LING 052 — Fall 2016
Historical and Comparative Linguistics

Background

Most Turkic languages exhibit some level of irregularity in combinations of possession affixes and case affixes.

Note: the nominative case is not morphologically marked; i.e., there is no overt morpheme that indicates nominative case. Likewise, lack of possession morphology There is quite a bit of phonology at play in determining the exact form of the case morphemes; don't concern yourself with this phonology except as it relates to the combinations of case morphemes with possessive morphemes (another approach is to abstract away from the phonology for the purposes of the morphology exercise).

Turkish

  1. What are the case suffixes? What phonological alternations do they exhibit with bare stems?
  2. What are the possessive suffixes? What phonological alternations do they exhibit in nominative case?
  3. What are the unexpected forms encountered in combinations of case suffixes and possessive suffixes, given your answers to the above?
  4. Can you propose solutions for why some of these unexpected forms may have arisen?
glossperson+numbernominativeaccusativegenitivedativelocativeablativecommitative
apple
bare elmɑelmɑjɯelmɑnɯnelmɑjɑelmɑdɑelmɑdɑnelmɑjlɑ
1sg elmɑmelmɑmɯelmɑmɯnelmɑmɑelmɑmdɑelmɑmdɑnelmɑmlɑ
2sg elmɑnelmɑnɯelmɑnɯnelmɑnɑelmɑndɑelmɑndɑnelmɑnlɑ
3sg/pl elmɑsɯelmɑsɯnɯelmɑsɯnɯnelmɑsɯnɑelmɑsɯndɑelmɑsɯndɑnelmɑsɯjlɑ
1pl elmɑmɯzelmɑmɯzɯelmɑmɯzɯnelmɑmɯzɑelmɑmɯzdɑelmɑmɯzdɑnelmɑmɯzlɑ
2pl elmɑnɯzelmɑnɯzɯelmɑnɯzɯnelmɑnɯzɑelmɑnɯzdɑelmɑnɯzdɑnelmɑnɯzlɑ
glossperson+numbernominativeaccusativegenitivedativelocativeablativecommitative
sand
bare kʰumkʰumukʰumunkʰumɑkʰumdɑkʰumdɑnkʰumlɑ
1sg kʰumumkʰumumukʰumumunkʰumumɑkʰumumdɑkʰumumdɑnkʰumumlɑ
2sg kʰumunkʰumunukʰumununkʰumunɑkʰumundɑkʰumundɑnkʰumunlɑ
3sg/pl kʰumukʰumunukʰumununkʰumunɑkʰumundɑkʰumundɑnkʰumujlɑ
1pl kʰumumuzkʰumumuzukʰumumuzunkʰumumuzɑkʰumumuzdɑkʰumumuzdɑnkʰumumuzlɑ
2pl kʰumunuzkʰumunuzukʰumunuzunkʰumunuzɑkʰumunuzdɑkʰumunuzdɑnkʰumunuzlɑ
glossperson+numbernominativeaccusativegenitivedativelocativeablativecommitative
moon, month
bare ɑjɑjɯɑjɯnɑjɑɑjdɑɑjdɑnɑjlɑ
1sg ɑjɯmɑjɯmɯɑjɯmɯnɑjɯmɑɑjɯmdɑɑjɯmdɑnɑjɯmlɑ
2sg ɑjɯnɑjɯnɯɑjɯnɯnɑjɯnɑɑjɯndɑɑjɯndɑnɑjɯnlɑ
3sg/pl ɑjɯɑjɯnɯɑjɯnɯnɑjɯnɑɑjɯndɑɑjɯndɑnɑjɯjlɑ
1pl ɑjɯmɯzɑjɯmɯzɯɑjɯmɯzɯnɑjɯmɯzɑɑjɯmɯzdɑɑjɯmɯzdɑnɑjɯmɯzlɑ
2pl ɑjɯnɯzɑjɯnɯzɯɑjɯnɯzɯnɑjɯnɯzɑɑjɯnɯzdɑɑjɯnɯzdɑnɑjɯnɯzlɑ
glossperson+numbernominativeaccusativegenitivedativelocativeablativecommitative
title, reputation
bare sɑnsɑnɯsɑnɯnsɑnɑsɑndɑsɑndɑnsɑnlɑ
1sg sɑnɯmsɑnɯmɯsɑnɯmɯnsɑnɯmɑsɑnɯmdɑsɑnɯmdɑnsɑnɯmlɑ
2sg sɑnɯnsɑnɯnɯsɑnɯnɯnsɑnɯnɑsɑnɯndɑsɑnɯndɑnsɑnɯnlɑ
3sg/pl sɑnɯsɑnɯnɯsɑnɯnɯnsɑnɯnɑsɑnɯndɑsɑnɯndɑnsɑnɯjlɑ
1pl sɑnɯmɯzsɑnɯmɯzɯsɑnɯmɯzɯnsɑnɯmɯzɑsɑnɯmɯzdɑsɑnɯmɯzdɑnsɑnɯmɯzlɑ
2pl sɑnɯnɯzsɑnɯnɯzɯsɑnɯnɯzɯnsɑnɯnɯzɑsɑnɯnɯzdɑsɑnɯnɯzdɑnsɑnɯnɯzlɑ

Kyrgyz

  1. What are the case suffixes? What phonological alternations do they exhibit with bare stems?
  2. What are the possessive suffixes? What phonological alternations do they exhibit in nominative case?
  3. What are the unexpected forms encountered in combinations of case suffixes and possessive suffixes, given your answers to the above?
  4. Can you propose solutions for why some of these unexpected forms may have arisen?
glossperson+numbernominativeaccusativegenitivedativelocativeablativeequative
apple
bare ɑɫmɑɑɫmɑnɯɑɫmɑnɯnɑɫmɑʁɑɑɫmɑdɑɑɫmɑdɑnɑɫmɑdɑj
1sg ɑɫmɑmɑɫmɑmdɯɑɫmɑmdɯnɑɫmɑmɑɑɫmɑmdɑɑɫmɑmɑn,ɑɫmɑmdɑnɑɫmɑmdɑj
2sg familiar ɑɫmɑɴɑɫmɑɴdɯɑɫmɑɴdɯnɑɫmɑɴɑɑɫmɑɴdɑɑɫmɑɴɑn,ɑɫmɑɴdɑnɑɫmɑɴdɑj
2sg formal ɑɫmɑɴɯzɑɫmɑɴɯzdɯɑɫmɑɴɯzdɯnɑɫmɑɴɯzʁɑɑɫmɑɴɯzdɑɑɫmɑɴɯzdɑnɑɫmɑɴɯzdɑj
3sg/pl ɑɫmɑsɯɑɫmɑsɯnɑɫmɑsɯnɯnɑɫmɑsɯnɑɑɫmɑsɯndɑɑɫmɑsɯnɑnɑɫmɑsɯndɑj
1pl ɑɫmɑβɯzɑɫmɑβɯzdɯɑɫmɑβɯzdɯnɑɫmɑβɯzʁɑɑɫmɑβɯzdɑɑɫmɑβɯzdɑnɑɫmɑβɯzdɑj
2pl familiar ɑɫmɑɴɑɾɑɫmɑɴɑɾdɯɑɫmɑɴɑɾdɯnɑɫmɑɴɑɾʁɑɑɫmɑɴɑɾdɑɑɫmɑɴɑɾdɑnɑɫmɑɴɑɾdɑj
2pl formal ɑɫmɑɴɯzdɑɾɑɫmɑɴɯzdɑɾdɯɑɫmɑɴɯzdɑɾdɯnɑɫmɑɴɯzdɑɾʁɑɑɫmɑɴɯzdɑɾdɑɑɫmɑɴɯzdɑɾdɑnɑɫmɑɴɯzdɑɾdɑj
glossperson+numbernominativeaccusativegenitivedativelocativeablativeequative
sand, desert
bare qʰumqʰumduqʰumdunqʰumʁɑqʰumdɑqʰumdɑnqʰumdɑj
1sg qʰumumqʰumumduqʰumumdunqʰumumɑqʰumumdɑqʰumumɑn,qʰumumdɑnqʰumumdɑj
2sg familiar qʰumuɴqʰumuɴduqʰumuɴdunqʰumuɴɑqʰumuɴdɑqʰumuɴɑn,qʰumuɴdɑnqʰumuɴdɑj
2sg formal qʰumuɴuzqʰumuɴuzduqʰumuɴuzdunqʰumuɴuzʁɑqʰumuɴuzdɑqʰumuɴuzdɑnqʰumuɴuzdɑj
3sg qʰumuqʰumunqʰumununqʰumunɑqʰumundɑqʰumunɑnqʰumundɑj
1pl qʰumuβuzqʰumuβuzduqʰumuβuzdunqʰumuβuzʁɑqʰumuβuzdɑqʰumuβuzdɑnqʰumuβuzdɑj
2pl familiar qʰumuɴɑɾqʰumuɴɑɾdɯqʰumuɴɑɾdɯnqʰumuɴɑɾʁɑqʰumuɴɑɾdɑqʰumuɴɑɾdɑnqʰumuɴɑɾdɑj
2pl formal qʰumuɴuzdɑɾqʰumuɴuzdɑɾdɯqʰumuɴuzdɑɾdɯnqʰumuɴuzdɑɾʁɑqʰumuɴuzdɑɾdɑqʰumuɴuzdɑɾdɑnqʰumuɴuzdɑɾdɑj
glossperson+numbernominativeaccusativegenitivedativelocativeablativeequative
moon, month
bare ɑjɑjdɯɑjdɯnɑjʁɑɑjdɑɑjdɑnɑjdɑj
1sg ɑjɯmɑjɯmdɯɑjɯmdɯnɑjɯmɑɑjɯmdɑɑjɯmɑn,ɑjɯmdɑnɑjɯmdɑj
2sg familiar ɑjɯɴɑjɯɴdɯɑjɯɴdɯnɑjɯɴɑɑjɯɴdɑɑjɯɴɑn,ɑjɯɴdɑnɑjɯɴdɑj
2sg formal ɑjɯɴɯzɑjɯɴɯzdɯɑjɯɴɯzdɯnɑjɯɴɯzʁɑɑjɯɴɯzdɑɑjɯɴɯzdɑnɑjɯɴɯzdɑj
3sg ɑjɯɑjɯnɑjɯɴnɯnɑjɯnɑɑjɯndɑɑjɯnɑnɑjɯndɑj
1pl ɑjɯβɯzɑjɯβɯzdɯɑjɯβɯzdɯnɑjɯβɯzʁɑɑjɯβɯzdɑɑjɯβɯzdɑnɑjɯβɯzdɑj
2pl familiar ɑjɯɴɑɾɑjɯɴɑɾdɯɑjɯɴɑɾdɯnɑjɯɴɑɾʁɑɑjɯɴɑɾdɑɑjɯɴɑɾdɑnɑjɯɴɑɾdɑj
2pl formal ɑjɯɴɯzdɑɾɑjɯɴɯzdɑɾdɯɑjɯɴɯzdɑɾdɯnɑjɯɴɯzdɑɾʁɑɑjɯɴɯzdɑɾdɑɑjɯɴɯzdɑɾdɑnɑjɯɴɯzdɑɾdɑj
glossperson+numbernominativeaccusativegenitivedativelocativeablativeequative
number
bare sɑnsɑndɯsɑndɯnsɑɴɢɑsɑndɑsɑndɑnsɑndɑj
1sg sɑnɯmsɑnɯmdɯsɑnɯmdɯnsɑnɯmɑsɑnɯmdɑsɑnɯmɑn,sɑnɯmdɑnsɑnɯmdɑj
2sg familiar sɑnɯɴsɑnɯɴdɯsɑnɯɴdɯnsɑnɯɴɑsɑnɯɴdɑsɑnɯɴɑn,sɑnɯɴdɑnsɑnɯɴdɑj
2sg formal sɑnɯɴɯzsɑnɯɴɯzdɯsɑnɯɴɯzdɯnsɑnɯɴɯzʁɑsɑnɯɴɯzdɑsɑnɯɴɯzdɑnsɑnɯɴɯzdɑj
3sg sɑnɯsɑnɯnsɑnɯnɯnsɑnɯnɑsɑnɯndɑsɑnɯnɑnsɑnɯndɑj
1pl sɑnɯβɯzsɑnɯβɯzdɯsɑnɯβɯzdɯnsɑnɯβɯzʁɑsɑnɯβɯzdɑsɑnɯβɯzdɑnsɑnɯβɯzdɑj
2pl familiar sɑnɯɴɑɾsɑnɯɴɑɾdɯsɑnɯɴɑɾdɯnsɑnɯɴɑɾʁɑsɑnɯɴɑɾdɑsɑnɯɴɑɾdɑnsɑnɯɴɑɾdɑj
2pl formal sɑnɯɴɯzdɑɾsɑnɯɴɯzdɑɾdɯsɑnɯɴɯzdɑɾdɯnsɑnɯɴɯzdɑɾʁɑsɑnɯɴɯzdɑɾdɑsɑnɯɴɯzdɑɾdɑnsɑnɯɴɯzdɑɾdɑj
glossperson+numbernominativeaccusativegenitivedativelocativeablativeequative
beast
bare ɑɴɑɴdɯɑɴdɯnɑɴɢɑɑɴdɑɑɴdɑnɑɴdɑj
1sg ɑɴɯmɑɴɯmdɯɑɴɯmdɯnɑɴɯmɑɑɴɯmdɑɑɴɯmɑn,ɑɴɯmdɑnɑɴɯmdɑj
2sg familiar ɑɴɯɴɑɴɯɴdɯɑɴɯɴdɯnɑɴɯɴɑɑɴɯɴdɑɑɴɯɴɑn,ɑɴɯɴdɑnɑɴɯɴdɑj
2sg formal ɑɴɯɴɯzɑɴɯɴɯzdɯɑɴɯɴɯzdɯnɑɴɯɴɯzʁɑɑɴɯɴɯzdɑɑɴɯɴɯzdɑnɑɴɯɴɯzdɑj
3sg ɑɴɯɑɴɯnɑɴɯnɯnɑɴɯnɑɑɴɯndɑɑɴɯnɑnɑɴɯndɑj
1pl ɑɴɯβɯzɑɴɯβɯzdɯɑɴɯβɯzdɯnɑɴɯβɯzʁɑɑɴɯβɯzdɑɑɴɯβɯzdɑnɑɴɯβɯzdɑj
2pl familiar ɑɴɯɴɑɾɑɴɯɴɑɾdɯɑɴɯɴɑɾdɯnɑɴɯɴɑɾʁɑɑɴɯɴɑɾdɑɑɴɯɴɑɾdɑnɑɴɯɴɑɾdɑj
2pl formal ɑɴɯɴɯzdɑɾɑɴɯɴɯzdɑɾdɯɑɴɯɴɯzdɑɾdɯnɑɴɯɴɯzdɑɾʁɑɑɴɯɴɯzdɑɾdɑɑɴɯɴɯzdɑɾdɑnɑɴɯɴɯzdɑɾdɑj

Kazakh

  1. What are the case suffixes? What phonological alternations do they exhibit with bare stems?
  2. What are the possessive suffixes? What phonological alternations do they exhibit in nominative case?
  3. What are the unexpected forms encountered in combinations of case suffixes and possessive suffixes, given your answers to the above?
  4. Can you propose solutions for why some of these unexpected forms may have arisen?
glossperson+numbernominativeaccusativegenitivedativelocativeablativeequative
apple
bare ɑɫmɑɑɫmɑnəɑɫmɑnəɴɑɫmɑʁɑɑɫmɑdɑɑɫmɑdɑnɑɫmɑdɑj
1sg ɑɫmɑmɑɫmɑmdəɑɫmɑmnəɴɑɫmɑmɑɑɫmɑmdɑɑɫmɑmnɑnɑɫmɑmdɑj
2sg familiar ɑɫmɑɴɑɫmɑɴdəɑɫmɑɴnəɴɑɫmɑɴɑɑɫmɑɴdɑɑɫmɑɴnɑnɑɫmɑɴdɑj
2sg formal ɑɫmɑɴəzɑɫmɑɴəzdəɑɫmɑɴəzdəɴɑɫmɑɴəzʁɑɑɫmɑɴəzdɑɑɫmɑɴəzdɑnɑɫmɑɴəzdɑj
3sg/pl ɑɫmɑsəɑɫmɑsənɑɫmɑsənəɴɑɫmɑsənɑɑɫmɑsəndɑɑɫmɑsənɑnɑɫmɑsəndɑj
1pl ɑɫmɑməzɑɫmɑməzdəɑɫmɑməzdəɴɑɫmɑməzʁɑɑɫmɑməzdɑɑɫmɑməzdɑnɑɫmɑməzdɑj
2pl familiar ɑɫmɑɴdɑɾɑɫmɑɴdɑɾdəɑɫmɑɴdɑɾdəɴɑɫmɑɴdɑɾʁɑɑɫmɑɴdɑɾdɑɑɫmɑɴdɑɾdɑnɑɫmɑɴdɑɾdɑj
2pl formal ɑɫmɑɴəzdɑɾɑɫmɑɴəzdɑɾdəɑɫmɑɴəzdɑɾdəɴɑɫmɑɴəzdɑɾʁɑɑɫmɑɴəzdɑɾdɑɑɫmɑɴəzdɑɾdɑnɑɫmɑɴəzdɑɾdɑj
glossperson+numbernominativeaccusativegenitivedativelocativeablativeequative
sand, desert
bare qʰʊmqʰʊmdəqʰʊmnəɴqʰʊmʁɑqʰʊmdɑqʰʊmdɑnqʰʊmdɑj
1sg qʰʊməmqʰʊməmdəqʰʊməmnəɴqʰʊməmɑqʰʊməmdɑqʰʊməmnɑnqʰʊməmdɑj
2sg familiar qʰʊməɴqʰʊməɴdəqʰʊməɴnəɴqʰʊməɴɑqʰʊməɴdɑqʰʊməɴnɑnqʰʊməɴdɑj
2sg formal qʰʊməɴəzqʰʊməɴəzdəqʰʊməɴəzdəɴqʰʊməɴəzʁɑqʰʊməɴəzdɑqʰʊməɴəzdɑnqʰʊməɴəzdɑj
3sg/pl qʰʊməqʰʊmənqʰʊmənəɴqʰʊmənɑqʰʊməndɑqʰʊmənɑnqʰʊməndɑj
1pl qʰʊməməzqʰʊməməzdəqʰʊməməzdəɴqʰʊməməzʁɑqʰʊməməzdɑqʰʊməməzdɑnqʰʊməməzdɑj
2pl familiar qʰʊməɴdɑɾqʰʊməɴdɑɾdəqʰʊməɴdɑɾdəɴqʰʊməɴdɑɾʁɑqʰʊməɴdɑɾdɑqʰʊməɴdɑɾdɑnqʰʊməɴdɑɾdɑj
2pl formal qʰʊməɴəzdɑɾqʰʊməɴəzdɑɾdəqʰʊməɴəzdɑɾdəɴqʰʊməɴəzdɑɾʁɑqʰʊməɴəzdɑɾdɑqʰʊməɴəzdɑɾdɑnqʰʊməɴəzdɑɾdɑj
glossperson+numbernominativeaccusativegenitivedativelocativeablativeequative
moon, month
bare ɑjɑjdəɑjdəɴɑjʁɑɑjdɑɑjdɑnɑjdɑj
1sg ɑjəmɑjəmdəɑjəmnəɴɑjəmɑɑjəmdɑɑjəmnɑnɑjəmdɑj
2sg familiar ɑjəɴɑjəɴdəɑjəɴnəɴɑjəɴɑɑjəɴdɑɑjəɴnɑnɑjəɴdɑj
2sg formal ɑjəɴəzɑjəɴəzdəɑjəɴəznəɴɑjəɴəzɑɑjəɴəzdɑɑjəɴəzdɑnɑjəɴəzdɑj
3sg/pl ɑjəɑjənɑjəɴnəɴɑjənɑɑjəndɑɑjənɑnɑjəndɑj
1pl ɑjəməzɑjəməzdəɑjəməzdəɴɑjəməzʁɑɑjəməzdɑɑjəməzdɑnɑjəməzdɑj
2pl familiar ɑjəɴdɑɾɑjəɴdɑɾdəɑjəɴdɑɾdəɴɑjəɴdɑɾʁɑɑjəɴdɑɾdɑɑjəɴdɑɾdɑnɑjəɴdɑɾdɑj
2pl formal ɑjəɴəzdɑɾɑjəɴəzdɑɾdəɑjəɴəzdɑɾdəɴɑjəɴəzdɑɾʁɑɑjəɴəzdɑɾdɑɑjəɴəzdɑɾdɑnɑjəɴəzdɑɾdɑj
glossperson+numbernominativeaccusativegenitivedativelocativeablativeequative
number
bare sɑnsɑndəsɑndəɴsɑɴɢɑsɑndɑsɑnnɑnsɑndɑj
1sg sɑnəmsɑnəmdəsɑnəmnəɴsɑnəmɑsɑnəmdɑsɑnəmnɑnsɑnəmdɑj
2sg familiar sɑnəɴsɑnəɴdəsɑnəɴnəɴsɑnəɴɑsɑnəɴdɑssɑnəɴnɑnsɑnəɴdɑj
2sg formal sɑnəɴəzsɑnəɴəzdəsɑnəɴəzdəɴsɑnəɴəzʁɑsɑnəɴəzdɑsɑnəɴəzdɑnsɑnəɴəzdɑj
3sg/pl sɑnəsɑnəɴsɑnənəɴsɑnənɑsɑnəndɑsɑnənɑnsɑnəndɑj
1pl sɑnəməzsɑnəməzdəsɑnəməzdəɴsɑnəməzʁɑsɑnəməzdɑsɑnəməzdɑnsɑnəməzdɑj
2pl familiar sɑnəɴdɑɾsɑnəɴdɑɾdəsɑnəɴdɑɾdəɴsɑnəɴdɑɾʁɑsɑnəɴdɑɾdɑsɑnəɴdɑɾdɑnsɑnəɴdɑɾdɑj
2pl formal sɑnəɴəzdɑɾsɑnəɴəzdɑɾdəsɑnəɴəzdɑɾdəɴsɑnəɴəzdɑɾʁɑsɑnəɴəzdɑɾdɑsɑnəɴəzdɑɾdɑnsɑnəɴəzdɑɾdɑj
glossperson+numbernominativeaccusativegenitivedativelocativeablativeequative
beast
bare ɑɴɑɴdəɑɴnəɴɑɴɢɑɑɴdɑɑɴnɑnɑɴdɑj
1sg ɑɴəmɑɴəmdəɑɴəmnəɴɑɴəmɑɑɴəmdɑɑɴəmnɑnɑɴəmdɑj
2sg familiar ɑɴəɴɑɴəɴdəɑɴəɴnəɴɑɴəɴɑɑɴəɴdɑɑɴəɴnɑnɑɴəɴdɑj
2sg formal ɑɴəɴəzɑɴəɴəzdəɑɴəɴəzdəɴɑɴəɴəzʁɑɑɴəɴəzdɑɑɴəɴəzdɑnɑɴəɴəzdɑj
3sg/pl ɑɴəɑɴənɑɴənəɴɑɴənɑɑɴəndɑɑɴənɑnɑɴəndɑj
1pl ɑɴəməzɑɴəməzdəɑɴəməzdəɴɑɴəməzʁɑɑɴəməzdɑɑɴəməzdɑnɑɴəməzdɑj
2pl familiar ɑɴəɴdɑɾɑɴəɴdɑɾdəɑɴəɴdɑɾdəɴɑɴəɴdɑɾʁɑɑɴəɴdɑɾdɑɑɴəɴdɑɾdɑnɑɴəɴdɑɾdɑj
2pl formal ɑɴəɴəzdɑɾɑɴəɴəzdɑɾdəɑɴəɴəzdɑɾdəɴɑɴəɴəzdɑɾʁɑɑɴəɴəzdɑɾdɑɑɴəɴəzdɑɾdɑnɑɴəɴəzdɑɾdɑj