An Inventory of the Martha Schofield Papers, 1853-1944 (bulk 1856-1916)

(6 boxes; 3 linear ft.)

RG 5/134


© Friends Historical Library of Swarthmore College.  
Swarthmore, Pennsylvania 19081-1399 U.S.A.  

Seal of Swarthmore College
Table of contents
Abstract
Martha Schofield (1839-1916) was a Hicksite Quaker teacher from Pennsylvania who founded the Schofield Normal and Industrial School in Aiken, S. C., in 1868 to provide education for freed slaves. The School gradually evolved into a boarding school for training young blacks in industrial trades or to become teachers. It was absorbed into the public school system in 1952. Martha Fell Schofield was born Feb. 1, 1839, near Newtown, Bucks County, PA. She was the daughter of Oliver W. Schofield and Mary (Jackson) Schofield. Both her parents were involved in reform activities, including abolition, temperance, women's rights, and improved education. She died Feb. 1, 1916. This collection contains biographical information, personal correspondence (1856-1916), and writings (primarily diaries, 1858-1903) by Martha Schofield. Also included are financial and legal papers and School bulletins, annual reports, and some other papers. Among the correspondents are Martha Schofield's extended family and Susan B. Anthony.

Background note:
BIOGRAPHICAL AND HISTORICAL
1834-1840 Martha Fell Schofield was born Feb. 1, 1839, near Newtown, Bucks County, PA. She was the daughter of Oliver W. Schofield and Mary (Jackson) Schofield who were married at Darby Meeting in 1834. Both her parents were involved in a number of reform activities, including abolition, temperance, women's rights, and improved education. The family included twin older sisters, Sarah Jane and Lydia, born 1835, a brother, Benjamin, born 1837, and Eliza, a younger sister born in 1840. Of the four sisters, only Sarah Jane married, to Samuel Shinn Ash.
1839-1857 Martha was educated at the schools at Newtown and Byberry and the Sharon Female Seminary in Darby, Pa., which was operated by their mother's brother, John Jackson, and his wife, Rachel. Martha began her own career in teaching at age eighteen at Bayside, Long Island, N.Y., where her aunt, Eliza (Jackson) Bell, lived. She also taught in Harrison, Westchester Co., N.Y., in a school connected with Purchase Monthly Meeting.
1865-1868 In 1865 Martha Schofield went to the islands off the coast of South Carolina to help educate the newly freed African Americans. She found the malarial conditions devastating to her health and moved inland to Aiken, South Carolina, where she founded what became the Schofield Normal and Industrial School in 1868.
1868-1882 The School was partially supported by the Pennsylvania Friends Relief Association, headquartered in Germantown, Pa., and was headed by Sarah Fisher Corlies (sister of Deborah F. Wharton) and Elizabeth Dorsey. The School received some state aid for a number of years. By 1882 there were over 200 pupils, and in that year, the School was incorporated.
1883-1890 Need for financial aid were constant through the years, and a number of people from the Hicksite branch of Philadelphia and New York Yearly Meetings supported the school. By 1883 there were over 400 pupils who, in addition to their education, were taught a trade. In 1884 a boarding department was opened, as well as a student aid fund. In 1887 Edward Hicks Magill and Howard M. Jenkins of Swarthmore College were among those serving on the Board of Managers, and the school house was partitioned into a dormitory for boys. In 1890, the Deborah F. Wharton Industrial Hall, with half of the cost donated with by her sons, was completed.
1910-1916 By 1910 the school occupied two entire blocks of the town of Aiken, with three large brick buildings, two large frame buildings, and various other improvements. In addition, the school owned a 280 acre farm three miles outside of Aiken with its buildings. The running expenses were principally made up by annual gifts from voluntary subscribers. With the exception of the headmaster or headmistress and Martha Schofield, who served as Business Manager, all departments heads and teachers were black graduates of the School.
1916-1952 The night before the School was to celebrate the 77th birthday of its founder, Martha Schofield died in her sleep. She died in February 1, 1916 in Aiken, S. C., and is buried in the Darby Friends burial ground in Darby, Pa.. The Schofield School was absorbed into the public school system in 1952.
Scope and content
SCOPE AND CONTENT This collection contains biographical information, personal correspondence (1856-1916), and writings (primarily diaries, 1858-1903) by Martha Schofield, a Pennsylvania teacher who taught free blacks in South Carolina and founded the Schofield Normal and Industrial School in Aiken, S.C. Also included are financial and legal papers and School bulletins, annual reports, and some other papers. Among the correspondents are Martha Schofield's extended family and Susan B. Anthony.

Arrangement
Arrangement The collection is divided into eight series:


Added entries

Subjects
  • Afro-Americans -- Education -- South Carolina -- Aiken
  • Afro-Americans -- Education --South Carolina -- History fly 19th century
  • Aiken (S.C.) -- Social conditions -- 19th century
  • Education -- South Carolina -- Aiken.
  • Freedmen -- Education -- South Carolina
  • Johns Island (S.C.) -- History -- 19th century
  • Missionaries -- South Carolina -- History -- 19th century
  • Quakers - Diaries
  • Quakers - Social life and customs
  • Quakers --Education--Schools
  • Quakers-- South Carolina -- History -- 19th century
  • Saint Helena Island (S.C.) -- History -- 19th century
  • Schofield Normal and Industrial School (Aiken, S.C.)
  • Sea Islands -- Social conditions -- 19th century
  • South Carolina -- Social conditions -- 19th century
  • Wadmalaw Island (S.C.) -- History -- 19th century
  • Women - South Carolina - Diaries
  • Women missionaries -- South Carolina-- History - 19th century
  • American Peace Society -- Archives
  • Anti-fascist movements -- United States -- History -- Sources
  • Christian Arbitration and Peace Society
  • Peace -- Societies, etc. -- History -- Sources
  • Peace movements -- Europe -- History -- Sources
  • Peace movements -- United States -- History -- Sources
  • Peace movements -- United States -- History -- Sources
  • War resistance movements -- History -- Sources
Additional Authors and Contributors
  • Schofield, Martha, 1839-1916
  • American League against War and Fascism
  • American League for Peace and Democracy
Credits
Processed by: Finding Aid Prepared by FHL staff
Date: 1980
Restrictions: Use Restrictions Copyright has not been assigned to Friends Historical Library All requests for permission to publish or quote from manuscripts must be submitted in to the Director. Permission for publication is given on behalf of Friends Historical Library as the owner of the physical items and is not intended to include or imply permission of the copyright holder, which must also be obtained by reader.
Sponsor: Encoding made possible by a grant by the Gladys Kriebel Delmas Foundation to the Philadelphia Consortium of Special Collections Libraries


Inventory

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE RECORDS
Notes
Note to Researchers: To request materials, please note both the location and box numbers shown below:

Ser. 1. Biographical and genealogical materials, 1916-1944

Genealogical information Box 1

Biographical notes by Kathryn (Smedley) Yellig and others Box 1

Martha Schofield, Servant of the Least, by Mary S. Patterson 1944 (pamphlet) Box 1

“Scenes in the Life of Martha Schofield”, by Elizabeth Jenkins Dresser (grandniece), a short play. Box 1

Scattered Seeds, issue honoring Martha Schofield. 1916 10mo. Box 1

Biography by Dr. Matilda A. Evans, graduate of the Schofield School, “Martha Schofield, Pioneer Negro Educator" 1916 Box 1

Ser. 2. Correspondence, 1856-1916

General correspondence, 1856-1919

General correspondence 1856-1864 Box 1

General correspondence 1865-6/1869 Box 2

General correspondence January 1870-1881 Box 3

General correspondence 1882-1916 Box 4

Letters from Susan B. Anthony 1878, 1898, 1900 Box 4

Letters from John G. Whittier Box 4

Undated and partial letters Box 4

Drafts of letters to editors by Martha Schofield Box 4

Ser. 3. Writings, manuscript and printed,

Manuscript writing, 1856-1862, n.d. Box 4

Essay on nature 1856 Box 4

“Is Conscience formed by Education” n.d Box 4

“Women's Rights” n.d. Box 4

Extracts from readings, Darby 1862 Box 4

Poems Box 4

Notebook Box 4

Quaker meeting papers Box 4

Almanac 1867 Box 5

Diaries, 1853-1903

Eliza 1853-1854 Box 5

Martha Schofield diaries, 1858-1903

Martha Schofield diaries 1858-1860 Box 5

Martha Schofield diary 11/1/1860-1/31/1862 Box 5

Martha Schofield diary 2/1/1862-1/31/1863 Box 5

Martha Schofield diary 7/1/1864-10/1/1865 Box 5

Martha Schofield diary 10/6/1865-7/10/1866 Box 5

Martha Schofield diary 1867-1868 Box 5

Martha Schofield diary 1869-1871 Box 5

Martha Schofield diary 1892 Box 5

Martha Schofield diary 1893 Box 5

Martha Schofield diary 1896 Box 5

Martha Schofield diary 1899 Box 5

Martha Schofield diary 1903 Box 5

Extracts from letters written to family while teaching on Wadmala Island, South Carolina 1865-1866 Box 5

Summer vacations 1897-1900 Box 5

Important Events
Very imcomplete; many pages cut out.
1879-1914 Box 5

Lists of Christmas and Birthday presents received 1879-1914 Box 5

Memorandums 1885-1886 Box 5

Notebook 1910 Box 5

Piece book 1858-ca. 1867 Box 5

Ser. 4. Financial and Legal Papers, 1907-1916

Copy of will of Lydia A. Schofield
Includes letters from Henry C. Ash at her death
12/21/1907 Box 6

Letter of Henry Ash, after Martha's death, about affairs of the Schofield School. 10/12/1916 Box 6

Miscellaneous financial papers, many concerning Schofield School Box 6

Ser. 5. Schofield Normal and Industrial School, 1883-1938

Reminiscences about Martha Schofield after her death 1916, 1936, 1938 Box 6

School history, including some bills Box 6

Schofield School Bulletins 1892-1916 Box 6

Annual Reports 1883-1936 Box 6

Ser. 6. Memorabilia, n.d.

Memorial of John Bunting (1839-1904) Box 6

Picture of memorial plaque to Martha Schofield Box 6

Martha Schofield's Bible Box 6

Miscellaneous clippings Box 6

7. Clippings, n.d.

General Box 6

Ellentown case and related material Box 6

8. Photographs, n.d.

School and other buildings Box 6

Various people Box 6