The Technology Factor in Industrialization: Indicators
Explanatory Notes re Computer Files [READ-ME.TXT file]

Larry E. Westphal, Howard Pack, and Carl J. Dahlman
with assistance from 
Suzanne M. Buckley, Karan S. Madan, and Esther Parker

February 1996; Final Revision, June 1996

Project Sponsor and Principal Funder:
United Nations University, Institute for New Technologies

Additional Funding:
Joel Dean Foundation, funds provided to Swarthmore College
for student summer research stipend; Swarthmore College Research Fund.

Copyright 1996 by Larry E. Westphal, Howard Pack and Carl J. Dahlman.
NOTICE: Data are not to be cited in any form without explicit written permission 
from L. E. Westphal

Disclaimer: Notwithstanding that every effort has been made to assure the 
accuracy of the explanatory notes and of the indicators themselves (the latter 
with respect to retrieval, computation, and the like), those involved in their 
preparation make no guarantees, either implicit or explicit, of accuracy in any 
regard in either case.  Users of both notes and indicators accordingly assume 
any and all risks associated with their use.

These files are made available for the convenience of those who wish to access 
the indicators in computer readable form.  The following should provide all of 
the information needed to access and comprehend their contents.


The files may be obtained over the InterNet using a Web browser.  Go to

and click on Obtain Download Files, which brings up the Web page from which they 
can be accessed.  [An ascii, text only file (named read-me.txt) containing a 
copy of this document also resides in the directory.]  The files are contained 
in three PK-Zip archive files, the contents of which are as follows (see further 
below for the distinction between table and text files):
-, 150K: all other table files (8 files in all);
-, 189K: all ascii, text only data files (7 files in all).
NotaBene:  NTS-OTHR.WRD contains a complete indication of the full contents of 
all indicators other than the Basic indicators, which are provided in 1_-
B_NDC.EXL and documented in NTS-BNDC.WRD.


Indicators are provided for 25 industrialized and industrializing countries: 
Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, 
Philippines, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, India, Pakistan, Turkey, Israel, 
Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Britain, France, Germany, Japan, and United States.  
The data cover the period 1960 through 1990.  Indicators typically involve 
annual averages over three year periods at roughly ten year intervals -- 1960-
62, 1969-71, 1979-81, and 1988-90 where feasible.  With one exception, all 
indicators are the result of computations using generally available data; 
technology payment indicators (item 6 below) reflect original data assembly 
effort.  Also original are the aggregation schemes used for production and trade 
indicators (item 3), as well as for capital goods trade indicators (item 5).  An 
overview of the contents of the indicator files follows.

0. Explanatory Notes: Basic indicators; Other indicators
- Computer Files: NTS-BNDC.WRD; NTS-OTHR.WRD.
Explanatory notes -- definitions, sources, methods, etcetera -- for Basic and 
all other indicators respectively.  "Other" indicators provide either additional 
overview data (Diverse indicators, item 2) or supplementary -- to the Basic 
indicators -- data in considerable detail (items 3 through 6).

1. Basic indicators
- Computer File:  1_-B_NDC.EXL.
Individual comparative tables include: 1, Growth performance; 2a&b, Macro 
indicators, 1&2; 3, Production and trade; 4, Structural change (3-digit); 5a, 
Technology acquisition; 5b, Direct foreign investment; 6, Capital goods (5-digit 
SITC,1); 7a, Local technological manpower; 7b, R&D expenditures; 8, Human 
capital formation; 9, Tertiary education; 10, Vocational education.

2. Diverse indicators: Comparative table
- Computer Files:  2_-D_NDC.TXT/WRD.
Miscellaneous indicators compiled on the way to the basic indicators.

3. Production and trade indicators, 3\4-digit ISIC: Country tables
- Computer Files:  3A\B-P&T-3\4.TXT/WRD.
Structure (i.e. composition) of gross output, value added, imports, and exports 
plus import to total supply and export to production ratios (or export to import 
ratios); for twelve\eleven sector aggregation (of 3\4-digit ISIC sectors), using 
matched production and trade data.  The eleven sector aggregation scheme is 
premised on judgements of technological capability differences among sectors.

4. Structural change indicators, 3\4-digit ISIC: Comparative table
- Computer Files:  4A\B-STC-3\4.TXT/WRD.
Average absolute change and square root of average squared changes in sectoral 
shares of apparent consumption, gross output, imports, and exports; for 3\4 
digit ISIC sectors (no aggregation), using matched production and trade data; 
includes sectoral details for growing and declining (relatively) sectors.

5. Capital goods trade indicators: Country tables
- Computer Files:  5_-K_GDS.TXT/WRD.
Composition of durable goods imports and exports classified as follows: end 
products -- agricultural machinery, plant equipment, electronic equipment, 
industrial machinery, transport equipment, consumer durables; (sub-) assemblies 
-- electronic, other; parts and components.  Separate compilations are given for 
data under SITC,1 and SITC,2.

6. Technology payment indicators: A. Comparative table; B. Country tables
-  Computer Files:  6A-T_PAY.TXT/WRD; 6B-T_PAY.WRD.
Aggregate technology payments made to France, Germany, Japan, the United 
Kingdom, and the United States; using data obtained from source countries (i.e., 
those receiving payment).


MS Word files: The following files are Macintosh MS Word files; they should be 
readily accessible using MS Word either for the Macintosh or for the IBM-
compatible PC.  [They may also be similarly accessible using other word 
processor programs with translators.]  If necessary, they can be made available 
as WordPerfect 5.0 or 5.1 files, or (but not without perhaps considerable loss 
in formatting clarity) as ascii, text only files.
- Explanatory notes re Basic indicators: Mac Word file name: NTS-BNDC.WRD;
- Explanatory notes re (all) Other indicators: Mac Word file name: NTS-OTHR.WRD.
- Table files from which the hardcopy, printed forms of the indicator tables 
were generated:  Mac Word file names:  na-text_.WRD, where "na-text_" identifies 
the particular indicator dataset).

Microsoft Excel file: The following table cum data file is a Macintosh Excel 5.0 
Workbook file; it should be readily accessible using Excel either for the 
Macintosh or for the IBM-compatible PC.  [It may also be similarly accessible 
using other spreadsheet programs with translators.]
- 1.  Basic indicators: Comparative table -- Mac Excel file name: 1_-B_NDC.EXL.
The Basic indicator tables (similarly, data) are contained in Sheets 1 through 
13, respectively, of the Workbook, as indicated by the corresponding tab labels; 
Sheets 14,15,&16 are blank.  All cells in the workbook are protected (or locked) 
against inadvertent changes in their contents; with Excel, the protection can be 
undone using the Protection command under Tools if desired.
NotaBene: This is the ONLY data file which precisely matches the corresponding 

Ascii, text only files: Data (distinct from corresponding table) files for all 
other indicators are ascii, text only files which should be readily accessible 
using a word processor.  These files diverge in format and, in some cases, 
content from the corresponding tables (refers both to hardcopy, printed form and 
corresponding ....WRD files).  Nonetheless, they are formatted cum organized so 
that their correspondence (in row and column contents) to the corresponding 
tables can be discerned more or less readily with hardcopy in hand.  All data in 
these files are provided in scientific notation; there is thus no loss of 
information due to rounding (as there is in the tables).  [Note:  These files 
can, without change, be printed (for example, by using the DOS copy command to 
copy them <individually> to a printer) in a well formatted form (use Courier 
font) if a small enough font is used.  However, as pure ascii files, they do NOT 
include cum specify page formatting of any kind.]


The data files do NOT contain complete verbal labels sufficient to identify 
particular elements of the data.  To identify data appearing in a particular 
data file, one must use the corresponding hardcopy and  match data file values 
with those appearing in the hardcopy.  Once done for any part of one file, the 
matching becomes a really quite simple task.  One of the factors making it 
rather simple is the numbering of data blocks within the data files.  Each data 
block is given a several digit number corresponding to the order of indicator 
(major and minor) groupings or divisions within the tables.  The underlying 
logic of the numbering should become quickly apparent from an initial, quick 
perusal of the data files.  For several files, the numbering scheme is 
identified below.  Also to be noted is that lines of values appearing within 
blocks in the data files are labeled according to the pertinent year or period 
where appropriate.  CAVEAT:  Country-table information (i.e., effectively, 
country tables) are NOT in the same order, by country, in the data files as in 
the corresponding tables; however, the country labels provided in the data files 
are sufficient to readily identify individual countries to which data pertains.

Values stated as percentages in tables are generally stated as shares or simple 
ratios (i.e., percentages divided by 100.0) in the data files.  In turn, values 
stated in billions of US dollars in tables are typically stated as thousands of, 
or simply, U.S. dollars in the data files.  In most cases, the units used in the 
data files are indicated by the labels.  However, where they are not so 
indicated, one can (must) infer the units used in the data file by comparing 
values against corresponding values in the tables.

The data files were generated independently and prior to the tables; 
accordingly, where there are discrepancies between corresponding values (as 
opposed to units) in a data file and the associated table, the value shown in 
the table  is to be considered the correct value.  [While every effort has been 
taken to assure that all discrepancies are noted below, there is no explicit or 
implicit guarantee that such is indeed the case.]

2.  Diverse indicators: Comparative table -- Mac/DOS file name: 2_-D_NDC.TXT.

All data are provided in three clusters: the first gives data for USA through 
HongKong; the second, Singapore through Israel; the third, Morocco through 

Not present in this file, but present in the corresponding table, are the 
o Overall performance indicators --
- Annual growth rate of GDP per capita (at 1987 domestic prices): 1965-1980 
- Annual growth rate of population: all values;
- Incremental capital output ratio: 1961-1980; 1970-1990;
- Annual inflation rate: all values.
o Educational attainment indicators --
- Tertiary students studying abroad per 100,000 population: all values.

3.  Production and trade indicators, 3/4-digit ISIC: Country tables -- Mac/DOS 
file names: 3A/B-P&T-3/4.TXT.

There is nothing about these data files that warrants particular mention here.

4.  Structural change indicators: 3/4-digit ISIC: Comparative table -- Mac/DOS 
file names: 4A/B-STC-3/4.TXT.

All data are provided in two clusters: the first gives data for USA through 
Mexico; the second, Algeria through Thailand.

Labels for each block of data are given by a 3-digit code (x.y.z): 
- x = 3,4: indicators derived from 3,4-digit ISIC data;
- y = 1, domestic supply; 2, production; 3, imports; 4, exports.
- z = 1, average absolute change in sectoral shares; 2, square root of average 
squared change; 3, growing sectors; 4, shrinking sectors.

5.  Capital goods trade indicators: Country tables -- Mac/DOS file name: 5_-

There is nothing about this data file that warrants particular mention here.

6.  Technology payment indicators: Comparative table -- Mac/DOS file name: 

Labels for each block of data are given by a 2-digit code (x.y):
- x = 1, manufacturing; 2, industry;
- y = 1, unadjusted average contemporaneous ratios of licensing payments to 
value added; 2, adjusted ratios, 5-year intervals; 3, adjusted ratios, 10-year 
intervals; 4, adjusted ratios, 25-year interval; 5, adjusted ratios, benchmark 

Note:  No data file corresponding to table 6B (Country tables) is provided.