History 3B: Modern Europe, 1890 to the Present

The Age of Democracy and Dictatorship

 

Spring 2004

 

Bob Weinberg                                                                Office Hours: Mondays 2-4

Trotter 218                                                                                               Tuesdays 2-4

8133                                                                                                           Wednesdays 2-4

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This course is designed to introduce you to how historians have studied the events of the twentieth century in Europe.  We will not attempt to narrate the entire history of the period.  Instead, we will focus on a variety of themes and problems in order to illustrate key features of twentieth-century European history.  As a PDC this course will help you learn how to think and write like a historian.  You will discover the joys of analyzing primary sources, revel in the wonders of historiography, and realize that understanding the human past is subject to multiple interpretations and open to constant revision.  I plan to mix lectures and discussions.  It is therefore imperative that you keep up with the assigned readings so you can participate actively in the class.

 

You will work with a Writing Associate during the course of the semester, and you are required to work with the Writing Associate on all written assignments before you submit them to me for evaluation.

 

Course Requirements:

 

Attendance and participation in class discussions

Final examination

Three four-page essays.  You will have a choice of selecting from four essays during the course of the semester.

Eight-page historiographical essay

 

Except for required books, all readings are on Blackboard.  Required books are on course reserve and available for purchase.  They are:

 

Christopher Browning, Ordinary Men

Slavenka Drakulic, Café Europa

Sheila Fitzpatrick, Everyday Stalinism

Peter Fritzsche, Germans into Nazis

Heda Kovaly, Under a Cruel Star

 

I have not asked you to buy a textbook.  Instead I have placed the following books on course reserve and expect you to read one of the texts as the semester progresses.  They are:

 

Lynn Hunt, ed., The Challenge of the West (also known as The Making of the West)

John Merriman, A History of Modern Europe, volume 2

Spencer Di Scala, Twentieth Century Europe

 

 

January 19: The Study of History

 

January 21: Europe on the Eve of World War I: Political Concerns

 

“Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen”

 

January 23: Europe on the Eve of World War I: Social Concerns

 

Rosa Luxemburg, “Social Reform or Revolution”

Alexandra Kollontai, “Women and the Family in the Communist State”

 

January 26: Europe on the Eve of World War I: National Concerns

 

Ernst Renan, “What is a Nation?”

Katherine Verdery, “Whither `Nation’ and `Nationalism’?”

 

January 28: Europe on the Eve of World War I: The Jewish Question

 

“Protocols of the Elders of Zion”

Theodor Fritsch, “The Racists’ Decalogue”

Houston Steward Chamberlain, “The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century

 

January 30: Europe on the Eve of World War I: The Malaise of Modernity

 

February 2: The Cataclysm of War

 

Denis Winter, “The Strain of Trench Warfare”

Ernst Junger, “Copse 125” and “The Storm of Steel”

 

February 4: The Cataclysm of War

 

February 6:  The Impact of War

 

FIRST PAPER DUE TO WA BY 5 PM ON FEBRUARY 5

REVISED VERSION DUE BY 5 PM ON FEBRUARY 16

 

February 9: The Bolsheviks Come to Power: Russia in 1917

 

February 11: The Bolsheviks Come to Power: Russia in 1917

 

Leon Trotsky, “Peculiarities of Russia’s Development”

Lenin’s Theory of the Party

 

February 13: Understanding the Russian Revolution

 

Ronald Suny, “Revising the Old Story”

 

February 16: Europe After the War

 

February 18: The Emergence of Fascism: Mussolini and Italy

 

Benito Mussolii, “The Political and Social Doctrine of Fascism”

 

February 20: The Emergence of Nazism in Germany

 

Adolf Hitler, Excerpts from Mein Kampf

Peter Fritzsche, Germans into Nazis

 

February 23: The Bolshevik Dilemma: The Soviet Union in the 1920s

 

Joseph Stalin, “Socialism in One Country”

Leon Trotsky, “Permanent Revolution”

 

February 25: Revolution from Above in the Soviet Union

 

Joseph Stalin, “The Hard Line”

Lev Kopelov, “Terror in the Countryside”

Miron Dolot, “Famine in Ukraine”

 

February 27:  Living with Stalinism

 

Sheila Fitzpatrick, Everyday Stalinism

 

March 1: Stalin and the Great Terror

 

Stephen Cohen, “Bolshevism and Stalinism”

Documents on the Purges

 

March 3:  Women and Politics on the Eve of War

Watch Degenerate Art (60 minutes) for class

 

March 5: No Class

 

March 15: The Middle Falls Out; Reflections on Modernity, the State and Violence

 

SECOND PAPER DUE TO WA BY 5 PM ON MARCH 16

REVISED VERSION DUE BY 5 PM ON MARCH 23

 

March 17: The Road to the Final Solution

 

Michael Marrus, “The Final Solution”

or

Christopher Browning, “The Decision Concerning the Final Solution”

 

March 19: The Final Solution: Understanding the Killers

 

Christopher Browning, Ordinary Men

Film: The Story of Chaim Rumkowski and the Jews of Lodz (58 minutes)

 

March 22 Europe after the War: The Search for Renewal and Stability

 

Gerald Frank, “The Tragedy of the DP’s”

Bruno Foa, “Europe in Ruins”

George C. Marshall, “Laying the Foundations for Recovery”

Stephen Spendler, “European Witness”

 

March 24: Bipolar Disorder: The Cold War

 

Winston Churchill, “The Iron Curtain”

George F. Kennan, “Containing the Soviet Union”

G. E. R. Gedye, “Witness to the Czechoslovak Coup”

Wolfgang Leonhard, “The Communist Takeover of East Germany”

 

March 26: Stalin’s Last Years

 

Document on The Doctor’s Plot

Document on Rootless Cosmopolitanism

 

March 29: Life after Stalin

 

Nikita Khrushchev, “Report to the Twentieth Party Congress”

 

THIRD PAPER DUE TO WA BY 5 PM ON MARCH 31

REVISED VERSION DUE BY 5 PM ON APRIL 7

 

March 31: Library Tour

 

April 1: Coming to Grips with the Past: The Issue of Guilt and Responsibility

 

Gitta Sereny, Excerpts from her Interviews with Franz Stangl

Robert Moeller, “War Stories: The Search for a Usable Past in the Federal Republic of Germany”

Film: Mein Krieg (90 minutes).  Also titled My Private War

 

April 5: Decolonization and the Dissolution of Europe’s Empires

 

Jawaharlal Nehru, “India’s Resentment of British Rule”

Ayatollah Khomeini, “The Meaning of the Cultural Revolution”

Film: The Battle of Algiers (123 minutes)

 

April 7: Cracks in the Wall: The Emergence of the Dissident Movement in the Soviet Union

 

Documents on Andrei Sakharov, Alexander Solzhenitsyn, and Roy Medvedev

 

April 9: Surviving Hitler and Stalin in Eastern Europe

 

Heda Kovaly, Under a Cruel Star

 

April 12: The Welfare State

 

Margaret Thatcher, “The 1980 Steel Strike”

Tony Blair, “New Labour and the Unions”

Ludwig Erhard, “West Germany’s Social Market Economy”

 

April 14: Bombs, Kidnapping and the Perils of Middle-Class Comfort

 

Daniel Cohn-Bendit, “The French Student Revolt”

Red Brigades Communique No. 1 and No. 6

 

April 16: Can Communism be Reformed?

 

Mikhail Gorbachev on Perestroika and Glasnost

Nina Andreeva, “Why I Cannot Forgo My Principles”

 

April 19: The Failure of Communism in Eastern Europe

 

Vaclav Havel, “Farce, Reformability, and the Future of the World”

Stasi Report on Motives for Emigration

Timothy Garton Ash, “Berlin: Wall’s End”

 

April 21: The Collapse of the Soviet Union

 

Victoria Bonnell and Gregory Freidin, “Televorot: The Role of Television Coverage in Russia’s August 1991 Coup”

 

April 23:  Life in Postcommunist Europe

 

Slavenka Drakulic, Café Europa

 

 April 26:  Reconstructing Europe

 

Timothy Garton Ash, “Mitteleuropa?”

Jorg Haider, “Multiculturalism and Love of One’s Country”

Jocahim Krautz, “The Grapes of Neglect—Violence and Xenophobia in Germany”

Ingo Hasselbach, “Inside the Neo-Nazi Scene”

 

April 28: Nationalism Rears Its Ugly Head Again

 

Norman Naimark, Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth-Century Europe

 

April 30: What Does the Future Hold?

 

 

FOURTH PAPER DUE TO WA BY 5 PM APRIL 21

REVISED VERSION DUE BY 5 PM ON APRIL 30

 

 

FINAL PAPER DUE ON MAY 14 BY NOON