Ray Stannard Baker and the Legacy of Progressivism


*latest revision 9/8/00

1 Robert C. Bannister, Ray Stannard Baker: The Mind and Thought of a Progressive (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1966). Quotation, p. ix.

2 These volumes, which collectively sold in the millions were: Adventures in Contentment (New York: Doubleday, Page, 1907); Adventures in Friendship (New York: Doubleday, Page, 1910); The Friendly Road: New Adventures in Contentment (New York: Doubleday, Page, 1913); Hempfield: An American Novel (New York: Doubleday, Page, 1915); Great Possessions: A New Series of Adventures Illustrated (New York: Doubleday, Page, 1917); Adventures in Understanding (New York: Doubleday, Page, 1925); Adventures in Solitude (New York: Doubleday, Doran, 1931); The Countryman's Year (New York: Doubleday, Doran, 1936); Under My Elm: Country Discoveries and Reflections (New York: Doubleday, Doran, 1942

3 What Wilson Did at Paris, (New York, 1919) ; Woodrow Wilson and World Settlement (3 vols New York, 1922); Woodrow Wilson, Life and Letters, (8 vols Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Page, and Doubleday, Doran, 1927-39).

4 John B. Judis, " Are We All Progressives Now?" American Prospect 11 no12 (My 8 2000): 34-8.

5"A New Fighting Faith:; Ambitious Goals for the World's Oldest Political Party The New Democrat (September, 1996 / October, 1996): 14;. Judis, " Are We All Progressives Now?" op. cit. Michael Nyilis , "The Never-Ending Struggle: Why Progressivism Won't Die " The Weekly Standard, November 9, 1998, p. 34. For use of term "progressive" in opposition to the pejorative "liberal," see Richard Rothstein "Port: Noise, Complaint; The Left's Obsessive Opposition," The American Prospect (Fall, 1993): 30.

6 Fred Siegel and Will Marshall, "Liberalism's Lost Tradition," The New Democrat (September/October 1995); : Roberto Mangabeira Unger and Cornel West, The Future of American Progressivism : An Initiative for Political and Economic Reform (Beacon Press: Boston, 1998); Michael Tomasky, Left for dead: the life, death, and possible resurrection of progressive politics in America (1996). For example, Tomasky, speaking for "we on the left"(p. 9), calls for "a revitalized American progressive movement." (p. 29).

7 Judis, op. cit.

8 On "unitarian" and "pluralist" accounts of progressivism see Peter Filene "Narrating Progressivism," Journal of American History 79 (March, 1993): 1546-1552.

9 Benjamin Parke De Witt The Progressive Movement( 1914) . The three "tendencies" were an attack on political corruption, the redesign of government institution, and a concern for social and economic justice. For DeWitt's relation to later progressive historiography see James J. Connolly, " H-SHGAPE Bibliographical Essays: Progressivism," and note x below.

10 Cornelius C., Regier, The era of the muckrakers (Chapel Hill, The University of North Carolina Press, 1932); Louis Filler, Crusaders for American Liberalism (New York, Harcourt, Brace and company , 1939).

11 Hofstadter , Age of Reform, pp. 194, 216.

12 Mowry, George E. , The era of Theodore Roosevelt, 1900-1912 (New York, Harper , 1958); Arthur S. Link,., Woodrow Wilson and the progressive era, 1910-1917(New York, Harper, 1954); Arthur Meier Schlesinger, Jr,, The Vital center; the politics of freedom. (Boston, Houghton Mifflin Co., 1949).. See also

13 Link, Arthur Stanley, Wilson, (5 vols. Princeton : Princeton University Press, 1947-1965. Volumes are subtitled I, The road to the White House, II The New Freedom; III, The struggle for neutrality, 1914-1915; IV Confusion and crisis, 1915-1916; and V Campaigns for progressivism and peace, 1916-1917. Baker, Woodrow Wilson: Life and Letters 4; :202 slighted the post-legislative in-fighting. Although he insisted that Wilson gave the appointments "the most serious attention," he observed that, once the bill was passed, Wilson "turned to more pressing problems--issues, not men."

14 For example see John Blum et al., The National Experience, vol. II, p. ?

15 Mowry, Era, pp. 17, 203. Mowry also cited Baker's callous characterization of the labor unionism of the garment workers (p.101 ) and his "racism" (p. 93) , thus qualifying earlier portraits of the his "democratic" convictions. " In a single reference to Baker in Woodrow Wilson and the progressive Era, p. 239, Link mistakenly suggests that Baker joined other "advanced progressives" to support Wilson for the first time in 1916. Although Baker, American Chronicle p. may have exaggerated in claiming he was an "ardent" supporter of Wilson in 1912, his account confirms that he threw his support to Wilson once Robert LaFollette of Wisconsin was out of the race.

16 On the "organizational synthesis see: Louis Galambos, "Technology, Political Economy, and Professionalization: Central Themes of the Organizational Synthesis," Business History Review, 57 (w. 1983): 471-93. On "corporatism" Ellis Hawley,. "The Discovery and Study of 'Corporate Liberalism,'" Business History Review 52 (1978), 309-20. Examples of Hays' work are "The Politics of Reform," Pacific Northwest Quarterly. and "The New Organizational Society," in Jerry Israel, ed. Building the Organizational Society (New York: Free Press , 1972)

17 Link, Arthur Stanley, Wilson, (5 vols. Princeton : Princeton University Press, 1947-1965. Volumes are subtitled I, The road to the White House, II The New Freedom; III, The struggle for neutrality, 1914-1915; IV Confusion and crisis, 1915-1916; and V Campaigns for progressivism and peace, 1916-1917.

18 Bannister, Baker, pp. 232

6 19 Ibid., p. 5.

20 For example, Richard B. Sherman, "The Status Revolution and Massachusetts Progressive Leadership", Politial Science Q. 78 (1963): 59-66; Eli D. Potts, "The Progressive Profile in Iowa," Mid-America 47 (1965): 257-68; and David Thelen, "Social Tensions and the Origins of Progressivism," Journal of American History 56 (1969): 323-41

21 Gabriel Kolko, The Triumph of Conservatism (Glencoe: Free Press, 1963), pp. 15, 161 See also his Railroads and Regulation 1877-1916 (Princeton: Princeton Press, 1965). pp. 94, 113. For discussion see Fred Greenbaum, "The Progressive World of Gabriel Kolko," Social Studies 60 (Oct. 1969).

22 "Frederick W. Taylor- Scientist in Business Management," American Magazine, LXXI (March, 1911): 564- 70. Samuel Haber, Efficiency and Uplift (Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1964) identified this moralistic response as one of several different responses to Taylorism. .

23 Skocpol, Theda. Protecting soldiers and mothers : the political origins of social policy in the United States (Cambridge, Mass. : Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1992). For a summary of race, class, and gender implications of progressivism, see Eileen L. McDonagh, "Race, Class, and Gender in te Progresivie Era, I in Sidney M. Milkis and Jerome M. Mileur, ed. , Progressivism and the new democracy (Amherst : University of Massachusetts Press, 1999). pp. 145-91

24 Lynn D. Gordon, Gender and higher education in the Progressive Era (New Haven : Yale University Press, 1990); and Kathy Lee Peiss, , Cheap amusements: working women and leisure in turn-of-the-century New York ( Philadelphia : Temple University Press, 1986). Peiss contrasts the "homosocial" world of the 19th century with the "heterosocial" order that took shape during the progressive era.

25 Eileen Boris, in Gender, class, race, and reform in the progressive era. ed. Noralee Frankel, Nancy S. Dye,. (Lexington, Ky. : University Press of Kentucky, 1991.

26 For this literature see Joe L. Dubbert, A Man's Place: Masculinity in Transition, and his "Progressivism and the Masculinity Crisis," in The American man, edited Elizabeth H. Pleck, Joseph H. Pleck (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1980), pp. 305-19, originally Psychoanalytic Review 61 (Fall, 1974); Jeffrey P. Hantover, "The Boy Scouts and the Validation of Masculinity," , ibid., originally Journal of Social Issues 34 (1978), 184-95. Also Anthony Rotundo," Body and Soul: Changing Ideals of American Middle-Class Manhood 1770-1920," Journal of Social History 16 (1983) and his American manhood : transformations in masculinity from the Revolution to the modern era (New York : Basic Books, 1993).

27 See Robert C. Bannister, Sociology and Scientism (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1987); and on William F. Ogburn

28 Margaret Marsh,Suburban lives (New Brunswick: Rutgers Press, 1990)

29 For example, J. Joseph Huthmacher, Journal of American History 44 (1962): 321-41. Also Huthmacher,. Massachusetts people and politics, 1919-1933. (Cambridge, Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1959). 30 Buenker, "The Progressive Era: A Search for a Synthesis," Mid-America 51 (1969): 175-93 .

31 Daniel Rodgers, "In Search of Progressivism," Reviews in American History (1982)

32 Nord, David Paul, Newspapers and new politics : midwestern municipal reform, 1890-1900 ( Ann Arbor, Mich. : UMI Research Press, 1981.)

33 Rodgers, Daniel T., Atlantic crossings : social politics in a progressive age (Cambridge, Mass. : Belknap Press of Harvard University Press,1998). Since Rodgers' book joins a discussion begun by the "new institutionalists" --Skocpol in particular--and could just as appropriately be considered a part of this later revision. For online discussion see http://www.h-net.msu.edu/reviews.

34 Thus, to mention examples that go beyond Rodgers' argument, Anne Hutchinson in 17th century Massachusetts may have shared the grievances of later feminists, but she expressed them in theological disputes over the nature of divine grace. Gay radicals of the 1960s, in the years before Stonewall, may have "really" been concerned with gay rights , but most threw their energies into the Civil Rights or antiwar movements.

35 On this omission see reviews by Seth Koven and Sonya Michel at http://www.h-net.msu.edu/reviews/showrev.cgi?path=26299941690044 and http://www.h-net.msu.edu/reviews/showrev.cgi?path=26380941690150

36 Skowronek, Building, p. 287;

37 Bringing the State Back in , , edited by Peter B. Evans, Dietrich, Rueschemeyer, Theda Skocpol.( Cambridge Cambridgeshire ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 1985).

38 Crunden, Robert Morse, "Essay 3," in John Burnham et al, Progressivism (Cambridge, Mass. : Schenkman Pub. Co., 1976 c1977); and his Ministers of reform : the Progressives' achievement in American civilization, 1889-1920 (New York : Basic Books, 1982). See also Richard W. Fox, "The Culture of Liberal Protestant Progressivism," Journal of Interdisciplinary History 23(winter 1993): 639-660

39 John Diggins "Republicanism and Progressivism," American Quarterly 37 (Fall 1985): 572-98.

40 Thomas Pegram, Partisans and progressives : private interest and public policy in Illinois, 1870-1922. (Urbana : University of Illinois Press, 1992); .and Morton Keller , Regulating a new society : public policy and social change in America, 1900-1933 (Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Press, 1994). .For these references I am indebted to Connolly, "H-SHGAPE Bibliographical Essays: Progressivism" at http://www2.h-net.msu.edu/~shgape/bibs/

41 Ibid, For a similar view of Jane Addams, grounded in more explicitly psychological analysis see Dominck Cavallo, "Sexual Politics and Social Reform: Jane Addams from Childhood to Hull House" in New Directions in Psychohistory . In Minister of Reform, Crunden likewise argues for the "innovative nostalgia" in progressive thought.

42 Eldon J. Eisenach, The Lost promise of progressivism (Lawrence, Kan. : University Press of Kansas, 1994), Sidney M. Milkis and Jerome M. Mileur, ed. , Progressivism and the new democracy (Amherst : University of Massachusetts Press, 1999).

43 Eisenach, Lost promise of progressivism , p. 260.

44 Milieu, Legacy of Reform," in Mileuer and eds. Progressivism, p. 265.

45 R.Jeffrey Lustig, review American Political Science Review 90 (March, 1996): 187-88.

46 Ehrenreich, Hearts of Men

47 Bannister, Baker, 266-67, 207,

48 Dorothy Ross, The Origins of American Social Science (Cambridge University Press, 1991), ch. 7, 10 although speaking only of the social sciences, suggests that historicist liberal theory of the late 19th century and the scientistic social control theory that eclipsed it by the 1920s, were sucessive attempts to restate the doctrine of American exceptionalism in the face of the economic crisis of the Gilded Age and hence not as different as some historians have supposed.

49 For example, see article by Thomas L. Friedman in New York Times,, July 25, 2000, and reply in "LettersTo the Editor," July 28, 2000.

49 Frank Rich, "Survival of the Fakest," New York Times August 26,2000.