Swarthmore College Peace Collection

Deutsche Friedensgesellschaft Collected Records, 1897-1991

Collection: CDG-B Germany

Contact Information
Swarthmore College Peace Collection
500 College Avenue, Swarthmore, PA 19081-1399 U.S.A.
Telephone: (610) 328-8557 (Curator); Fax: (610) 328-8544
Email: wchmiel1@swarthmore.edu (Curator); URL: http://www.swarthmore.edu/Library/peace/

Descriptive Summary
The Swarthmore College Peace Collection is not the official repository for these records.
Deutsche Friedensgesellschaft Collected Records
Deutsche Friedensgesellschaft Collected Records (CDG-B Germany)
Inclusive Dates
Call Number
CDG-B Germany

Language of Materials
Materials in German and English
7.5 linear inches [papers only]
The Deutsche Friedensgesellschaft (German Peace Society) was founded in 1892 and still exists today as the Deutsche Friedensgesellschaft - Vereinigte Kriegsdienstgegnerinnen or DFG-VK.

Administrative Information
Restrictions to Access
Usage Restrictions
Alternate Form of Material
Acquisitions Information
Processing Information
Finding aid produced by Anne M. Yoder, Archivist, May 2014
Preferred Citation
[Identification of item], in the Deutsche Friedensgeselslchaft Collected Records (CDG-B Germany), Swarthmore College Peace Collection
Copyright Notice
Copyright may have been transferred to the Swarthmore College Peace Collection or may have been retained by the creators/authors (or their descendants), in this collection, as stipulated by United States copyright law. Please contact the SCPC Curator for further information.

Online Catalog Headings
These and related materials may be found under the following headings in online library/archival catalogs.
See tripod record

Related Collections
Internationale der Kriegsdienstgegner Collected Records (CDG-B Germany)
Ludwig Quidde Collected Papers (CDG-B Germany)
Helene Stocker Papers (DG 035)

Historical Background
The Deutsche Friedensgesellschaft (German Peace Society) was founded in 1892 by the journalist Alfred Fried and the renowned pedagogue Wilhelm Foerster. In 1914 Ludwig Quidde, chairman of the society's Bavarian branch, became national president; he retained the position until 1929. By the eve of World War I there were about 10,000 members in 98 sections; many of these dissolved during the war, but the society did not disband. A Historical Dictionary of Germany's Weimar Republic, 1918-1933 by states: "Defeat fortified the movement. But while Quidde continued to lead the society and the new Friedenskartell (Peace Cartel), the movement assumed two personalities: the prewar pacifists trusted in international arbitration and the League of Nations; the young pacifists, often from the USPD, believed that war must be prevented by conscientious objection and revolution. Portrayed by Carl von Ossietzky, who joined the society in 1912, as unrealistic and dogmatic, Germany's young pacifists never proved as popular as their Western European counterparts. Yet the authorities feared and respected them. Although members were terrorized and murdered, the society consistently worked to combat militarism. Through its Bund Neues Vaterland—renamed the Deutsche Liga fur Menschenrechte (German League for Human Rights) in January 1922—it aided unjustly accused or imprisoned leftists, exposed the assassinations that claimed such victims as Matthias Erzberger and Walther Rathenau, and published information on Germany's illegal rearmament. The pacifists seemed to lose their raison d'etre after the 1925 Locarno Treaties. Exhibitions and protests were abandoned for lack of public support, and as belief in the reality of peace grew among the old pacifists, many resigned from a crusade deemed unnecessary. The younger radicals encroached upon Quidde's authority in 1927 when they forced a triumvirate upon the society in which the president shared power with Paul von Schoenaich, a retired general, and Friedrich Küster, editor of Das andere Deutschland. At an extraordinary congress in the spring of 1929, Küster's triumph over Quidde was complete: faced with the radicalization of the organization, Quidde and his friends Hellmut von Gerlach and Harry Kessler resigned. The new leaders were so extreme that even Kurt Hiller, an erstwhile radical, was expelled in 1930 for attacking various members as "agents" of French and Russian imperialism. When the society began supporting radical socialist organizations, it forfeited its traditional support with the SPD and the DStP (formerly the DDP) and lost the backing of the liberal press. By January 1933 it retained fewer than five thousand members."

Suppressed by the Nazis, the organization was refounded in November 1945. in 1968, it merged with Internationale der Kriegsdienstgegner (IdK, War Resisters' International). It still exists and is known as the Deutsche Friedensgesellschaft - Vereinigte Kriegsdienstgegnerinnen (German Peace Society - United War Resisters), or DFG-VK.

Das Andere Deutschland was the publication organ of the German Peace Society. During the Weimar Republic, Kurt Tucholsky, Erich Kästner, Heinrich Ströbel, Berthold Jacob, Carl Mertens, and Friedrich William Foerster, among others, wrote for the newspaper. It was shut down on March 11, 1933; although it was initially supposed to be banned for three months, the Nazis' subsequent abrogation of remaining civil liberties kept it shuttered for the rest of the Nazi era. Küster was arrested and held in concentration camps from 1933 to 1938. At the end of World War II, Küster resumed publication of the paper. In 1969, three years after Küster's death, the newspaper ran its final issue.

Collection Overview
Most of this collection consists of photocopies of pamphlets and other published items, with a few originals mixed in.

Items removed:
Das Andere Deutschland (1925-1969) and other newsletters, to the Periodical Collection
Seal "Para Pacem...." to the Stamp/Sticker/Seal/Envelope Collection (#0355)
Sticker "Deutsche Friedensgesellschaft - Vereinigte Kriegsdienstgegner" to the Stamp/Sticker/Seal/Envelope Collection (#0353)
Pin "Pax...." to the Button/Pin/Ribbon Collection (#00623)
Photo/s to the Photograph Collection (5"x8" size)
Postcards to Subject File #1: Art in War and Peace
Posters (23), circa 1932-1948, undated, to the Poster Collection

Arrangement of Collection
Material is arranged, for the most part, chronologically.

Note that umlauts are not used in this finding aid.

Detailed Description of the Collection

Box 1
Photocopies of pamphlets etc., 1897-1908:
- "Friede auf Erden," 1897
- "Die Erzichung(?) zum Frieden - eine Aufgabe fur die Deutsche Lehrerschaft," 1898
- "Die Einwdendungen gegen die Friedensbewegung" by Dr. Adolf Richter, 1902
- "Kulture und Machtpolitik" by Hans Schwann-Schneider
- "Grundzuge des Unterrichts in der Lehre vom Volkerfrieden"

- "Schriften des Frakfurter Friedensvereins. Heft 2"
- "Krief und Christentum" by Pfarrer Bohme, 1906?
- "Der deutsche Friedens-Kongress in Jena(?) 1908"
- "Vom internationalen Pazifismus"
Photocopies of pamphlets etc., 1909-1912:
- "Der deutsche Friedens-Kongress in Stuttgart 1909"
- "Der Zufunftsfrieg(?): Nach den Theorien des Staatsrats Johann von Bloch," 1909
- "Der deutsche Friedens-Kongress in Wiesbaden 1910"
- "Der Christ und der Volterfriede," 1910
- "Arbeit oder Kampf....," 1911
- "Volkerfriede? Ein Streit-Gesprach" by Walther Nithack-Stahn, 1911
- "Nationale Lebens - und Ehrenfragen" by Professor Dr. Ludwig Quidde, 1910; "Diplomatie und Volkerfriede" by Jusizrat Heilberg, 1910
- "Internationale Friedensliga"
Photocopies of pamphlets etc., 1913-1915:
- "Die Weltpetition zur Verhutung des Krieges zwischen den Staaten"
- "Das Fridens-Jahrbuch 1913"
- "Die Friedensarbeit der Frau" by Marie Springer
- "Warum muss(?) der Lehrer Stellung zur heutigen Fridensbewegung nehmen?" by Ludwig Wagner, 1914
- "Krieg und Schule" by Anna Blos, 1915
- memorandum/release
Photocopies of pamphlets etc., 1917-1919:
- "Pazifismus und Belagerungszustand," 1917
- "Deutsche Pacifisten: Eine Sammlung von Vorkampfern der Friedensbegwegung in Deutschland" by Dr. Adolf Richter-Pforzheim
- "Programm," 1919
- "Satzung...."
- "Unseres Gluckes Totengraber," 1919
- "Achter deutscher Pazifistenkongress," 1919
- "Aufruf [Ausrus?]...." by Ludwig Quidde
Photocopies of pamphlets etc., 1920-1924:
- "Wie organisieren wir Versammlungen?," 1920
- "Reden uber die Welt-Arustung..." by Dr. Kurt Hiller, 1924
- "Die Schriften des Verlages 'Friede durch Recht'"
- miscellaneous newsclippings and memoranda/releases
Photocopies of pamphlets etc., 1925-1933, undated (pre-1934):
- "Jahreshauptversammlung," 1925
- "Studentische Volkerbundsarbeit"
- "Kritische Bemerkungen zum Heeres-Etat 1930"
- "Die Marine, Ihr Etat und der Panzerkreuzer B" by E. Alboldt
- "Europaische Kriegsgefahr"
- Release "The Peace Movement in Germany, Czechoslovakia and Austria: Extracts from Letter of Frederick J. Libby," 1930
- miscellaneous leaflets and memoranda/releases
Photocopies of pamphlets etc., 1945-1946:
- "Programm und Aufgaben," 1946
- "Abkehr vom Militarismus" by Erich Luth, 1946
- Release "War das Scheitern der Generalsrevolts ein Unguck fur Deutschland? Eine politische Studie von Karl Friedemann," 1946
- miscellaneous leaflets and memoranda/releases
Photocopies of pamphlets etc., 1947-1948:
- "Deutschland Zwischen Washington und Moskau" by Heinz Kuhn, 1947
- "Der Sturz in den Abrund" by J. Scherer, 1947
- "Zwischen Krieg und Frieden," 1948
- Release "Easy War - Difficult Truce" [English translation], 1948
- miscellaneous leaflets and memoranda/releases
[sticker and 10 postcards removed]

Box 2 (1/2 box)
Photocopies, 1947 (circa):
- pages from book? [incomplete set]
- miscellaneous item
Photocopies, 1949-1957:
- miscellaneous leaflets and memoranda/releases
Pamphlets and Photocopies, 1962, 1975, 1985-1991
- pamphlet "Entspannung in Mitteleuropa..." by Dr. J. Georgi, 1962
- pamphlet "Zur Geschichte des Ostermarsches der Atomwaffengegner" by Guido Grunewald, 1982
- miscellaneous leaflets and memoranda/releases
Periodicals produced by other peace groups in Germany
- "Mitteilungsblatt des Sachsischen Friedenskartells" 5:2, May 4, 1926
- "Die Mittelstelle pazifistischer Jugend der Westzonen Informationsdienst" 1, 1947 (December)
- "Die Zentralsstelle fur internationale Zusammenarbeit in der Jugendpflege" 1, 1948
Items by/about Ernst and Hans Oelschlager

This checklist was last updated on August 21, 2015