LING 052 — Fall 2016
Historical and Comparative Linguistics

Background

The Siberian Consonant Shift is a set of related sound changes that have affected a number of languages spoken in and near Siberia, but belonging to different language families. The languages affected include various Turkic, Mongolic, and Tungusic languages. The data in this assignment are all from Turkic languages. Focus only on the consonants mentioned

Notes: Verb stems are provided with a following ‹-›, indicating that these are undeclined forms. The ‹-› symbol is also used to show morpheme boundaries. Reconstructions are approximate, and are indicated with ‹*›. Some data varies by dialect, particularly *ʧ in Kazakh.

Simple changes

  • What happened to *ʧ in Bashqort?
  • What happened to *ʃ in Bashqort?
Proto-KypchakBashqortgloss
*bɯʧ-/*bɪʧbɘs-/bəs-clip
*ɑʧ-ɑs-open
*ɪʧ-ɘs-drink
*ʧɑjsæjtea
*ʧɑʧ-sæs-scatter
*ʧɑʧsæshair
*ʧeʧ-sis-decide, untie
*ʧɯq-səq-emerge
*ʧɑq-sɑq-bite/strike
*qɑʧ-qɑs-chase
*keʧkisevening
*keʧ-kis-wade across
*keʧækisæyesterday
*bɑʃbɑʃhead
*ɯʃɑn-/*iʃen-ɯʃɑn-believe
*ɑʃ-ɑ-ɑʃɑ-eat
*ɪʃɘʃwork
*tɑʃtɑʃstone
*tɑʃ(ɯ)-tɑʃ-overflow
*qɑʃqɑʃeyebrow
*quʃqʊʃbird
*ʃɪʃʃɘʃskewer
*ʃɪʃ-ʃɘʃ-swell
*tɪʃtɘʃtooth
*teʃ-tiʃ-make holes
*beʃbiʃfive
*bɪʃ-bɘʃ-be boiled / cooked
  • What happened to *ʃ in Kazakh?
  • What happened to *s in Kazakh?
Proto-KypchakKazakhgloss
*bɑʃbɑshead
*ɯʃɑn-/*iʃen-siɘn-believe
*ɑʃɑsfood
*ɪʃɘswork
*tɑʃtɑsstone
*tɑʃ(ɯ)-tɑsə-overflow
*qɑʃqɑseyebrow
*quʃqʊsbird
*tɪʃtɘstooth
*teʃ-tiɘs-make holes
*beʃbiɘsfive
*bɪʃ-pɘs-be boiled / cooked
*ʃɑmɑlsɑmɑlbreeze
*qus-qʊs-vomit
*sez-siɘz-feel
*sensiɘnyou (informal)
*sɪzsɘzyou (formal)
*sɯwsʊwwater
*sytsʉtmilk
*kes-kiɘs-cut
*œs-yʉs-grow
*tœstyʉschest
*sɯq-səq-squeeze
*bɑs-bɑs-press
*seɡɪzsiɘɣɘzeight
*esɪr-iɘsɘr-get drunk
*qɯsqɑqəsqɑshort
  • What happened to *ʧ in Khakas?
  • What happened to *ʃ in Khakas?
  • What happened to *s in Khakas?
Proto-
Yeniseian Turkic
Khakasgloss
*bɯʧ-pɯs-clip
*ɑʧ-ɑs-open
*ɪʧ-ɘs-drink
*ʧɑʧ-sɑs-scatter
*ʧɑʧsɑshair
*ʧeʧ-sis-decide, untie
*ʧɯq-sɯx-emerge
*ʧɯqsɯxdew
*ʧɑq-sɑx-bite/strike
*qɑʧ-xɑs-chase
*keʧ-kis-wade across
*bɑʃpɑshead
*ɑʃɑsfood
*tɑʃtɑsstone
*tɑʃ-tɑs-overflow
*qɑʃxɑseyebrow
*quʃxusbird
*ʃɪʃsɘsskewer
*ʃɪʃ-sɘs-swell
*tɪʃtɘstooth
*teʃ-tis-make holes
*beʃpisfive
*bɯʃ-pɯs-be boiled / cooked
*qus-xus-vomit
*ses-sis-feel
*sensinyou (informal)
*suʁsuʁwater
*sytsytmilk
*kes-kis-cut
*œs-œs-grow
*bɑs-pɑs-press
*seɡɪssiɡɘseight

Conditioning environments

  • What happened to *s in Bashqort?
Proto-KypchakBashqortgloss
*qus-quθ-vomit
*kes-kiθ-cut
*œs-ʏθ-grow
*bɑs-bɑθ-press
*sez-hið-feel
*senhinyou (informal)
*sɪzhɘðyou (formal)
*sɯwhɯwwater
*sythʉtmilk
*sɯq-həq-squeeze
*seɡɪzhiɣɘðeight
*esɪr-iθɘr-get drunk
*ɪsɪɘθɘhot
*jɑstɯqjɑθtɯqpillow
*qɯsqɑqɯθqɑshort
  • What happened to *ʧ in Kazakh?
Proto-KypchakKazakhgloss
*ʧɯq-ʧəq-emerge
*ʧɯqʧəqdew
*ʧɑq-ʧɑq-bite/strike
*ʧɑjʧæjtea
*ʧɑʧ-ʧæʃ-scatter
*ʧɑʧʧæʃhair
*ʧeʧ-ʧiɘʃ-decide, untie
*bɯʧ-/*bɪʧ-pɘʃ-clip
*ɑʧ-ɑʃ-open
*ɪʧ-ɘʃ-drink
*qɑʧ-qɑʃ-chase
*keʧkiɘʃevening
*keʧ-kiɘʃ-wade across
*keʧækiɘʃiɘyesterday
  • What happened to *ʧ in Sakha?
  • What happened to *ʃ in Sakha?
  • What happened to *s in Sakha?
Proto-
Lena Turkic
Sakhagloss
*ʧiːksiːkdew
*ʧɑːl-ɯn-sɑːl-ɯn-trip
*ʧɑq-sɑx-strike a fire
*bɯʧ-bɯs-clip
*ɑʧ-ɑs-open
*iʧ-is-drink
*qɑʧ-xɑs-chase
*keʧ-kes-wade across
*keːʧækiæhæyesterday
*sɑʧ-ɯs-scatter
*sɑʧɑshair
*seʧ-es-destroy
*sɯk-ɯk-squeeze
*senenyou (informal)
*suʁwater
*syːtyːtmilk
*sɯq-ɯq-squeeze
*sɑʁɯsɑʁɯseight
*esir-itir-get drunk
*ɯsɯr-ɯtɯr-bite
*isiɡitiːhot
*jɑstɯksɯttɯkpillow
*bɑʃbɑshead
*ɑʃɑsfood
*tɑːʃtɑːsstone
*tɑʃɯj-tɑhɯj-overflow
*tœːʃtyœschest
*tœːʃ-Atyœhehis/her chest
*qɑːʃxɑːseyebrow
*kuʃkusbird
*kuʃ-ɑkuhɑits bird
*siʃ-is-swell
*tiːʃtiːstooth
*teʃ-tes-make holes
*beːʃbiæsfive
*beːʃ-Inʧbehisfifth
*bɯʃ-bus-be boiled / cooked

Rule ordering

Phonological system change