LING 052 — Fall 2016
Historical and Comparative Linguistics

Background

Most Turkic languages exhibit some alternations in combinations of pronouns and case suffixes. Some of these alternations correspond to the normal phonology of the languages, but some of them are due to historic phonological processes or morphological restructuring.

For each language's data (ignoring all other languages' data), try to address the following points:

  1. Identify all alternations. Where is the system irregular? Are any alternations explainable as a part of the regular phonology of the language?
  2. For each alternation, propose an original form of each morpheme. Is there another option? What evidence would be able to tell these options apart? Is there enough data given here to decide on just one alternation?
  3. Is your internal reconstruction confirmed by comparative data? Might it need revision? Can you tell either way?

Turkish

glossnominativeaccusativegenitivedativelocativeablativeinstrumental
1sg bænbenibenimbɑnɑbændɛbændænbenimlɛ~bænlɛ
2sg sænseniseninsɑnɑsændɛsændænseninlɛ~sænlɛ
3sg onuonunonɑondɑondɑnonunɫɑ~onɫɑ
1pl bizbizibizimbizɛbizdɛbizdænbizimlɛ~bizlɛ
2pl sizsizisizinsizɛsizdɛsizdænsizinlɛ~sizlɛ
3pl onɫɑɾonɫɑɾɯonɫɑɾɯnonɫɑɾɑonɫɑɾdɑonɫɑɾdɑnonɫɑɾɫɑ
glossnominativeaccusativegenitivedativelocativeablativeinstrumental
apple
elmɑelmɑjɯelmɑnɯnelmɑjɑelmɑdɑelmɑdɑnelmɑjɫɑ
sand
kʰumkʰumukʰumunkʰumɑkʰumdɑkʰumdɑnkʰumɫɑ
moon, month
ɑjɑjɯɑjɯnɑjɑɑjdɑɑjdɑnɑjɫɑ
title, reputation
sɑnsɑnɯsɑnɯnsɑnɑsɑndɑsɑndɑnsɑnɫɑ
word
sœzsœzysœzynsœzɛsœzdɛsœzdænsœzlɛ
words
sœzlæɾsœzleɾisœzleɾinsœzlæɾdɛsœzlɛɾɛsœzlæɾdænsœzlæɾlɛ

Chuvash

glossnominativedative-accusativegenitivelocativeablativeinstrumental
1sg ˈɛbɘ~ɛpmɑˈnɑˈmɑn(ən)mɑnˈɾɑmɑnˈɾɑnmɑnˈbɑ
2sg ˈɛzɘ~ɛssɑˈnɑˈsɑn(ən)sɑnˈɾɑsɑnˈɾɑnsɑnˈbɑ
3sg ʋɒɫɒˈnɑˈun(ən)unˈɾɑunˈɾɑnunˈbɑ
1pl ɛˈbiɾ~ˈɛbɘɾpiˈɾʲɛˈpiɾɘnpir(ɘn)ˈdʲɛpiɾ(ɘn)ˈdʲɛnpiɾɘnˈbʲɛ
2pl ɛˈziɾ~ˈɛzɘɾsiˈɾʲɛˈsiɾɘnsir(ɘn)ˈdʲɛsiɾ(ɘn)ˈdʲɛnsiɾɘnˈbʲɛ
3pl ʋœˈzʲɛmʋœzʲɛˈnʲɛʋœˈzʲɛnʋœzʲɛnˈʥʲɛʋœzʲɛnˈʥʲɛnʋœzʲɛmˈbʲɛ
glossnominativedative-accusativegenitivelocativeablativeinstrumental
oak
juˈmɑnjumɑˈnɑjuˈmɑnənjumɑnˈɾɑjumɑnˈɾɑnjumɑnˈbɑ
door
ˈɑɫəkɑɫəˈɣɑˈɑɫəɣənˈɑɫəkˈɾɑˈɑɫəkˈɾɑnˈɑɫəkˈbɑ
mirror
ˈtœɣɘɾtœɣɘˈɾʲɛˈtœɣɘɾɘnˈtœɣɘɾˈdʲɛtœɣɘɾˈdʲɛntœɣɘɾˈbʲɛ
child
ɑˈʥɑɑʥɑˈnɑɑˈʥɑnɑʥɑˈɾɑɑʥɑˈɾɑnɑʥɑˈbɑ
children
ɑʥɑˈzʲɛmɑʥɑzʲɛˈnʲɛɑʥɑˈzʲɛnɑʥɑzʲɛnˈʥʲɛɑʥɑzʲɛnˈʥʲɛnɑʥɑzʲɛmˈbʲɛ

Kyrgyz

glossnominativeaccusativegenitivedativelocativeablativeequative
1sg menmenimeninmɑʁɑ~mɑɴɑ~mɑːmendemendenmendej
2sg familiar senseniseninsɑʁɑ~sɑɴɑ~sɑːsendesendensendej
2sg formal sizsizdisizdinsizɡesizdesizdensizdej
3sg ɑɫɑnɯɑnɯnɑʁɑ~ɑɴɑɑndɑɑndɑnɑndɑj
1pl bizbizdibizdinbizɡebizdebizdenbizdej
2pl familiar sileɾsileɾdisileɾdinsileɾɡesileɾdesileɾdensileɾdej
2pl formal sizdeɾsizdeɾdisizdeɾdinsizdeɾɡesizdeɾdesizdeɾdensizdeɾdej
3pl ɑɫɑɾɑɫɑɾdɯɑɫɑɾdɯnɑɫɑɾʁɑɑɫɑɾdɑɑɫɑɾdɑnɑɫɑɾdɑj
glossnominativeaccusativegenitivedativelocativeablativeequative
apple
ɑɫmɑɑɫmɑnɯɑɫmɑnɯnɑɫmɑʁɑɑɫmɑdɑɑɫmɑdɑnɑɫmɑdɑj
sand, desert
qʰumqʰumduqʰumdunqʰumʁɑqʰumdɑqʰumdɑnqʰumdɑj
moon, month
ɑjɑjdɯɑjdɯnɑjʁɑɑjdɑɑjdɑnɑjdɑj
brain
meːmeːnimeːninmeːɣemeːdemeːdenmeːdej
word
sœzsœzdysœzdynsœzgœsœzdœsœzdœnsœzdœj
moons, months
ɑjɫɑɾɑjɫɑɾdɯɑjɫɑɾdɯnɑjɫɑɾʁɑɑjɫɑɾdɑɑjɫɑɾdɑnɑjɫɑɾdɑj

Tuvan

glossnominativeaccusativegenitivedativelocativeablativeallative
1sg menmenimeːŋmeː~meŋeːmendemendenmenʧe
2sg senseniseːŋseː~seŋeːsendesendensenʧe
3sg onuoːɴɑː~ɑɴɑːɯndɑoːnoɫʧe
1pl bisbistibistiŋbiskebistebistenbisʧe
2pl sileɾsileɾnisileɾniŋsileɾɡesileɾdesileɾdensileɾʤe
3pl oɫɑɾoɫɑɾnɯoɫɑɾnɯɴoɫɑɾʁɑoɫɑɾdɑoɫɑɾddɑnoɫɑɾʤe
glossnominativeaccusativegenitivedativelocativeablativeallative
apple
ɑɫmɑɑɫmɑnɯɑɫmɑnɯnɑɫmɑʁɑɑɫmɑdɑɑɫmɑdɑnɑɫmɑdɑj
sand, desert
qʰumqʰumnuqʰumnuɴqʰumʁɑqʰumdɑqʰumdɑnqʰumʧe
moon, month
ɑjɑjnɯɑjnɯnɑjʁɑɑjdɑɑjdɑnɑjʤe
brain
meːmeːnimeːniŋmeːgemeːdemeːdenmeːʤe
word
sœssœstysœstyŋsœskesœstesœstensœsʧe
moons, months
ɑjɫɑɾɑjɫɑndɯɑjɫɑɾnɯɴɑjɫɑɾʁɑɑjɫɑɾdɑɑjɫɑɾdɑnɑjɫɑɾʤe