1 Bernard, "Biculturality," p. 264.

2 Bernard, "A Nineteenth-Century Childhood," MS ca. 1980s. Much of the material in this chapter is taken from this autobiographical sketch. See also Bernard, Self-Portrait, pp. xvii-xix. Barney Kantar [cousin] to Jessie Bernard, February 2, 1982, JB, provides an expanded account of family genealogy based on his own research, including the fact that Jessie's grandmother made three trips to the United States and lived for a time with a second husband in Florida prior to bringing her daughter to New York. The date of the original immigration is thus in doubt. Although this same source gives the family name as "Kantar," I use "Kanter" as given in the 1900 U.S. census for Minneapolis, as cited by Bernard, Self-Portrait, p. xviii.

3 Kramer and Leventman, Children, p. 39; United States Census [1890] Population, vol I, p. cl.

4 Kramer and Leventman, Children, pp. 42-43.

5 Ibid. pp. 37-38, 56. See also Bernard, "A 19th Century Childhood," MS provided by Professor Bernard.

6 Salisbury, "Victorian City in the Midwest," pp. 49-75; Federal Writers Project, Minnesota: A State Guide (St. Paul, 1938), p. 80.

7 Bernard, "The Twentieth Century Seen through the Life of an American Woman," p. 3, MS provided by Professor Bernard.

8 Bernard, Sarah Gordon, p. 44, MS JB.

9 Ibid. pp. 44-45.

10 For example see Walker, American City.

11 Bernard, "Biculturality, p. 286; "One Alumnae's Story," p. 55 , Safier, Bernard, pp. 29,44.

12 Bernard, "Biculturality," p. 267.

13 Bernard, "A Nineteenth Century Childhood," p. 6.

14 Bernard, "Biculturality," p.

15 Bernard, "Some Disadvantages of Being a Happily Married Woman," MS n.d. [ca. 1927-35], JB.

16 Bernard,"Biculturality," p. 271.

17 Bernard, Self-Portrait, p. 326.

18 Bernard, "A 19th Century Childhood."

19 Bernard, Sarah Gordon ,MS, JB, pp. 22, 37.

20 On Jenks see Gary A. Fine et al, "Great Men and Hard Times."

21 Bernard, "Biculturality," p. 277. Cf. Ehrenreich and English, For Her Own Good , ch. 5.

22 Bernard, "Little Sister," MS, JB.

23 Decades later, Bernard described her sister as " a strong, courageous, vastly creative child. The world was her oyster." Self-Portrait, p. 326.

24 Clara Lambert to Jessie Bernard, April 28, 1929, LLB. Clara Rose Lambert (1898-1953) served as Director of Teacher Education at the Play Schools Association during the late 1930s and 1940s. Her many publications include Manhattan; now and long ago [with Lucy Sprague Mitchell] (New York, 1934); I Sing America (New York, 1941); Understand Your Child--from 6 to 12 (New York, 1948). See [obituary], New York Times August 12, 1953, p. 31.

25 Bernard, Lucy Page.

26 Bernard, "Biculturality," p. 274.

27 Ibid. p. 277.

28 Ibid., pp. 268-69.

29 Ibid. p. 270.

30 Bernard, [untitled essay], Sarah Gordon, p. 31.

31 Bernard, Sarah Gordon, pp. x, 35.

32 Safier, Bernard, p.

33 Bernard, [fragment, n.d. ca. 1937], p. 288a. This fragment was preserved only because Bernard used the paper for another letter. The remainder was apparently destroyed, although it may have been a reworking of the novel Sarah Gordon.

34 Bernard, Sarah Gordon, pp. 6-8.

35 Gordon, Jews in Transition, p. 46.

36 Kramer and Leventman, Children, p. 43.

37 Bernard, "Biculturality," p. 283.

38 Ibid. p. 285.

39 See especially "Biculturality, pp. 279-80.

40 Gordon, Jews, pp. 162-63.

41 Bernard, "Biculturality," p. 281.

42 Bernard, [untitled autobiographical fragment], pp. 11-12. The book was Paul Cowan, An Orphan in History (New York, 1952).

43 Bernard, "Biculturality," p. 281.

44 Bernard, Self-Portrait, pp. 41-47.

45 Bernard, [untitled autobiographical fragment]

46 The study was Young-Bruehl, Hannah Arendt.

47 Bernard, [untitled autobiographical fragment ] ca. 1980s, MS provided by Professor Bernard.

48 Young-Bruel, Hannah Arendt, p. 233, quoted in Bernard [untitled autobiographical fragment], p. 14.

49 Bernard, "A Nineteen Century Childhood," p. 5a.

50 Luther to Jessie Bernard, March 27, 1938, LLB.

51 Bernard, "Culture as Environment."

52 Bernard, "The Neighborhood Behavior of School Children."

53 Bernard, "Biculturality,"

54 Bernard et al., Dating, Mating, and Marriage .

55 Bernard, "Where is the Modern Sociology of Conflict?"