Professions and Bureaucracies

revised 10/1/95

*see also: Women/Professions


Bledstein, Burton, The culture of Professionalism

Brown, JoAnne, 1954-, The definition of a profession : the authority of metaphor in the history of intelligence testing, 1890-1930 (Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, 1992) [B Canaday BF431.5.U6 B76 1992

Carr-Saunders, A. M. (Alexander Morris), Sir, Professions: their organization and place in society (128) Bryn Mawr

Geison, Gerald L. ed, Professions and professional ideologies in America ( Chapel Hill : University of North Carolina Press, c1983)1 S McCabe HT687 .P759 1983

Goode, William J., "Community within a Community: The Professions," American Sociological Review 22 (1957), 194-200.

Haber, Samuel,. The quest for authority and honor in the American professions1750-1900 (Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 1991) [1 > H Magill HT687 .H26 1991 AVAILABL; 2 > B Canaday HT687 .H26 1991

Haskell, Thomas L.ed. The Authority of experts : studies in history and theory (Bloomington : Indiana University Press, c1984),

Hatch, Nathan O. ed. The Professions in American history (Notre Dame, Ind. : University of Notre Dame Press, c1988) H Magill HD8038.U5 P76 1988

Hobson, Wayne, "Professionals, Progressives, and Brueaucrats," Historian 39 (1977), 639-58 [see also note 26 in this article for further titles]

Jackson, J. A. (John Archer), ed Professions and professionalization; (London, Cambridge University Press, 1970.) {HT687 .J32 ]

MacIver, Robert, "The Social Significance of Professional Ethics," Annals of the American Academy (1922), 5-11

Vollmer, Howard M., ed. Professionalization, edited by Howard M. Vollmer and Donald L.Mills.(Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall [c1966]). [ HT687 .V6]

Wilensky, Harold, "The Professionalization of Everyone? American Journal of Sociology 70 (1964), 137-48.


Hall, R.H., "Professionalization and Bureaucratization," American Sociological Review 33 (1968), 95" , _________"The Concept of Bureaucracy," American Journal of Sociology 69 (1963), 32-40

SPECIFIC PROFESSIONS (with reference to 1890-1920)

(1) Engineering

Calvert, Monte, The Mechanical Engineer in America 1830-1910 (1967)

Haber, Samuel, Efficiency and uplift; scientific management in the progressive era, 1890-1920.(Chicago, University of Chicago Press [1964]

Merritt, Raymond H., Engineering in American society, 1850-1875 (Lexington] University Press of Kentucky , 1969) [S Cornell TA23 .M46

(2) Law


Brewer, D. J. "Better Education the great need of the Profession," Review of Reviews 12 (1895), 584-85.

Bristol, George W., "The Pasing of the Legal Profession," Yale Law Journal 22 (1912-13), 590.

Hornblower, "Has the Profession of the Law Been Commercialized?" Forum 18 (1895), 678-85.

Lee, Ivy, "Modern Lawyer," World's Work 8 (1904), 873-80.

Nims, H.D. "Present Status of the Law," ibid. 5 (1903), 3082-6.

*note: this is just a sample. See titles in Readers Guide under "law," "lawyers,'


Auerbach, J. "Enmity and Amity: Law Teachers and Practitioners 1900-22," Perpectives in American History 5 (1971), 551-601

Johnson, John W. American Legal Culture: 1908-40 (1981)

Johnson, William R. Schooled Lawyers (1978)

Stevens, "Two Cheers for 1870: The American Law School," Perspectives in American History (1971), 403-548.

Stevens, Robert Bocking., Law school : legal education in America from the 1850s to the1980s (Chapel Hill : University of North Carolina Press, c1983

(3) Medicine

Bordley, James,Two centuries of American medicine, 1776-1976 (Philadelphia : Saunders, 1976).

Burnham, John C., "Medical Specialists and Efforts Toward Social Control in the Progressive Era," in Building the Organizational Society, ed. J. Israel (1972)

Burrow, James G., Organized Medicine in the Progressive Era (1977)

Cassedy, James H. , American medicine and statistical thinking, 1800-1860 (Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Press, 1984)

Cassedy, James H., Medicine and American growth, 1800-1860(Madison, Wis. : University of Wisconsin Press, 1986) [H Magill R151 .C37 1986 ]

Coulter, Harris L.Science and ethics in American medicine: 1800-1914 (Washington, McGrath Pub. Co., 1973)[ R131.A1 C67 v.3]

Duffy, John, The healers : a history of American medicine (Urbana : University of Illinois Press, 1979, c1976.) [ Canaday R151 .D83 1979]

Haller, John C., American Medicine in Transition 1840-1910 (1981)

Haller, John S and Robin M. Haller.., The physician and sexuality in Victorian America(Urbana, University of Illinois Press l974).

Kett, Joseph F, The Formation of the American Medical Profession (1968)

Kunitz, Stephen J., "Professionalism and Social Control in the Progressive Era:...the Flexner Report," Social Problems 22 (1974), 16-27

Marcus, Alan L., "Professional Revolution and Reform in the Progressive Era:...Cincinnati Physicians," J. Urban History 5 (1979), 183-208

Markowitz, G.E. and Rosner, D.K., "Doctors in Crisis," Am. Q. 25 (1973), 83-107

Rosen, George, The structure of American medical practice, 1875-1941 (Philadelphia : University of Pennsylvania Press, 1983) [ R152 .R67 1983

Rothstein, William G., American Physicians in the 19th Century (1972)

Starr, Paul, The social transformation of American medicine( New York : Basic Books, c1982). [ RA395.A3 S77 ]


(4) Academics


Becker, Carl, "On Being a Professor," Detachment in the Writing of History ed. P. Syyder, (1958)

Stevenson, J.J. "The Status of American College Professors," Popular Science Monthly 66 (1904), 122-30.



Brown, JoAnne, 1954-, The definition of a profession : the authority of metaphor in the history of intelligence testing, 1890-1930 (Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, 1992) [B Canaday BF431.5.U6 B76 1992

Creutz, A., "Social Access to the Professions: Late 19th c. academics," Journal of Social History 15 (1981) Kuklick, H. "Boundary Maintenance," Journal of the History of the Behavorial Sciences (1980) [on sociology, but bears on professionalization generally]

Oleson , Alexandra and Voss, John, ed. The Organization of Knowledge in Modern America (1979) [Am. History Honors Shelf], esececially articles by Higham, Shils, Ross, and Hawkins.

McCaughey, "The Transformation of American Academic Life,":Harvard University 1821-92, " Perspectives in American History 7 (1974) [for background]

Veysey, Laurence, The Emergence of the American University, esp. ch. 5.

Wilson, Logan The Academic Man (1942)

Znaniecki, F. The Social Role of the Man of Knowledge (1941)

(5) Natural Science


Daniels, George, "The Process of Professionalization in American Science," ISIS 58

Keveles, Daniel J. The Physicists (New York: Knopf, 1978).

Kuznick, Peter J. Beyond the Laboratory: Scientists as Political Activists in 1930s America (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987).

Noble, David F. America by Design: Science, Technology, and the Rise of Corporate Capitalism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1977)

Tobey, Ronald C. The American Ideology of National Science 1919-30 (Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1971), esp. chs. 2, 3



Written by Robert Bannister, Swarthmore College (emeritus). Please send suggestions/corrections to