Swarthmore College Peace Collection

Belva Ann Lockwood Papers, 1878-1992

Collection: DG 098

Contact Information
Swarthmore College Peace Collection
500 College Avenue
Swarthmore, PA 19081-1399
Telephone: 610-328-8557 (curator)
Fax: 610-690-5728
Email: wchmiel@swarthmore.edu (curator)
URL: http://www.swarthmore.edu/Library/peace/

Descriptive Summary
Swarthmore College Peace Collection
Lockwood, Belva Ann, (1830-1917)
Belva A. Lockwood Papers
Inclusive Dates
1878-1917, 1984, 1986, 1992, to date
Call Number
DG 098

Language of Materials
Materials in English
5 linear inches [papers only]
Belva Ann McNall Lockwood (1830-1917), was the first woman attorney to practice before the Supreme Court. She personally lobbied members of Congress to pass a special act admitting women to the bar of the Court, and first practiced before the Court in 1879. Lockwood ran for the U.S. presidency in 1884 and 1888, being the first woman to have a complete, national campaign for that office. From the 1870s onward Lockwood was active with the radical peace group, the Universal Peace Union, representing the organization at several international peace congresses.

Administrative Information
Restrictions to Access
Usage Restrictions
Yes, photocopies of documents should be used instead of originals in most cases. Original documents and photographs are separate and restricted, but may be used with permission of Curator.
Alternate Form of Material
Yes, photographs, CD
Acquisitions Information
Gift of
Devere Allen, Lella Crum Gardner, Jill Norgren, and others, 1949, 1950s, 1980s, 1990s, 2000s
Processing Information
Processed by Peace Collection staff, last revised: February 2007.
Preferred Citation
Belva A. Lockwood Papers (DG 098), Swarthmore College Peace Collection
Copyright Notice
Copyright may have been transferred to the Swarthmore College Peace Collection. Or copyright may retained by the authors of items in these papers, or their descendants, as stipulated by United States copyright law.

Online Catalog Headings
These and related materials may be found under the following headings in online library/archival catalogs.
See tripod record

Related Collections
Universal Peace Union Records (DG 038)
International Peace Bureau Collected Records
(CDG-B Switzerland)

Historical Background
Belva Ann McNall Lockwood (1830-1917), was the first woman attorney to practice before the Supreme Court. In the late 1870s Lockwood personally lobbied members of Congress to pass a special act admitting women to the bar of the Court. Lockwood first practiced before the Court in 1879. Among other cases, Lockwood successfully represented the Eastern Cherokee Indians in an five million dollar suit before the Court. She also represented hundreds of family members of Civil War veterans in their pension claims.

Lockwood was also an ardent supporter of women's rights. She lectured and toured the country in attempts to gather support for woman suffrage. In 1884, and again in 1888, she was the Presidential candidate for the National Equal Rights Party, capturing over 4,000 votes in six states. Her other feminist activities included serving as president of the Woman's National Press Association, and being appointed Attorney General of the American Woman's Republic, an organization founded by Marietta Stowe and dedicated to preparing women for the rights and responsibilities of full citizenship.

As an executive board member of the Universal Peace Union, Lockwood attended many international peace congresses. She wrote tracts on international arbitration and was one of the nominating members of the Nobel Peace Prize Committee.

Collection Overview
The Papers of Belva Ann Lockwood are an assortment of writings both by and about her. The papers include correspondence (1885-1915), pamphlets, manuscripts, and newspaper and journal articles. The bulk of the correspondence is between Lockwood and Alfred H. Love of the Universal Peace Union, and from Lockwood to her nephew, Frank Gardner, and his wife Lella Gardner. A few of Lockwood's writings and law briefs are in the collection. Much of Lockwood's office files and personal papers were destroyed soon after her death.

The manuscripts consist primarily of personal accounts by Lockwood of speeches and important law cases. Newspaper clippings and articles document Lockwood's involvement in the woman suffrage and peace movements, as well as her legal and political activities. Many of the later clippings are biographical summaries celebrating her life. There is a small amount of material about the American Woman's Republic.

Correspondents in this collection include: Arabella Carter, Amanda Deyo, Lella Crum Gardner, and Alfred H. Love.

Later materials include activities surrounding the Belva Lockwood U.S. postage stamp, issued in 1986, and biographical writings about her life and work.

Items removed: Photographs, consisting mostly of portraits of Lockwood from the 1870s to (circa) 1910.

Arrangement of Collection
This collection is organized into three series:. Series I contains Bigraphical material and all correspondence; Series II contains writings by Lockwood; Series III contains writings about Lockwood; and Series IV contains information on Lockwood ephemera.

Considering the rarity of Lockwood materials, researchers are asked to use photocopies of the original materials (see list of original items), including the photographs. Original documents and photographs may be viewed with permission of the Curator.

Detailed Description of the Collection

SERIES I: Biographical material and Correspondence

Biographical material
Correspondence f rom BAL to Frank and Lella Gardner (1911-1913)
Correspondence between BAL and Alfred H. Love and his family (1885-1913)
Correspondence between BAL and others (1888, 1903-1915)
Correspondence, miscellaneous, (1888, 1891)

SERIES II: Writings by Lockwood
Writings by BAL, published
Writings by BAL, manuscripts and miscellaneous
United States vs. Wm. H. Hale (Lottery Appeal)
Peace Meeting, The Hague Conference, 1902 (May)
The Eastern Cherokee Case (1903)
For the Thirteenth Universal Peace Congress "Pacigerance" or Peace Making by States (1904)
How I Helped to Settle the Shirt Waist Strike in Philadelphia (1909)
For Biography: Mrs. Emmetta Humphreys, Administratrix of the estate of General John Sevier, (1910)

SERIES III: Writings About Lockwood

Newspaper clippings, (1878-1916)
Newspaper clippings, magazine articles, and journal articles, (1937-date)
American Woman's Republic
Two letters of James Densmore to Tina Densmore Delehanty, 1879 and 1881 [the 1881 letter contains Densmore's description of Lockwood]
Belva Lockwood Stamp (1986)

SERIES IV: Lockwood Ephemera
Lockwood ephemera, miscellaneous
Lockwood ephemera, information about items for sale in catalogs and on Ebay (photocopies of items)

Photocopies of photographs [originals are located in the FHL cage area with original Lockwood manuscripts]

Other Resources
"Introducing Belva Lockwood," Interview with historian Jill Norgren at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, produced by Public Radio International, 2001. (Compact Disc-see Peace Collection audio visual collection database or further information.]

This finding aid was last updated on August 21, 2015