald F. Keys
1960-1964 Homer A. Jack
1964-1967 Donald F. Keys
1967-1977 Sanford Gottlieb
1977-1987 David B. Cortright
[Staff list]

Sanford Gottlieb described SANE as neither a religious nor pacifist organization but as a pragmatic one, working legislatively and politically toward general and complete disarmament. To achieve this goal, SANE has engaged in two major types of activity: public education (including such things as the distribution of printed materials and slide shows, radio broadcasts, newspaper advertisements, organization of conferences and other public meetings, etc.) and lobbying (primarily members of Congress but also members of the Executive Branch, political parties, and candidates).

Citizen participation has been an important aspect of SANE's work and the local chapters of SANE have performed an invaluable educational and lobbying function. The number of SANE chapters and their strength has varied from time to time and from place to place. In some areas, local chapters joined together to form regional groups which could support an office and paid staff (e.g., New York SANE Council and New Jersey SANE). However, most chapters have relied on the volunteer efforts of local members. In the early 1980s, the national office placed renewed emphasis on chapter development, and many new chapters were formed as SANE's membership grew rapidly, increasing from about 17,000 in March 1982 to over 150,000 by September 1986.

In the 1960s, dissension within SANE was caused by concern over Communist influence. The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee held hearings in 1960 on "Communist Infiltration in the Nuclear Test Ban Movement," and SANE was attacked by Senator Thomas E. Dodd for permitting Communist infiltration. SANE's Board passed a resolution on May 26, 1960 stating that "members of the Communist Party or individuals who are not free because of party discipline or political allegiance to apply to the actions of the Soviet or Chinese government the same standard by which they challenge others are barred from any voice in deciding the Committee's policies or programs." At the same time, the Board vigorously objected to the intrusion of the Senate Subcommittee into SANE's internal affairs. Concern over how this matter was handled led to the resignation of some of SANE's key supporters.

From its early goal of cessation of nuclear testing, SANE soon broadened its focus to general disarmament. SANE worked for the establishment of the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency and tried to build public support and funding for its work. It supported the Geneva test ban negotiations which led to the signing of a partial test ban treaty in 1963. Concerned about the need for advance planning to avoid economic problems and dislocations caused by reductions in the military budget, SANE began to work on issues relating to the economics of conversion in 1964. However, the movement toward disarmament was virtually halted during the Vietnam war. SANE was an early critic of the war and, in November 1965, was responsible for organizing the largest anti-war demonstration until that time. SANE promoted resolutions for a negotiated settlement in Vietnam and, later, for withdrawal of American troops. In the 1968 presidential election, SANE was the first non-partisan organization to oppose the re-election of President Lyndon Johnson and the first to support Eugene McCarthy.

In the late 1960s, some of SANE's anti-Vietnam war efforts again caused dissension within the organization as some staff and board members sought to avoid close association with the more radical elements of the anti-war movement. Whether or not to endorse and participate in the 1967 Spring Mobilization to End the War in Vietnam became a polarizing issue, eventually leading to the resignation, for different reasons, of Dr. Benjamin Spock as Co-chairman and of Donald Keys as Executive Director. By trying to remain in the middle of the political spectrum, SANE lost supporters on both the left and the right.

In addition to working on disarmament in general, SANE has been involved in efforts to halt the development and deployment of specific weapons systems. SANE effectively opposed the proposed anti-ballistic missile (ABM) system in 1970 and helped to defeat the B-1 bomber in 1977. From 1978-1985, SANE and other groups worked to prevent funding for development and production of the MX missile. SANE helped to create the independent National Campaign to Stop the MX in 1981 and shared staff members and office space with that campaign for several years. SANE and the National Campaign worked with national environmental groups and with local grassroots organizations in the western deployment states to build public opposition to the MX missile system. In June 1985, the House of Representatives voted to place a permanent cap on the number of MX missiles deployed. Although SANE and other groups were not able to prevent production altogether, they were successful in greatly reducing the number of missiles and in preventing implementation of the most costly and environmentally harmful deployment systems. Also in the late 1970s and early 1980s, SANE worked with peace leaders in Europe to oppose the deployment of Pershing II and cruise missiles in Europe.

In the 1970s and 1980s, SANE continued to place major emphasis on the need to reduce the military budget, to redirect federal spending to meet social needs, and to plan for the conversion of defense industries. SANE's long working relationship with labor unions on economic conversion issues, beginning in the 1960s, led to the selection of William Winpisinger, President of the International Association of Machinists as Co-chairman of SANE in 1979.

Other issues in which SANE was involved in the 1980s include opposition to Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative ("Star Wars") and to U.S. involvement in Central America and support for proposals for a comprehensive test ban.

From the mid-sixties on, SANE was involved in electoral politics, supporting candidates whose policies agreed with those of the organization. The Voters' Pledge Campaign in 1966 collected over 100,000 signatures for candidates who pledged to work for a peaceful settlement in Vietnam. It was not until the 1980s, however, that a separate political action committee was formally established. SANE PAC was initiated in 1981 "to advance the cause of nuclear arms reduction in the 1982 political campaigns." SANE PAC made financial contributions and organized SANE members as volunteers in 32 House and Senate campaigns. SANE PAC was also active in the 1984 and 1986 elections.

Also in the 1980s, SANE joined forces with several other peace and environmental organizations to form the Arms Control Computer Network (ACCN), a joint effort to acquire compatible computer equipment and to create a common legislative data base and a data base of activists to be used on arms control issues. The goal was to communicate efficiently with local activists in order to lobby more effectively. This telecommunications project, initiated late in 1981, experienced problems with funding and with both hardware and software, causing sigificant delays. Several joint legislative alerts were produced and mailed in 1985-1986. ACCN's office and mainframe computer were located in SANE's Washington headquarters.

As mentioned above SANE's membership grew rapidly in the 1980s. Part of this growth was due to greatly increased use of direct mail, beginning in the late 1970s. In addition, a door-to-door canvassing program was initiated in 1983, the first professional canvass for peace in the U.S. SANE Canvass offices were opened in several cities, employing full-time organizers to take SANE's message to local residents. As the program expanded, as many as 200 people worked for SANE Canvass in the summer months. By 1985, the Canvass was SANE's largest program for fundraising, membership recruitment, and organizing outreach. Later, a phone canvass was added to follow up on contacts with new members recruited through the Canvass.

In 1986-1987, SANE began a process of decentralizing the Canvass in areas with strong local chapters, thereby transferring control of the financial and political program of local Canvass offices to local boards of directors.

SANE and United World Federalists had explored the possibility of merging in 1963-1965, but representatives of the two organizations were unable to reach agreement on goals and objectives of a new organization.

Beginning in 1984, SANE and the Nuclear Weapons Freeze Campaign began to consider the possibility of merging the two organizations, building on the strengths of both. The Freeze was a nationwide, non-partisan movement which grew rapidly in the early 1980s in response to a "Call to Halt the Nuclear Arms Race", drafted by Randall Forsberg and endorsed in March 1981 by the first annual Freeze conference. The Call stated: "To improve national and international security, the United States and the Soviet Union should stop the nuclear arms race. Specifically, they should adopt a mutual freeze on the testing, production and deployment of nuclear weapons and of missiles and new aircraft designed primarily to deliver nuclear weapons. This is an essential, verifiable first step toward lessening the risk of nuclear war and reducing the nuclear arsenals." The emphasis on a bilateral, verifiable Freeze won wide support and led to the formation of many local Freeze groups, loosely coordinated by a Freeze clearinghouse in St. Louis and a National Committee and National Conferences. Many organizations, including SANE, worked together for passage of Freeze legislation in the U.S. Congress as a first step in achieving nuclear disarmament. A merger proposal was drafted by the FREEZE/SANE Unity Commission in 1986, approved by the Freeze National Conference in December 1986 and by the SANE Board of Directors in January 1987. After almost a year of additional work by a Transition Team (ten representatives of each organization), by staff members, and by local organizations, the founding Congress of SANE/FREEZE was held in November 1987. William Sloane Coffin, Jr. was selected as President of the newly merged organization, with David Cortright (Executive Director of SANE) and Carolyn Cottom (Executive Director of the Nuclear Weapons Freeze Campaign) serving as Co-Directors.


 

Scope and Content

The Swarthmore College Peace Collection is the official repository for the records of the national office of SANE, Inc. Included in the collection are minutes (1957-1987) of the Executive Committee and the National Board, correspondence (1957-1987), memoranda, reports, statements, literature (including serial publications, pamphlets, releases, and newspaper advertisements), financial records, membership lists, scrapbooks, clippings, photographs, audiovisual material (videotapes, films, slides and slide sets, and sound recordings) and computer disks. There are extensive office files of the executive directors and other staff members in the national offices in New York (1957-1970) and Washington, DC (1971-1987) and of the Washington Office of SANE (1960-1970).

SANE periodicals shelved with the Periodical collection in SCPC include SANE-U.S.A. (1958-1962), SANE World (1962-1987), The Conversion Planner (1978-1982), SANE Labor Clips (1980-1982) and newsletters from various local branches. Other serial titles filed with the archival collection are listed in the Checklist.

The files of SANE's national offices contain correspondence with and material about local branches throughout the country. In addition, the Peace Collection has received some material directly from local branches and from individuals active in local branches. Records of the New York SANE Council include minutes (1957-1969), scattered correspondence (1957-1982), newsletters and other publications, administrative files, materials relating to projects and demonstrations, and records pertaining to local SANE committees throughout the New York metropolitan area. The bulk of the material dates from the period 1957-1969. Records of the Greater Philadelphia Council of SANE include minutes and reports (1963-1972) and literature (1960-1974). Records of the Northwest Philadelphia chapter of SANE contain correspondence, financial records, and news releases (ca. 1959-1973). There are smaller amounts of material on the Southern California Council for a Sane Nuclear Policy (1958-1966), Greater Boston Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy (ca. 1959-1961), and SANE/Alaska (1987-1988).

Records of the National SANE Education Fund (1978-1987) include legal papers, reports and publications. Financial reports and correspondence relating to NSEF are found throughout the files of the National Office for this time period (Series G), particularly in the files of David Cortright.

Records of SANE PAC (1982-1986) include legal papers, correspondence and memoranda, reports, general information about elections, files on Senatorial and Congressional candidates supported by SANE in the 1982 and 1984 elections, and information on donors to SANE PAC, 1982-1983.

The files on SANE Canvass (1983-1987) include correspondence, memoranda, reports, training materials, financial reports, files on local Canvass offices, and materials relating to the SANE/FREEZE merger and to the Canvass Women's Caucus.

The SANE collection also includes records of two coalition groups which shared SANE office space and with which SANE was closely associated: the National Campaign to Stop the MX (1981-1984) and the Arms Control Computer Network (1981-1986). The MX files of SANE and of the National Campaign to Stop the MX include correspondence, reports, clippings, and extensive office files of several staff members. There is information about lobbying campaigns in Congress and about organizing work in western states selected as possible deployment areas, including information about many local organizations which became involved in the fight to stop the MX. Reference material includes reports on the environmental impact of various deployment systems.

There are materials on the Nuclear Weapons Freeze Campaign (1982-1987) and on the process of merging SANE with the Freeze Campaign to form SANE/FREEZE in 1987 (name later changed to Peace Action). Researchers interested in the 1986-1987 period should also consult DG 151, Peace Action.

The Peace Collection is the repository for the records of SANE and of Peace Action, but the records of the Nuclear Weapons Freeze Campaign (1980-1986) are located in the Western Historical Manuscript Collection of the University of Missouri-St. Louis.

Because SANE staff members and SANE as an organization have been active in a variety of coalition groups, there is often correspondence and other information relating to such groups in the SANE files. Among the groups represented by a significant amount of material are the 1960 Campaign for Disarmament and the March on Washington for Peace in Vietnam (November 1965), both coordinated by Sanford Gottlieb; Turn Toward Peace (1960s), Voters' Pledge Campaign (1966), International Confederation for Disarmament and Peace (1963-ca. 1976), Coalition for a New Foreign and Military Policy and its predecessors (1969-1986), Committee Against Registration and the Draft (1979-1982), Fair Budget Action Campaign (1981-1983), Women's Action for Nuclear Disarmament (1982-1986), and the Rainbow Coalition (1980s).

Extensive subject files in the collection contain information about nuclear testing and nuclear test ban agreements, radiation and fallout, the health effects of exposure to low level radiation, chemical and biological warfare, disarmament and disarmament conferences, economic conversion, labor unions, the military budget, the MX missile, the draft, the Vietnam war. the United Nations, and Central America.

Among the significant correspondents are Steve Allen, David B. Cortright, Norman Cousins, Sanford Gottlieb, H. Stuart Hughes, Homer A. Jack, Donald F. Keys, Seymour Melman, Benjamin Spock, and Norman Thomas.

Closely related collections in the Peace Collection include the following:
Consider the Alternatives Productions, Inc. (DG 130) (formerly SANE Education Fund)
New Jersey SANE (DG 132)
Peace Action (DG 151) (formerly SANE/FREEZE)
David Cortright (DG 101)
Abraham Egnal (DG 136)
Homer A. Jack (DG 63)


 

Arrangement

The records of SANE have come to the Swarthmore College Peace Collection in at least fifty accessions over a thirty year period. The 1964 and 1967 accessions were processed in 1966-1967 by the SCPC staff. Accessions from 1971 to 1982 were processed by Eleanor Barr in 1982-1983 under a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities. Accessions from 1984 to 1994 were processed by Eleanor Barr in 1989-1994.

The material has been arranged in the following series:

Series A: Records of the National Office of SANE, New York, NY, Administrative Records, 1957-1970

This series consists of various types of administrative records covering the period 1957 to 1970. Materials originating after 1970 which were added to this series between 1967 and 1982 have been transferred to Series G. Arrangement is by type of material, then chronological. Many of the folders probably originated in the files of the National Office. Additional items have been added to some of the folders to fill apparent gaps. Boxes 10 through 11b (literature and releases) have been reorganized several times in order to accommodate additional material and to try to clarify the arrangement.

Series B: Records of the National Office of SANE, New York, NY, Correspondence, 1957-1966

Series B contains correspondence together with related material and is divided into several subseries (B-1 through B-7).

Subseries B-1 consists of correspondence and other papers of Norman Cousins, 1957-1958, arranged alphabetically.

Subseries B-2 contains material relating to the formation of SANE and to the first months of its existence.

Subseries B-3 through B-6 consist of correspondence and related material, arranged alphabetically in two-year periods (1957-1958, 1959-1960, 1961-1962, and 1963-1964).

Subseries B-7 contains correspondence and related papers for the period November/December 1964 through November 1966 (May to October 1966 is missing), arranged by months.

It is likely that the arrangement of the series was imposed by the SCPC staff during processing. Apparently the correspondence in Subseries B-7 was not processed in the same pattern as Subseries B-3 through B-6 because it was hoped that additional correspondence for 1966 would be found. It seems probable that some of the correspondence for this period was transferred to the Washington Office of SANE when Sanford Gottlieb became Executive Director in Dec. 1967. See Series E below.

Series C: Files of Donald F. Keys, 1966-1967

Series C consists of material given to SCPC in 1971 by Donald F. Keys, a member of the SANE staff from 1958 to 1967. The material relates to the conflict within SANE, 1966-1967, shortly before Keys resigned as Executive Director in December 1967. The arrangement is essentially that given to it by Keys.

Series D: Photographs

This series originally consisted of a number of scrapbooks and five photograph albums which had been given to SCPC by SANE in 1975. The scrapbooks have now been photocopied and are filed in Series A, Box 25. The photograph albums were dismantled and processed by a student assistant in July 1984. Photographs have been placed in individual enclosures and boxed according to size (8 x 10, 5 x 7, 4 x 5 and oversize). They are shelved with the SCPC Photograph Collection.

Many additional photographs were received with Acc. no. 91A-44. These have been placed in individual enclosures and identified if possible. Additional photographs, found scattered throughout the SANE collection, have been transferred to the SANE Photograph Collection and filed in the appropriate sequence.

The source of each photo is noted at the bottom right corner of the enclosure. This might be an accession number or a folder heading or a reference to one of the five photo albums which were labelled as follows:
"Some People of SANE"
"Vietnam Actions, 1964-1971"
"Eleanor Roosevelt Peace Awards, 1962-1974"
"Military and Nuclear Policy"
"SANE-sponsored Telethon for New York Peace Candidates,October 1966 - Melvin Dubin, Ted Weiss, Jerome Wilson,
James Watson, Leslie Roberts"

SANE photographs are divided into two major groups: "People" and "Events." There is a great deal of overlap in these categories. If a specific individual is not contained in the "People" file, look for him/her in the "Events" file. Within the "People" file, photographs of individuals are arranged alphabetically. Group photographs are arranged by date, with undated photographs at the end. "Events" are also arranged by date, with unidentified and undated items at the end.

There are also some miscellaneous photos which do not fit into either of these categories. Some of these are filed by categories established by the SANE staff (e.g., "Photos of things"); others are identified simply as Miscellaneous.

Negatives have been kept separate from the photographs and are grouped together at the end of each size. If a negative for a photo is available, it will be noted in the bottom left corner of the enclosure.

Box 7 (8 x 10 photos) contains photos that were sent to SANE but are not of SANE-sponsored events. They were found in the SANE administrative files.

Series E: Records of the Washington Office of SANE, 1957-1970

Series E contains records of the Washington Office of SANE from 1957 to 1970. (Two subseries contain material after 1970, as noted below.) A small quantity of pre-1960 material is from the Washington Committee for a SANE Nuclear Policy, a local group with which Sanford Gottlieb was active. In February 1960 a legislative office of SANE was opened in Washington, DC, with Sanford Gottlieb serving as Political Action Director. He remained in this position until December 1967 when he became Executive Director of SANE. The national headquarters of SANE was moved from New York to Washington in July 1970. The records in this series document the involvement of Sanford Gottlieb in SANE and in various peace coalitions and the changing role of the Washington Office in the organization.

The bulk of the material in Series E came to SCPC in the accessions of 1977 and 1978. The arrangement of the series is based on the arrangement of the materials in Accession Number 78A-8 when they arrived. These materials are thought to have been arranged by Paul Murphy, a student who spent a January internship working for SANE in 1978. There is a paper by Murphy in Series G, Box 4a (NOTE: this # will change ) but unfortunately the paper says very little about his work on the SANE records. When the material arrived at SCPC, it was arranged year by year, with categories #1 through #9 for each year. As the material was being processed by the SCPC staff, it was decided to arrange the material first by the designated categories and then chronologically within each category. A few changes have been made in the categories so that they are now as follows:
#1 Congressional Record, Testimony, Bills
#2 Staff Reports, Minutes, Memos
#3 Charter, By-laws, Position Papers
#4 Annual Reports, Financial Reports
#5 Correspondence (by Topic)
#6 Correspondence (by State + International)
#7 Releases and Clippings
#8 Conferences
#9 Literature
#10 File Topics

The original Category #6 (Press releases, press clips, ads) has been combined with Category #7 (News clippings). All clippings which mention SANE or people prominent within SANE have been saved, while general clippings have been discarded. Materials which came to SCPC labelled as "File Topics" in the original Category #6 have been moved to a newly created Category #10.

Category #5 now contains correspondence arranged by topics within each year. When the material arrived at SCPC, all correspondence for one year was lumped together in several very fat folders. The processor has divided the correspondence by topics on the basis of notations for filing on the letters themselves or on the basis of letter content. There are some items in these folders which seem to have come from files of the National Office in New York.

The new Category #6 contains correspondence which is arranged geographically first, then chronologically. More that half of the correspondence in this subseries had come to SCPC in Accession Number 77A-30. The remainder was mixed in with the correspondence in Category #5 in Accession Number 78A-8. Researchers should note that this subseries contains correspondence after 1970. Span dates vary from state to state, some ending as late as 1975. Additional correspondence arranged by states is located in Series H.

Materials which came to SCPC labelled as "File Topics" in the original Category #6 have been moved to a newly created Category #10. Material is arranged alphabetically by topic. Many of these folders contain material covering a span of years; some of the material dates from the early 1970s. Although the bulk of the files are reference materials, there is also some correspondence. Correspondence has been placed in separate folders within each topic. SANE publications have been moved to Series A (up to 1970) or Series G (1971 and later).

Throughout Series E, an attempt has been made to pull out SANE materials which more appropriately belong in Series A, such as minutes and SANE publications. This was done to reduce duplication and to make Series A as complete as possible.

A small amount of material from later accessions has been added to Series E when no other logical place for the material could be found. Accession numbers are marked on these folders.

Series F: Eleanor Roosevelt Peace Award, 1962-1978

Series F came to the Peace Collection in two accessions. It was decided to bring the material together in one series which covers awards given from 1962 to 1978. The amount of material various greatly from award to award.

Series G: Records of the National Office of SANE, Washington, DC, 1971-1987

When Series G was established in 1982-1983, it was intended to contain all files of the SANE National Office after the office moved to Washington, DC, in 1971. However, the large volume of SANE material which was sent to the Peace Collection in the 1980s made this scheme impractical. Several other series were established, partly in order to make Series G more manageable in size, but also to bring together in one place, materials relating to several special projects and to separately incorporated entities related to SANE, Inc. See the descriptions below for the content and arrangement of Series H, K, L, M, and N, all of which were found mixed in with records which are now in Series G.

The arrangement of Series G is based partly on the arrangement of Series A in that certain types of material are grouped together by type of material, with each type arranged in chronological order. Minutes, materials relating to the Board of Directors and to the SANE staff, financial records, literature, releases, and clippings about SANE are placed near the beginning of the series. Each type of material is arranged in chronological order, the exception being an alphabetical file of information about members of the Board of Directors.

Many factors entered into the overall arrangement of Series G. The plan has been to bring together the files of individual staff members, to group them according to areas of responsibility (e.g., legislative work, publications), to keep things in chronological order as much as possible, and to work with the existing arrangement of the files when they arrived in the Peace Collection. If a section of files appeared to be in alphabetical order, that arrangement was maintained or re-established. More frequently, folders have been placed in rough chronological order because there was no discernible order. Files on the same topic or project have been brought together if they seemed to be from the files of one staff member. When several staff members worked on the same topic or project, there may be information in several different places in Series G on that topic or project.

The arrangement of material within folders is not consistent. Many folders have been left in order as found Often, this is very rough reverse chronological order. When many items are undated, it is not possible to put things in chronological order without spending an enormous amount of time trying to date each item. Rearrangement into chronological order also disturbs the relationship which may exist between adjacent items.

However, in some cases, material within a folder has been refiled in straight chronological order in order to make it easier for researchers to follow a project from beginning to end and also to make it possible to identify duplicate copies of the same item so that duplicates could be discarded.

It should be noted that some topical files contain material dating from before 1971. Presumably, folders used by staff members in the Washington Office were kept and used by the same or other staff members after the Washington Office became the National Office. Also, material giving background on a particular topic may have been collected and used by staff members long after the date on the item.

There is some overlap between Series E and Series G

Series H: Records of the National Office of SANE, Washington, DC, Correspondence, 1971-1987

Series H is an artificially created series containing correspondence of two Executive Directors (Sanford Gottlieb, 1971-1976 and David Cortright, 1977-1987) and of several other staff members. Most of these files were formerly placed in Series G but were moved here to bring together folders containing predominantly correspondence. However, there are many folders in Series G which contain correspondence together with related materials such as memoranda, notes, clippings, and reference material. Some of that correspondence may be duplicated here. Also, as noted above, there are some folders of correspondence in Series E which contain material after 1970. Researchers should realize that the correspondence in Series H is probably not complete for the period 1971-1987; there are several other series (particularly Series G) in which correspondence dating from this period will be found.

The correspondence of Sanford Gottlieb is arranged by year and then by topics similar to those used in Series E, Section #5 (see above). The items within folders are in the order in which they were found (very rough reverse chronological order). These folders came from several accessions but were placed here to bring together Gottlieb's correspondence from the period after the Washington Office of SANE became the National Office.

At the end of Box 4 is a small amount of correspondence (carbons and photocopies) of letters sent to (but not addressed to) Homer A. Jack, a member of the SANE Board of Directors and, later, the National Advisory Council. These letters are in chronological order. They came to the Peace Collection with minutes and other SANE materials collected by Homer Jack, most of which were filed into Series A or Series G to fill gaps or were discarded as duplicates.

The correspondence of Victor Lloyd, 1975-1977, is alphabetically arranged.

Correspondence, arranged by states, ca. 1974-1981, is a continuation of the correspondence filed in Series E, Section #6. Span dates vary by state, but the bulk of the material dates from the period 1974-1981. The continuation of this type of correspondence is in Series G, State Files, Boxes ??-??.

The correspondence of David Cortright is from two accessions. Both are arranged chronologically. In the period 1977 to 1980, letters sent and letters received are in separate folders. From 1981-1987, incoming and outgoing correspondence are interfiled by date in one chronological sequence. Replies are not necessarily attached to the letters to which they are a response. Several folders on specific topics are filed here because they were found in the same accession and there was no other logical place to put them.

Series I: Records of New York SANE Council and Local New York Chapters, 1957-1987

Series I consists of records of the New York SANE Council and of local chapters in the New York area. The bulk of this material came to SCPC in two accessions in November 1979. There was no discernible order to the files. The arrangement which evolved during processing is basically chronological. Certain types of material (e.g., minutes, newsletters, records pertaining to Stars for SANE) have been pulled together, then arranged chronologically. Within the overall chronology are administrative files for several different time periods. These were arranged either alphabetically or chronologically depending on what seemed to work best for that group of material. To reduce duplication, printed or mimeographed items from National SANE have been removed from the files of N.Y. SANE.

Series J: SANE Regional Organizations and Local Chapters

Series J is an artificially compiled series containing records of several SANE regional organizations and local branches which have been received from individuals active in these groups.

One box contains records (1959-1974) of the Greater Philadelphia Council of SANE and of the Northwest Philadelphia chapter of SANE. The material was received from Thomas J. McConkey, chair of the Northwest Philadelphia chapter from 1961 to 1967. The material is arranged by organizational origin, type, and date. Additional material on Philadelphia SANE will also be found in the papers of Abraham Egnal (DG 136). Scattered items from other sources (mainly releases and clippings) have been added to this box.

The files of Mary Clarke relating to SANE activities in southern California came from her files on Women Strike for Peace (see DG 115). Two fat folders labelled "SANE" have been resorted by organizational origin and by type of material. Within each folder, material is in chronological order.

Also in this series are three folders of material from Arthur Springer, a SANE member in the Boston area. Material is arranged in chronological order.

In order to reduce duplication, all printed and mimeographed material issued by National SANE has been removed from these files. Some of these items have been refiled elsewhere in DG 58 to make the files of National SANE as complete as possible.

Series K: MX Files. Records of SANE and of the National Committee to Stop the MX, 1976-1985

Series K contains materials relating to the campaign against the MX missile (ca. 1978-1985) by SANE and other organizations. Included are the MX files of SANE staff members David Cortright, Mike Mawby, and Marilyn McNabb. Records of the National Campaign to Stop the MX (1981-1984) and a few information packets from the Coalition to Stop the MX (1984-1985) are also in this series.

When processing began, it was thought that the files of the National Campaign to Stop the MX would be in a separate series, or even in a separate document group. This proved to be difficult because the files were inter- mixed when they arrived in the Peace Collection and because it appeared that, after 1981, many files were shared by both SANE and the National Campaign. In addition, Mike Mawby was on the staff of both organizations.

An initial processing plan of keeping each accession separate also proved to be impractical. There has been some consolidation of accessions in order to bring similar materials together and to reduce duplication. Accession numbers are noted on the folders.

The basic arrangement of Series K is by provenance and chronological. The files of SANE and of the National Campaign to Stop the MX have been kept separate as much as possible, and the files of each staff member involved in MX work have been kept together. Boxes 1-17 contain the files of SANE and SANE staff members David Cortright, Mike Mawby, and Marilyn McNabb. These boxes cover the period 1978-1983. Boxes 18-32 contain files of the National Campaign to Stop the MX and of National Campaign staff members Chad Dobson, April Moore, and Mike Mawby. The National Campaign to Stop the MX was active from early 1981 to mid-1984. However, many of the files contain material dating from before or after this three-year period. Files on other organizations, reference material (including government publications), and newspaper clippings are at the end of Series K.

Although the overall arrangement is chronological, there are some sections that seemed to fall naturally into alphabetical order (e.g., several sections of Subject Files and the files on Organizations in Boxes 34-36).

An alphabetical list of subjects in SANE's MX files (as of ca. 1979-1981) was found in David Cortright's files (see folder 1 of Box 7). Although it was not possible to re-assemble this file, many of the subjects listed appear as folder headings in Boxes 8, 15-16, and 20-26.

Within the folders, many have been left in the order in which they were found (usually in rough reverse chronological order). Some folders have been processed more thoroughly and have been arranged in chronological order.

Series L: Records of SANE PAC, 1982-1986

Series L contains records found in several accessions. Included here are files of several staff members who worked on SANE PAC activities (primarily Mike Mawby, Laurie Duker, and Jerry Hartz). Although SANE PAC was a separately incorporated entity and was funded separately, the work was carried out by SANE, Inc. staff members.

Material about SANE PAC and about elections in general is at the beginning of the Series. The basic arrangement is chronological. Within each election year, files on candidates are in alphabetical order.

Although most of the files relating to SANE PAC have been pulled together in this series there are also materials on SANE PAC in Series G, Series H, and Series N. The State Files at the end of Series G contain a lot of material on elections, including those where SANE PAC supported one of the candidates.

Series M: Records of the Arms Control Computer Network, 1981-1986

The records of the Arms Control Computer Network came to the Peace Collection in one accession. Board minutes and general information about ACCN are at the beginning of the Series. Files of each coordinator are kept together, as are financial records and material relating to the Arms Control Legislative Alerts sent in 1985-1986. Within each of these groupings, files are in rough chronological order. A section of files on the participating organizations is in alphabetical order.

Series N: Records of SANE Canvass, 1983-1987

Most of the records in Series N came to the Peace Collection in two 1991 accessions. Additional material on SANE Canvass found in other accessions (especially 86A-68 and 93A-39) has been added.

A great deal of the material in this Series was found unfiled, and many items were undated. To a greater extent than is true of other series in DG 58, the arrangement of the material has been imposed by the SCPC processor. Folders which contain material found loose in the files are marked by an * in the checklist.

Similar kinds of material have been grouped together. When files could be identified as having been kept by a particular staff member, they are identified as such and are grouped accordingly. Within these categories, the arrangement is basically chronological, one exception being files on Local Canvass Offices, which are in alphabetical order. The material in Box 13 from the 1993 accession came to SCPC after the rest of the Series had been processed. Rather than reorganizing the earlier material, it was decided to simply add this material at the end of the Series.

Series O: SANE Audio-Visual Material

The Checklist for Series O is kept in the SCPC Collection Files in the filing cabinet. The audio-visual materials are shelved by format in the SCPC Audio-Visual Area. This Checklist is an attempt to list all audio-visual items relating to SANE in one place, regardless of the extent to which the items have been cataloged. Some items are fully cataloged in the card catalog or in Tripod. Others are listed in an audio-visual data base kept by the Curator. Some are not yet identified and are listed here in a very general way.

The Checklist is divided into sections by format
Videotapes
Films and filmstrips
Slide sets and multi-media kits
Sound disc recordings
Audiocassettes and reel-to-reel tapes
Lists of material in various formats
Computer diskettes

In most cases, the physical location of the item is noted in the Checklist.

Some items listed in Series O will eventually become part of DG 130, Consider the Alternatives Productions, Inc. Because that collection is not yet processed, it was decided to list the items here temporarily.

Inclusion here does not necessarily mean that the item was produced by SANE, Inc. There are many items which came to the Peace Collection with the records of SANE but which were created by some other organization.

Series P: Logbooks, 1957-1987

This series consists of material removed from a set of notebooks kept in the SANE National Office. Each notebook contained SANE publications, releases, reports, minutes, etc., arranged in chronological order. Additional copies of some items may be available elsewhere in DG 58. The notebooks toward the end of the sequence are less complete than the earlier ones.

The Logbook for 1982-1987 came to SCPC in a later accession from the earlier ones, and the nature of the material is somewhat different. Materials are filed in chronological order.

 



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