African Americans in the Progressive Era

See also "Race and Racism"
Latest revision 4/16/99.

Progressives and African Americans

Casdorph, Paul D., Republicans, Negroes, and Progressives in the South, 1912-1916 (University, Ala. : University of Alabama Press, c1981.S McCabe F215 .C267
Daniel, Pete, The Shadow of Slavery: Peonage in the South 1901-69 (1972)
Fullinwider, S.P., The Mind and Mood of Black America (1969)
Gilmore, Al-Tony , Bad Nigger!The National Impact of Jack Johnson (1975)
Grantham, D. "Progressive Movement and the Negro," So. At. Q. 54 (1955), 461-77
Kirby, Jack, Darkness at the Dawning (1972)
Lane, Ann J., The Brownsville Affair (1971)
Osofsky, G. , "Progressivism and the Negro," Am. Q. 16 (1964), 153-68
Baker, Ray Stannard Following the Color Line
Anderson, Eric. Race and Politics in North Carolina 1872-1901: The Black Second (Baton Rouge, 1981)

Bernstein, Barton J. , "Plessy vs. Ferguson: Conservative Sociological Jurisprudence," Journal of Negro History 48 (1963), 196.
Blassingame, John Black New Orleans 1860-11880 (Chicago, 1973)
Cell, John W. The Highest Stage of White Supremacy: The origins of Segregation in South Africa and the American South (NY; Cambridge UP 1982). See also review by H. Rabinowitz, "The Not So Strange Career of Jim Crow,' Reviews in American History March 1984 , pp. 58-64.
Chesteen, Richard D. , "Bibliographical Essay: The Legal Validity of Jim Crow," Journal of Negro History 54 (1971), 284-93.
Dittmer, John, Black Georgia in the Progressive Era 1900-1920 (Urbana, U. Ill, 1977).
Fredrickson, George, White Supremacy: A Comparative Study in American and South African History (New York, OUP, 1981).
Kirby, Jack, Darkness at the Dawning: Race and Reform in the Progressive South (1972)
Kousser, J. Morgan and McPherson, James, eds. Region, Race and Reconstruction: Essays in Honor of C. Vann Woodward (New York, OUP, 1982).
Meier, August and Rudwick, Elliott, "A Strange Chapter in the Career of Jim Crow, " in Meier and Rudwick, eds. The Making of Black America (2 vols, Atheneum, 1969)
Newby, I.A. Jim Crow's Defense
Kousser, J. Morgan, The Shaping of Southern Politics: suffrage Restruction and the Establishment of the One Party South 1880-1910 (Yale, 1974). [JK1936.A2.K68]
Logan, Frenise A. The Negro in North Carolina 1876-1894 (Chapel Hill: UNC, 1964).
Rabinowitz, Howard, Race Relations in the Urban South 1865-1900 (1978) [for background]. See also his "From Exclusion to Segregation: Southern Race Relations 1865-1890," Journal of American History 63 (Sept. 1976), 325-50.
Rice, Robert L. "Residential Segregation by Law 1910-17," Journal of Southern History 34 (1968), 179-98.
Roback, "The Political Economy of Segregation: The Case of Segregated Street Cars," Journal of Economic History XLVI (December 1986), 893-917.
Tindall, George B. South Carolina Negroes 1877-1900 (Columbia UP, 1952)
Williamson, Joel. The Crucible of Race: Black-White Relations in the American South since Emancipation (NY: Oxford, 1984). See also review by H. Rabinowitz, Slavery and Abolition, 7 (Sept 1986)188-94 [copy in xerox drawer]
Woodward, C.V. The Strange Career of Jim Crow
Wynes, Charles E. "The Evolution of Jim Crow Laws in Twentieth Century Virginia," Phylon 28 (1967), 416-25.
*for a discussion of the Woodward Thesis see Howard Rabinowitz, "The Woodward Thesis and More," unpublished essay (1986) xerox file. [note: probably better not to look at until after you have written your paper. It is useful however, in explaining how recent literature relates to the Woodward thesis. Woodward himself comments on the thesis in Thinking Back: The Perils of Writing History (Baton Rouge, 1986).
Allen, H., "Political Reform and Negro Rights in the Senate, 1909-15," J. So. History 37 (1971), 191-212
Blumenthal, H., "Wilson and the Race Question," J. Negro History 48 (1963), 1-21
Gatewood, W., TR and the Art of Controversy (1970), chs. 2-4.
Scheiner, S., "Roosevelt and the Negro, 1900-08," J. Negro History 47 (1962), 169-82
Weiss, N. "Negro and New Freedom," Political Science Quarterly 84 (1969), 61-79
Wohlgemuth, K. "Wilson and Fed. Segregation," J.Negro History 44 (1959), 158-73.
African Americans in the Progressive Era.
(1) General
Rudwick, E. "The Niagra Movement, J. Negro History 42 (1957), 177-200
Thornbrough, E. "The National Afro-American League 1887-1908," J. Negro History 46 (1961), 494-512
Franklin, John Hope and August Meier, eds.Black Leaders of the Twentieth Century (1982) Call #E185.96.B536.1982
Redkey, Edwin S. Black Exodus: Black Nationalist and Back to Africa Movements 1890-1910 (1969)
(2) Washington
Harlan, Louis R. "The Secret Life of Booker T. Washington," Journal of So. History 37 (1971)
Harlan, Louis R., "B.T.W. in Biographical Perspective," American Historical Review 75 (1970), 1581-99.
'' , [multivolume biog. of BTW recently finished]
Thornbrough, Emma L, "BTW as Seen by His White Contemporaries," Journal of Negro Hist. 53 (1968), 161.
(3) DuBois
Aptheker, Herbert ed., The Correspondence of W.E.B. Dubois 1877-1934 (1973)
Broderick, Francis L. , "German Influence on the Scholarship of W.E.B. DuBois, Phylon 19 (1958), 367-71 [film]
Broderick, Francis L. W.E.B. DuBois (1959)
Brodwin, Stanley, "The Veil Transcended: Form and Meaning in Dubois Souls of Black Folk," J. Black Studies 2 (1972)
Contee, Clarence G. "The Emergence of DuBois as an African Nationalist," J. Negro History 54 (1969), 48-60
Henderson, Vivian "Race, Economics, and Public Policy with Reflections on W.E.B. DuBois Phylon 37 (1976)
Rudwick, Elliott DuBois: Propagandist of the Negro Protest (2nd ed. 1969)
Wesley, "W.E.B. DuBois The Historian," Journal of Negro History 50 (1965) 147-62.
Crowe, C., "Racial Massacre in Atlanta," J. Negro History 54 (1969), 150
'' , "Racial Violence and Social Reform," J. Negro History 53 (1968)
Osofsky, G. "Race Riot 1900," J. Negro Education 32 (1963), 16-24
Rudwick, E., Race Riot in East Saint Louis 1917 (1964)
Tuttle, W. Race Riot: Chicago 1919 (1970)
'' , "Contested Neighborhoods and Racial Violence," J. Negro History 55 (1970)
Waskow, A., From Race-Riot to Sit-In (1966)


Written by Robert Bannister, Swarthmore College (emeritus). Please send suggestions/corrections to