(and Popular Magazines 1890-1920)

latest revision 12/21/00

*see also specific topics (Railroad, Pure Food). For individuals see "Muckraking: Biog/Autobiography"


Filler, Louis, Progressivism and muckraking (New York : R. R. Bowker Co., 1976.) Bibliographic guides for contemporary collections [S McCabe Ref Z7164.S66 F54 ]


Chalmers, David. The Social and Political Ideas of the Muckrakers (New York : Citadel Press, 1964)

Colburn, David R. and George E. Pozzetta, Reform and reformers in the progressive era (Westport, Conn. Greenwood Press, 1983) . See essay " Muckraking the muckrakers, Upton Sinclair and his peers," by Judson A. Grenier [1 S McCabe HN64 .R422 1983

Filler, Louis, Appointment at Armageddon : muckraking and progressivism in the American tradition (Westport, Conn. : Greenwood Press, 1976[S McCabe E661 .F52]

Filler, Louis, Crusaders for American Liberalism (1939)

Grenier, Judson, The Origins and Nature of Progressive Muckraking, (PhD UCLA , 1965). Microfilm Order # 65-13,855.

Hofstadter, Richard, The age of reform; from Bryan to F. D. R. (New York, Knopf, 1955)

Pendergast , Tom, Creating the Modern man: American Magazines and Consumer Culture. 1900-1950 (University of Missouri Press, Columbia: 2000)

Regier, Cornelius C., The era of the muckrakers, (Chapel Hill, The University of North Carolina Press, 1932 [ S McCabe E741 .R34 ]

Schneirov, Matthew, The Dream of a New Social Order: Popular Magazines in America 1893-1914 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1994).

Schudsen, Michael, Discovering the News (1977)

Stein, Harry ed. Muckraking: past, present, and future. Edited by John M. Harrison and Harry H. Stein. Foreword by Irving Dilliard (University Park, Pennsylvania State University Press [1973] [S McCabe E743 .M82]

Wilson, Christopher, The labor of words : literary professionalism in the Progressive Era (Athens : University of Georgia Press, 1985.)

Wilson, Harold S., McClure's magazine and the muckrakers, (Princeton, N.J., Princeton University Press, 1970) [S McCabe PN4900.M28 W5]


Beasley, Maurine," The muckrakers and lynching: a case study in racism," Journalism History 9 (Autumn/Winter '82/'83): 86-91

Bloomfield, M., "Muckraking and the American Stage: The Emergence of Realism, 1905-17," South Atlantic Q. 66 (Spr. 1967): 165-78

Cassady, Edward E. "Muckraking in the Gilded Age," American Literature 13 (May, 1941), 134-41.

Chalmers, David M. "The Muckrakers and the Growth of Corporate Power: A Study in Constructive journalism," American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 18 (April, 1959): 295-311.

Clark, John C. "Reform Currents in Polite Monthly Magazines, 188o-igoo," Mid-America, 47 (January, 1965), 3-23.

Cross, Whitney R. "The Muckrakers Revisited: Purposeful Objectivity in Progressive journalism," Neiman Reports, 6 (July, 1952), 10-15.

Ettema, James S.,"The irony in--and of--journalism: a case study in the moral language of liberal democracy," Journal of Communication 44 (Spring '94) : 5-28

Fairfield, Ray P. "Benjamin Orange Flower: Father of the Muckrakers," American Literature, 22 (November, 1950), 272-82.

Filler, Louis, "The Muckrakers: in Flower and in Failure," in Donald Sheehan and Harold C. Syrett (eds.), Essays in American Historiography: Papers Presented in Honor of Allen Nevins (New York: Columbia University Press, 196o), pp. 251-70

Francke, Warren, " Sensationalism and the development of 19th-century reporting: the broom sweeps sensory details, " Journalism History 12 (Autumn/Winter '85) : 80-5 [Tripod no]

Geiger, Louis, "Muckrakers Then and Now," Journalism Q. 43 (aut. 1966): 470

Grenier, Judson, "Muckraking and the Muckrakers," Journalism Q. (Autumn 1960).

Marcaccio, Michael D., Did a business conspiracy end muckraking? a reexamination," The Historian 47 (No '84) : 58-71.

Maxwell, Robert S. "A Note on the Muckrakers," Mid-America, 48 (January, 196i).

Mott, Frank L. "The Magazine Revolution and Popular Ideas in the Nineties," Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, LXIV: Part 1 (1954), 195-214.

Paterson, Judith, ,"The 10 best books of social concern by journalists," American Journalism Review 16 (Sept. '94) : 59

Ponder, Stephen," "Nonpublicity" and the unmaking of a president: William Howard Taft and the Ballinger-Pinchot controversy of 1909-1910," Journalism History 19 (Winter '94): 111-20

Reaves, Shiela, , "How radical were the muckrakers? socialist press views, 1902-1906," Journalism Quarterly 61 (Winter '84) : 763-70

Rose, L.A., "Shortcomings of 'Muckraking in the Gilded Age," American Literature 14 (May 1942): 161-64

Semonche, John E. "T.R's Muckrake Speech," MidAmerica 46 (April 1964): 114-25

Shapiro, Herbert, "The Muckrakers and Negroes," Phylon 31, 1(Spr,1970):76-88.

Schultz, Stanley K., The Morality of Politics: The Muckrakers' Vision of Democracy," Journal of American History 52 (Dec. 1965): 527-47

Semonche, John E., "The American Magazine," Journalism Q. 40 (1963): 36-44, 86

_____, "T.R.'s Muckrake Speech: A Reassessment," Mid America 46 (April 1964): 114-25.

Stein, Harry, "American Muckrakers," Journalism Q. 56 (Spr 1979): 9-17

Stein, Harry H , "American Muckraking of Technology since 1900," Journalism-Quarterly 67, 2, (1990, summer): 401-409 [the muckraking of Ray Stannard Baker and others in the early twentieth century with regard to technological development in the US is contrasted with that of Ralph Nader, Vance Packard, et al ]

Stinson, Robert, "McClure's Road to McClure's: How Revolutionary Were 1890s Magazines," Journalism Q. 47 (Summer 1970): 256-62

Thompson, H John H. "American Muckrakers and Western Canadia Refrom," J. Popular Culture 4 (Spr 1971): 1060-70

Thornton, Brian, "Muckraking journalists and their readers: perceptions of professionalism," Journalism History 21 (Spring '95):29-41

Contemporary Comment (to 1930)

Alger, George W. "The Literature of Exposure," Atlantic M. 96 (August, 1905): 210-13 [critical]

Burton, Richard, "The Healthful Tone for American Literature," Forum 19 (April 1895): 249-56 [not on muckraking but opposes realism]

Cairns, William B., "Later Magazines," Cambridge History of American Literature , ch 19 (1921) [Genteel Tradtion view of muckraking]

Cantwell, Robert, "Journalism--The Magazines, " America Now, ed. Harold E. Stearns

Crane, Frank, "The Man with a Muckrake and the Man with a job," Collier's 38 (Dec. 22, 1906): 30

Creel, George, "Poinsoners of Public Opinion," Harper's Weekly 59 (Nov. 7. 14. 1914): 436-38, 465-66.

Flower, Bejamin O., "The Monthly Magazines in the Grip of Privileged Wealth," Arena 41 (Jan. 19109): 106

[Flower, Benjamin ] , "The Administration and the Popular Magazines," 20th Century 4 (1911): 81-2

French, George, "Damnation of the Magazines," 20th Century 6 (1912): 99-111

French, George, "Masters of the Magazines I-IV , 20th Century 5-6 (April- July 1912): 501-16, 19-26, ??, 241-49.

[Hampton's] "Big Politics versus the Mazazine," Hampton's 26 (April 19111): 521-23

Holt, Hamilton, "The Literature of Exposure," Independent 60 (March 22, 1906): 690-9

[Independent] "A Word to the Muckrakers," Independent 70 (Feb 9, 19111): 319-20

Kittle, William, "What Makes a Magazine Progresive?" 20th Century 6 (Aug. 1912): 345-50

_____, "The 'Interests' and the Magazines," 20th Century 2(May 1910)

[Literary Digest] "A Change int he Spirit of Magazine Criticism," Literary Digest 32 (May 19, 1906): 750-51

Mercer, H.,"Muckraking the Muckraker," Overland 75 (Jan. 1920): 26-7

[Nation] "Strangling the Magazines," Nation 94 (May 2, 1912): 431-2

Orff, Frank, "Little Talk About An Important Group of Magazines," Hampton's 27 (Aug. 19111): 264-68

Ross, Edward A., "The Suppression of Important News," Atlantic M. 105 (March 1910): 303-11

Russell, Charles E., "The Magazine 'Soft-Pedal," Pearson's 31 (Feb. 1914): 179-89

Sw edgwick, Ellery, "The Man with the Muckrake," American Magazine 62 (May 1906): 111-12

Sinclair, Upton, "The Muckrake Men," Independent 65 (Sept 3, 1908): 517-19



Written by Robert Bannister, Swarthmore College (emeritus). Please send suggestions/corrections to