Papers of Helene Stöcker, 1897-1994
Collection: DG 035
Swarthmore College Peace Collection
500 College Avenue
Swarthmore, PA 19081-1399
Telephone: (610) 328-8557 (Curator)
Fax: (610) 328-8544
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org (Curator)
Swarthmore College Peace Collection
Stöcker, Helene (1869-1943)
Helene Stöcker Papers
Language of Materials
Materials in English and German
4.1 linear feet [papers only]
Dr. Helene Stöcker (1869-1943) was one of the first woman students to enter a German University. In the 1920s she helped found Germany's first woman suffrage organization, and later the Bund für Mutterschutz (Protection of Motherhood). Stöcker was active in the German and international peace movement from the World War I period onward. She attended the early congresses of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, and belonged to several other peace organizations including the Deutsche Friedensgesellschaft (German Peace Society) and the International Peace Bureau. Stöcker connected her work in pacifism with the work in sexual reform when Muttershutz added a pacifist plank to their platform calling for their supporters to work for "existing and flourishing life," and against brute force in war and the state. Dr. Stöcker was driven out of Germany by the Nazis in 1933 and lived for periods in Switzerland, England, and Sweden. She immigrated to the United States in 1941 under the sponsorship of friends and colleagues in the peace movement, especially those in the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom. Stöcker died in 1943 in New York City.
Restrictions to Access
Alternate Form of Material
Gift of Helene Stöcker, George Zueler, Ellen Starr Brinton, and others, 1944, 1952, 1989
Processed by Peace Collection staff; minor reprocessing and current finding aid by Andrew Ciampa and Wendy E.Chmielewski, June 2009.
[Identification of item], in the Helene Stöcker Papers (DG 035), Swarthmore College Peace Collection
Copyright is retained by the authors of items in these papers, or their descendents, as stipulated by United States copyright law
Online Catalog Headings
These and related materials may be found under the following headings in online library/archival catalogs.
See tripod record
Dr. Helene Stöcker (1869-1943) was born in Elberfeld, Germany. She was one of the first woman students to enter a German University, and also studied at the Universities of Glasgow and Berne, receiving her doctorate in 1901.
Stöcker's social activism began in 1902 when she helped found Germany's first woman suffrage organization. Three years later Stöcker was the driving force behind the Bund für Mutterschutz (Protection of Motherhood). She served as chair of this organization until 1933. The Bund was founded to assist unwed mothers and their children. It ultimately provided a forum for debate on sexuality, contraception and abortion, as well as establishing reform of laws in favor of all mothers and children. Dr. Stöcker was editor and founder of the monthly magazine The New Generation, which she published from 1905 until 1933.
Stöcker was active in the German and international peace movement from the World War I period onward. She attended the International Congress of Women at The Hague in 1919 and other early congresses of the Women's International League. Stöcker belonged to several other peace organizations including the War Resisters' International , Bund Neues Vaterland (New Fatherland League), Deutsche Friedensgesellschaft (German Peace Society), and the International Peace Bureau. She was an associate of the Dr. Ludwig Quidde, who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1927. Stöcker connected her work in pacifism with the work in sexual reform when Muttershutz added a pacifist plank to their platform calling for their supporters to work for "existing and flourishing life," and against brute force in war and the state.
Dr. Stöcker was driven out of Germany by the Nazis in 1933 and lived for periods in Switzerland, England, and Sweden. She immigrated to the United States in 1941, under the sponsorship of friends and colleagues in the peace movement, especially those in the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom. She died in 1943 in New York City.
Books and pamphlets Stöcker wrote include: Leibe, Moderne Bevolkerungspolitik, Lieben oder Hassen, Krieg und Altruismus, Verkunder und Verwirklicher, Die Frau und die Heiligkeit des Lebens, Sexualpedagogik, Krieg und Mutterschutz, and Kriegsdienst Verweigerung.
Significant correspondents include: Gertrud Baer, Emily Greene Balch, Mary Ritter Beard, Fenner Brockway, Gertrude Bussey, Ruth Gage-Colby, Dorothy Detzer, Lida Gustave Heymann, Dr. Karen Horney, Jessie Wallace Hughan, Alexandra Kollontai, Frederick J. Libby, Lola Maverick Lloyd, A.J. Muste, Tracy D. Mygatt, Mildred Scott Olmsted, Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence, Ludwig Quidde, Romain Rolland, Margaret Sanger, Rosika Schwimmer, Upton Sinclair, Agnes Smedley, and Bruno Springer.
Stöcker materials in the Peace Collection came from several sources. The bulk was received after Dr. Stöcker's death from friends in charge of her affairs. A large set of records, chiefly correspondence from 1940 to 1943, between Eva Wiegelmesser, secretary of the Women's International League Committee on Refugees and donors of funds to assist Dr. Stöcker was received in April 1952. More recent materials consist of photocopies of items from other archives and writings about Stöcker from other donors.
Many of Dr. Stöcker's papers, which were amongst belongings left in London, were subsequently destroyed in the bombing of that city during World War II.
The collection at Swarthmore consists of a typed copy of Stöcker's autobiography, her World War I diary, correspondence with friends and colleagues, Journals (1934, 1938-40, and 1942), manuscripts of articles and speeches, biographical materials, some published works, and material about Helene Stöcker.
Arrangement of Collection and Finding Aid
Helene Stöcker's unpublished autobiography makes up the first part of the collection (Box 1). Correspondence written by Stöcker to intimates, friends, and colleagues may be found in Boxes 2-5, including correspondence about her refugee and immigration status. At the beginning of Box 2 below, there is a link to a complete list of names of all correspondents. Boxes 7 and 8 contain Stöcker's published and unpublished writings, including notes made for completed works. Biographical documents, originally in Stöcker's own possession may be found in boxes 9 and 10. Writings about Stöcker, mostly published after her death may be found in box 11.
Detailed Description of the Collection
Swarthmore College Peace Collection Record of Papers and Historical Introduction
Chronologies of Stöcker's life and work
Autobiography (seven folders)
Box 2 Correspondence (Click here for list of individual names in boxes 2-5)
Personal: 1897, 1906
Helene Stöcker to Bruno Springer, December 1916-February 1917
Bruno Springer to Helene Stöcker, 1913-1921
Helene Stöcker to Albert Einstein, 1919-1922 (photocopies from Acc. 99A-027)
Helene Stöcker to Bruno Springer, August 1926-May 1930
Helene Stöcker to Ellen Hörup, 1930s (Acc. 03A-019)
Correspondence to/from Sweden, 1939-1940
Box 3 Correspondence 1939-1943 (continued)
Campaign for World Government-Colby
Edinger-Exiled Writer's Committee
German-American League for Culture-Gumbel
Box 4 Correspondence 1939-1943 (continued)
Picton-Post War World Council
Quidde, Ludwig May-October 1939
November 1939-August 1940
September 1940-February 1941
Shanghai Jewish Chronicle-Spencer Corset Company
Box 5 Correspondence 1939-1943 (continued)
Wachsner-World Women's Party for Equal Rights
Correspondence with Refugee Agencies, Benefactors, WILPF (1936-May 17, 1941)
Correspondence with Refugee Agencies, Benefactors, WILPF (May 30, 1941-December 29, 1941)
Correspondence with Refugee Agencies, Benefactors, WILPF (January, 9 1942-April 6, 1942)
Correspondence with Refugee Agencies, Benefactors, WILPF (April 7, 1942-September 17, 1942)
Correspondence with Refugee Agencies, Benefactors, WILPF (October 16, 1942-March 1943)
Correspondence with Refugee Agencies, Benefactors, WILPF (Carnegie Grant Application Letters, January-February 1943)
U.S. Immigration Forms and Letters, 1941-1943
Box 6 Correspondence, 1940-1941
Correspondence about Stöcker, 1940-1941 (June 5, 1940-May 1940)
Correspondence about Stöcker, 1940-1941 (June-December 1940)
Correspondence about Stöcker, 1940-1941 (January-February 1941)
Correspondence about Stöcker, 1940-1941 (March-April 1941)
Correspondence about Stöcker, 1940-1941 (May-June 1941)
Correspondence about Stöcker, 1940-1941 (July-September 1941)
Correspondence about Stöcker, 1940-1941 (October-November 1941)
Correspondence about Stöcker, 1940-1941 (December 1941)
Box 7 Writings
Article manuscripts, 1897
Article manuscripts from Neue Generation, 1906; 4 lists of ms
Neue Generation manuscripts, 1908
Neue Generation manuscripts, 1906-1908
Journals: 1934, 1938-1940, 1942
1939-1940 article ms: "Kommt der Krieg ins Land..."
Article manuscripts, 1939-1940 (two folders)
Manuscripts of books and article reviews, 1940-1942
Article manuscripts, 1937-1942
Speeches, 1939, 1941-1942
Notes on Neue Generation, 1905-1909
Notes for autobiography
Box 8 Notes and Works
Reading notes (four folders)
Book titles in alphabetical order
Unsorted book titles
Lists of books from Verlag der Neuen
Zehn Jahre Mutterschutz, 1915
Kriegshefte des Bundes fuer Muttershutz, Berlin: 1915
Kriegshefte des Bundes fuer Muttershutz, Berlin: 1916
Kriegshefte des Bundes fuer Muttershutz, Berlin: 1917
"Durch zum Rechsfrieden" 1919 [Flugschriften des Bundes Neues Vaterland Nr. 2]
Box 9 Biographical materials
"Sicherund durch militärische Gewalt" 1924; "Welfriedenskongress u. Weltfrieden," 1924; Verkünder u. Verwirklicher," 1928
"Erotik u. Altruismus, 1934; "Elisabeth Forster-Nietzsche, ein Wort zu ihrem Gedächtnis," Jan. 1936 "Schüle und Leben"
Bibliography of Helene Stöcker's work (Acc. 89A-74 )
Photographs and Diploma (1901 Bern Doctorate)
Swiss and Swedish Passports
Library Cards and Forms: London, Stockholm, New York
Address Books (two folders)
Box 10 Biographical materials
Addresses: Unsorted (two folders)
"Krankheiten, Kuren, Diaetkuren"-list of illnesses, cures, diets, 1875-1941
1941-1942 Diet information and Krankenrechnungen
Documents from the German Government: 1933, 1937-1938, 1941
Letters about U.S. immigration and Reisebericht of March 28, 1941
U.S. Treasury Department: forms and letter, 1940-1942
Postcheckamt Zürich-checkbook, receipts
Bank of America correspondence, 1941-1942
Manufacturers Trust Company account information, check from Hellmut Simons, March 2, 1942
Death: memorial service, newspaper obituary, Robinson/Zuelzer letter of July 18, 1944
Box 11 Literature about Stöcker
Newspaper articles by Stöcker, 1937-1939
"Helene Stöcker: An Appeal," by H. Picton (1938)
Galley copy of "Antimilitaristische Kongresse," 1921; Newspaper articles by Stöcker, 1936-1939
"A Life in Fragments: Helene Stöcker's Lebensabriss," by Regina Braker
Short biographies of Stöcker, 1939-1940 (German and English)
"Ein Manifest des Geistes-vor funfzig Jahren"
60th Birthday, 1929: Press Releases
70th Birthday Newspaper Articles (Index; Swedish)
70th Birthday Newspaper Articles (Swiss)
70th Birthday Newspaper Articles (Danish; Norwegian)
70th Birthday Newspaper Articles (German emigre, German, Dutch, English, French, Chinese)
Speech and poem for Helene Stöcker's 70th birthday celebration
Obituaries (1943); invitation to centennial lecture, Rerliner Frauen-bund (1969)
Biographical articles written for Stöcker's 70th birthday by Max Barth, Hermann Greid, Ludwig Quidde and others
U.S. newspaper articles about Stöcker, 1941
"Dr. Helene Stöcker," from Johanna Wäscher's Wegbereiterder Deutschen Frau, 1931; "Helene Stöcker," from Hans Wehberg's Die Führer der Deutschen Friedensbewgung (1890-1923)
German newspaper articles about Stöcker, 1939-1969; letter from Ingeborg Richarz-Simons
"Helene Stöcker: Sexualreformerin und Pazifistin," by Ingeborg Richarz-Simons
Wuppertaler Biographen, 1970
"Helene Stöcker (1869-1943): Leben und Arbeit fur die Gleichstellung der Frau," by Christl Wickert, 1988
Luzifer-Amor: Zeitschrift zur Geschichte der Psychoanalyse, "Herausgegeben und eingeleitet" by Ludger M. Hermanns (Sonderdruck 4. Jahrgang-Heft-1991)
"Philosophinmen Lexikon" by Barbara Helm (1994)
* Letters from these correspondents are also filed in "Letters to and from Sweden, 1939 - 1940"