Jessie S. Bernard

( June 8, 1903-October 11, 1996)

Works By

The following is a reasonably complete listing of the writings of Jessie Bernard, with the exception of contributions to encyclopedias and introductions and afterwords to books.

Academic Women.University Park,Pa: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1964.

"The Adjustments of Married Mates." Handbook of Marriage and the Family, ed. Harold T. Christensen. Chicago: Rand McNally and Co., 1964.

"Adolescence and Socialization for Motherhood." In Adolescence in the Life Cycle, Psychological Change and Social Context, ed. Sidney E. Dragastin and Glen H. Elder, Jr. Washington, D.C.: Hemisphere Publishing Co., 1975.

"Age, Sexism, and Feminism." Annals of the American Academy 415 (1974): 120-137.

American Community Behavior . New York: Dryden Perress, 1949, rev. ed., New York: Holt, Rinehart, Winston, 1952.

American Family Behavior . New York: Harper and Brothers, 1942.

"An Analysis of Jewish Culture." In Jews in a Gentile World, eds. Isacque Graeber and Steuart H. Britt. New York: Macmillan, 1942.

"Areas for Research in Family Studies." Sociology and Social Research 42 (1958): 406-409.

"The Art of Science." American Journal of Sociology 55 (1949): 1-9.

"Autonomic and Decisive Forms of Competition." Sociological Quarterly 1 (1960): 25-38.

"Benchmark for the '80s." In Handbook for Women Scholars, ed. Monika Kehoe. San Francisco: Center for Women Scholars, 1983.

"Biculturality: A Study in Social Schizophrenia." In Jews in a Gentile World, eds. Isacque Graeber and Steuart H. Britt. New York: Macmillan, 1942.

"Breaking the Sex Barrier." Princeton Alumni Weekly, September 23,1960.

"Can Science Transcend Culture?" Scientific Monthly 71 (1950): 268-273.

"Chance and Stability in Sex-Role Norms and Behavior." Journal of Social Issues 32 (1976): 207-224.

"Citizenship Bias in Scholarly and Scientific Work." Sociological Inquiry 30 (Spring 1960): 7-13.

"Class Organization in an Era of Abundance." Transactions of the Third World Congress of Sociology 3 (1956): 26-31.

"Comment on Sarah Matthews, 'Rethinking Sociology from a Feminist Perspective',"American Sociologist 17 (1982): 29-35.

"Comments on Current Legal Trends." The Family Coordinator 17 (1968):62-64.

"A Communication." American Sociological Review 5 (1940): 415-417.

"The Conceptualizations of Inter-group Relations." Social Forces 29 (1951): 243-251.

"Conflict as Research and Research as Conflict." In The Rise and Fall of Project Camelot , ed. Irving L. Horowitz. Cambridge, Mass: M.I.T. Press, 1967.

"Considering 'A Biological Perspective on Parenting." Signs 4 (1979): 697-698.

"'Contingency' or 'Career' Sschedules for Women." In Increasing Student Development Options in College, ed. David E. Drew. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1978.

"Counseling, Psychotherapy and Social Problems in Value Contexts." In Explorations in Sociology and Counseling, ed. Donald A. Hansen. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1969.

"Counseling Techniques for Arriving at Optimum Compromises: Game and Decision Theory." Marriage and Family Living 21 (1959): 264-274.

"Culture as Environment." Sociology and Social Research 15 (1930): 47-56.

"Developmental Tasks of the NCFR 1963-88." Journal of Marriage and the Family 26 (1964): 29-38.

"Dialogue with Catherine Chilman." Journal of Home Economics (1969).

"The Differential Influence of the Business Cycle on the Number of Marriages." Social Forces 18 (1940): 539-547.

"Dimension and Axes of Supreme Court Decisions." Social Forces 34 (1955): 19-27.

"The Distribution of Success in Marriage." American Journal of Sociology 39 (1933): 194-203.

"Divorce and Remarriage." In Sex Ways in Fact and Faith, eds. Evelyn and Sylvanus Duvall. New York: Association Press, 1961.

"Education as a Demographic Variable." International Population Conference 3 (1969):

"The Eudaemonists." In Why Men Take Chances ed. Samuel Z. Klausner. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday and Co., 1968.

"Expanding Academic Competence." Society 14 (1977): 8-9.

"An Experimental Comparison of Ranking and Paired Comparisons." Proceedings of American Sociological Society (1933): 81-84.

"Facing the Future." Society 18 (1981): 53-59.

"Factors in the Distribution of Success in Marriage."American Journal of Sociology, 40 (1934): 49-60.

"Facts and Facitiousness in Ethnic Opinionaires." American Sociological Review 5 (1950): 415-417.

"The Family and Stress." (Symposium with Walter Mondale) Journal of Home Economics (Fall 1976).

"The Family: Does It Have Future, and If So, How Will it Change?" Radcliffe Quarterly (June, 1979).

"Family Myths and Realities." In Families and Work, AAUW Connference, 1981.

The Female World . New York: The Free Press, 1981.

"The Female World and Technology in 2020." National Forum 61 (1981): 8-10.

"The Female World from a Gloabal Perspective." In Women's Worlds. New York; Praeger, 1985.

The Female World from Global Perspective. Bloomington, Ind.:Indiana University Press, 1987.

"The Fourth Revolution." Journal of Social Issues 22 (1966): 76-87.

"Functions and Limitations in Counseling and Psychotherapy." In Explorations in Sociology and Counseling, ed. Donald A. Hansen. Boston; Houghton, Mifflin Co., 1969.

The Future of Marriage. New York: World, 1972.

The Future of Motherhood. New York: Penguin Books, 1975. Originally New York: Dial Press, 1974.

"George Tucker: Liberal Southern Social Scientist." Social Forces 25 (1946): 131-145.

"The Good Provider Role: Its Rise and Fall." American Psychologist 36 (1981): 1-12.

"Ground Rules for Marriage." In Challenge of Change, ed. Horner, Nadelson, and Notman. New York: Plenum Press, 1984.

"Have Patriarchs Had a Bad Press?" SWS Network (May, 1985).

"Historical and Structural Barriers to Occupational Desegregation." Signs 1 (1976): 87-94. Also in Women and the Workplace, eds. Martha Blaxall and Barbara Reagan. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976.

"The History and Prospects of Sociology in the United States." In Trends in American Sociology.edited by George A. Lundberg, Read Bain, and Nels Anderson. New York: Harper and Bros., 1929.

"Homosociality and Female Depression." Journal of Social Issues 32 (1976): 213-235.

"The Housewife." In Varieties of Work, ed. Phyllis Stewart and Muriel Cantor. Beverly Hills, Calif: Sage Publications, 1982.

"The Housewife: Between Two Worlds." In Work, eds. Phyllis Stewart and Muriel Canter. Chicago: Markham, 1972.

"Infidelity: Some Moral and Social Issues." In The Dynamics of Work and Marriage, ed. Jules H. Masserman. New York: Grune and Straton, 1970.

"The Inferiority Curriculum." Psychology of Women Quarterly 12 (1988):261-268.

"An Instrument for the Measurement of Neighborhood." Southwestern Social Science Quarterly 18 (1937): 145-158.

"An Instrument for the Measurement of Success in Marriage." Publications of the American Sociological Society 27 (1933): 94-106.

"An Investigation into the Changes of Attitudes in Jews of the First and Second Generation Under Influence of Social Environment." M.A. thesis University of Minnesota, 1924.

"Jealousy and Marriage." Medical Aspects of Human Sexuality (April 1971). Also in Jealousy, eds. Gordon Clanton and Lynn G. Smith. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1977.

"Letter." Sociologists for Women in Society Newsletter (1971).

"Letter to the Editor." American Anthropologist 51 (1949): 671-677.

"Letter to the Editor." American Sociologist 1 (1960): 24-25.

"Marital Stability." Journal of Marriage and the Family 28 (1966): 421-439.

"The Marital Bond vis-a-vis the Male Bond and the Female Bond." American Family Therapy Newsletter 1985.

Marriage and Family among Negroes. Englewood Cliffs.N.J: Prentice Hall, Inc.,1966.

"Models for the Relationship between the World of Women and the World of Men." In Research in Social Movements, ed. Louis Kriesberg. Greenwich, Conn: JAI Publishing, 1978.

"My Four Revolutions." American Journal of Sociology 78 (1973): 773-791.

"The Neighborhood Behavior of School Children in Relation to Age and Socioeconomic Status." American Sociological Review 4 (1939): 152-162.

"New Issues: Some Solutions." Women's Education 7 (1968): 1.

"No News, but New Ideas." In Divorce and After, ed. Paul Bohannan. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday and Co., 1970.

"No-Fault--Whose Fault?" Women's Review of Books (November , 1985):

"Normative Collective Behavior: A Classification of Societal Norms."American Journal of Sociology 47 (1941):24-38.

"Note on Educational Homogamy in Negro-White and White-Negro Marriages, 1960." Journal of Marriage and the Family 28 (1966): 274-276.

"A Note on Sociological Research as a Factor in Social Change: the Reception of the Kinsey report." Social Forces 28 (1949): 188-190.

"Observation and Generalization in Cultural Anthropology." American Journal of Sociology 50 (1945): 284-291.

"On Resolutions by the Society," American Sociological Review 16 (1951): 103.

"One Alumna's Story." University of Minnesota Alumni News (October, 1971).

"One Role, Two Roles, Shared Roles". Issues in Industrial Society 2 (1971): 21-28.

"Parties and Issues in Conflict." Journal of Conflict Resolution 1 (1957): 111-121.

"The Paradox of a Happy Marriage." In Women in Sexist Society, eds. Vivian Gornick and Barbara K. Moran. New York: Basic Books, 1971.

"Policy and Women's Time." In Sex Roles and Social Policy, eds. Jean Lipman-Blumen and Jessie Bernard. Beverly Hills, Calif: Sage Publications 1979.

"Political Leadership among North American Indians."American Journal of Sociology 34 (1928): 296-315.

"The Power of Science and the Science of Power." American Sociological Review 14 (1949): 575-585.

"Prescriptions for Peace." Ethics 59 (1949): 244-256.

"Present Demographic Trends and Structural Outcomes in Family Life Today." In Marriage and Family Counseling, ed. James A. Peterson. New York: Association Press, 1968.

"The Present Situation in the Academic World of Women Trained in Engineering." In Women in the Scientific Professions, ed. Jacquelyn A.Mattfeld. Cambridge.Mass: M.I.T Press, 1965.

"The Reconstituted Family." Journal of Family Issues 3 (1982).

"Reflections on Style, Structure, and Subject." In Scholarly Writing and Publishing, ed. Mary Frank Fox. Boulder, Colorado: Westview, 1985.

"Relative Rate of Change in Custom and Beliefs of Modern Jews." Proceedings of the American Sociological Society.19 (1925): 171-176.

Remarriage: A Study of Marriage . New York: Dryden Press, 1956.

"Reply to Lundberg's Comment." American Sociological Review 14 (1949): 798-801.

"Reply to a Catholic Protest," American Sociological Review 15 (1950): 430-432.

"Scientists and the Paradox of Power." Social Forces 31 (1952): 14-20.

"The Second Sex and the Cichlid Effect." Journal of the National Association of Women Deans 31 (1967): 8-17.

Self-Portrait of a Family. Boston: Beacon Press, 1978.

"Sex as a Regenerative Force." In The New Sexuality, ed. Herbert A. Otto Palo Alto.Calif: Science and Behavior Books, 1971.

"Sex in Remarriage." Medical Aspects of Human Sexuality 2 (1968): 54-61.

"Sexism and Discrimination." American Sociologist 5 (1970): 374-375.

The Sex Game. Englewood Cliffs.N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1968.

"Social Salvation through Science." South Atlantic Quarterly 46 (1947):44-55.

"Social Problems as Problems of Decision." Social Problems 6 (1958-59): 212-221.

Social Problems at Midcentury: Role.Status and Stress in a Context of Abundance. New York: Dryden Pres, 1957.

"Social-Psychological Aspects of Community Study: Some Areas Comparatively Neglected by American Sociologists." British Journal of Sociology 2 (1951): 12-30.

"Social Science Fiction." Trans-Action 5 (January-February, 1968): 10-12.

"Social Science and the New Administration." Transaction: Social Science and Modern Society (1977).

"Social Theory of Samuel G. Howe." Sociology and Social Research 17 (1933): 314-323.

"Social Work." In Contemporary Social Science, eds. Philip L. Harriman. Harrisburg.Penn: Stackpole Co., 1953.

"Societal Values and Parenting." Counseling Psychologist 9 (1981):.

"The Sociological Study of Conflict." In The Nature of Conflict ed. International Sociological Association. Liege, Belgium: UNESCO, 1957.

The Sociology of Community. Glenview.Ill: Scott, Foresman and Co., 1972.

"Some Biological Factors in Personality and Marriage." Human Biology 7 (1935):430-436.

"Some Current Conceptualizations in the Field of Conflict." American Journal of Sociology 70 (1965): 442-454.

"Some General Problems of Sociological Measurement." Southwestern Social Science Quarterly 12 (1932): 310-320.

"The Sources and Methods of Social Psychology." The Fields and Methods of Sociology, ed. Luther L. Bernard. New York: R. Long and R.R. Smith, Inc., 1934.

"The Status of Women in Modern Patterns of Culture." Annals of the American Academy 375 (1968): 3-14.

"Subversive Sociology." Women's Review of Books 1(Summer, 1983):3-4.

"Technology, Science, and Sex Attitudes." Impact of Science on Society 18 (1968): 213-228.

"Tenn Age Culture." Annals of the American Academy 338 (1961): 1-12.

"The Theory of Games of Strategy as a Modern Sociology of Conflict." American Journal of Sociology 59 (1954): 411-424.

"The United States." In The Institutions of Advanced Societies, ed. Arnold M. Rose. Minneapolis.Minn: University of Minnesota Press, 1958.

"Update on Women." In The Future American College, ed. Arthur W. Chicering. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1980.

"Validation of Normative Social Theory." Journal of Philosophy 47 (1950): 481-493.

"What Do You Mean Participation!" American Association of University Women Journal 61 (1968): 147-150.

"Where are We Now?" Psychology of Women Quarterly 1 (1976): 21-37.

"Where is the Modern Sociology of Conflict?" American Journal of Sociology 56 (1950): 11-16.

"Where the Action Is." Probe 1 (1971): 2-10.

"Who--What Makes a Family Today?" Lutheran Women (November 1971): 5-7.

Women and the Public Interest. Chicago, Ill.: Aldine, 1971.

"Women, Marriage and the Future." Futurist 4 (1970): 41-44.

"Women, Marriage, and the Future." In Toward a Sociology of Women, ed. Constantina Safilios-Rothschild. Lexington, Mas: Xerox College Pub., 1972.

Women, Wives, Mothers: Values and Options. Chicago: Aldine, 1975.

_____and Luther Bernard. Sociology and the Study of International Relations. St. Louis.Mo: Washington University Studies, 1934.

_____and Luther Bernard. Origins of American Sociology. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1943.

_____and C.B. Broderick, eds. The Individual, Sex and Society. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 1969.

_____and Deborah Jensen. Sociology. 4th ed. St. Louis, Mo.: C.V. Mosby Co., 1954.

_____and S.D.H. Kaplan and Faith Williams. Family Income in the Southeast. Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1939-1940.

_____and N.M. Lobsenz, "Why Husbands and Wives Remain Strangers." Reader's Digest 92 (Feb. 1968): 63-66.

_____and Helen F. Buchanan Meahl and William M. Smith. Dating, Mating, and Marriage. Cleveland, Ohio: Howard Allen, Inc., 1958.

_____and Lida F. Thompson. Sociology: Nurses and their Patients in a Modern Society. 8th ed. St. Louis, Mo.: C.V. Mosby Co., 1970.

Works About

Bannister, Robert C. , Jessie Bernard: The Making of a Feminist (New Brunswick, N.J.:Rutgers University Press, 1991)

Bernard, Jessie , Self-Portrait of a Family (Boston: Beacon Press, 1978); and "My Four Revolutions, " American Journal of Sociology 78 (1973): 773-791

Deegan, Mary Jo "Jessie Bernard," in Women in sociology : a bio-bibliographical sourcebook , ed. Deegan (New York : Greenwood Press: 1991.), pp. 71-79.

Lipman-Blumen, Jean "Jessie Bernard--A 'Reasonable Rebel'," Gender and Society 2(1988):271-273

Howe, Harriet "Jessie Bernard," Sociological Inquiry 64 (1994): 10-22


1880. Early in decade Bettsy Kanter (maternal grandmother) emigrates to U.S. with daughter Bessie (Bernard's mother)

1890 (Ca.) Bessie Kantor marries David Revici (later Ravitch)

1898 Birth of Clara (later Lambert), sister


1901 Birth of Samuel (brother)

1903 (June 8) Born Minneapolis, third child of David and Bessie Ravitch (later Ravage) Ravitch family moves to house on Lake and 11th Street, Minneapolis.

1908 Birth of Maurice (brother)

1920 (June) Graduates public high school

(Sept) Enters University of Minnesota

1921 First meets Luther Bernard (late in year or early 1922)

1923 B.A. University of Minnesota (Magna cum Laude)

1924 M.A. University of Minnesota.An Investigation into the Changes of Attitudes of Jews in the First and Second Generation Under Inflluence of Social Environment (Harris Prize)

1924-25 Luther teaches at Cornell; Jessie in Minneapolis

1925 First paper to American Sociological Society

1925 (Sept. 23) Marries Luther Lee Bernard in secret ceremony in upstate N.Y.

1926 (Feb-August ) Sails to Argentina with L.L.B.

1927 (Jan-July) at University of Chicago with L.L.B.. Studies with George Herbert Mead, Robert Park, and Ellsworth Faris.

1927 (September) New Orleans. L.L.B teaching at Tulane (through June 1928).

1928 (September) Chapel Hill, NC. L.L.B. teaching at University of North Carolina (through June 1929)

1929. Moves to St. Louis where L.L.B teaching at Washington University

1930 September-October. Researching history of social science in libraries in St. Louis and throughout South.

1931 First attempt at job-hunting.

1932 (Dec) paper before A.S.S. "Measurement of Success in Marriage"

1933 (Dec) paper before A.S.S. "Experimental Comparison"

1935 Attends International Sociological Institute meetings, Brussels with L.L. Bernard (spring)

(May) Defends doctoral thesis at Washington University)

(September-December ) In Paris to transcribe diaries of the positivist Henry Edger

(December) returns to New York via England

1936 (April) Files for divorce, and leaves for Washington, D.C. Withdrawn ca. July.

(May) Employed Railroad Retirement Board (Bureau of Labor Statistics). Lives in temporary quarters at 44 C Street, N.E. and 22 East Capitol Street.

(November) Transferred to Works Project Administration

1937 (July) Moves to apartment at 42 Independence Avenue, S.W. where she remains until leaving Washington for St. Charles, Missouri three years later

1938 (fall) Transfers Bureau of Bureau of Labor Statistics in cooperation with Bureau of Home Economics, for survey of national consumer expenditures (until 1940)

1940 (September) Begins teaching at Lindenwood College, St. Charles, MO (to 1947). Lives alternately in St. Charles and St. Louis to 1947

1941 (July 23) Birth of first child, Dorothy Lee

1945 (July 2). Birth of second child, Claude.

1947 (Sept) Begins teaching at Pennsylvania State University.

1949 American Community Behavior ( rev. edn. 1962)

1949 Birth of third child, David.

1949 Public exchange with George Lundberg


1951 (Jan) death of Luther Bernard

1951 (to 1963) Active in Society for the Study of Social Problems (SSSP) within American Sociological Association.

1953 President of Eastern Sociological Society.

1953-54 Vice-President of the American Sociological Association

1953-54. On Sabbatical, Graz, Austria

1956 Remarriage

1957 Social Problems at Midcentury (1957)

1958 Dating, Mating and Marriage (1958).

1959-60 Visiting professor at Princeton


1961 Moves to Washington, D.C. Commutes to Penn State (to 1964)

1963 President of SSSP.

1963 (August) Joins Iron Mountain Project

1964 Contributes to "Project Camelot"

1964 Retires from Penn State "Research Scholar Honoris Causa"

1966 Marriage and the Family among Negroes

1968 The Sex Game


1971 Women and the Public Interest

1972 The Future of Marriage.

1972 The Sociology of Community

1974 Visiting Fellow, National Institute of Education (1974-75)

1974 The Future of Motherhood

1975 Scholar in Residence, United States Commission on Civil Rights (1975-76)

1976 ASA establishes Jessie Bernard Award.

1980 Visiting Professor, Mills College

1981 The Female World

1981 Visiting Professor, University of California, Los Angeles

1982 Visiting Professor, University of Delaware

1987 The Female World in Global Perspective

1996 Oct 6. Dies at nursing home in Washington .DC

Created by Robert Bannister, Professor Emeritus, Swarthmore College, October 24, 2004. Corrections or additions to