Samuel Prince's Letter Describing the Boston Uprising (1689).
[The next three documents are written in the context of the Glorious Revolution. In 1688, when James II had a son by his second wife Mary (a Catholic) and the Stuart dynasty seemed now destined to be Catholic, Parliament declared that James II had abdicated his throne and declared William III and Mary II (James II oldest daughter) as the rightful joint sovereigns of England. Just prior to this James had sent Sir Edmund Andros to Massachusetts to organize a new centralized royal authority over the colonies, known as the Dominion of New England, which by 1688 included New Hampshire, Plymouth, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, and East and West Jersey. In April 1689, the residents and militia of Boston rebelled and overthrew Andros authority, storming the fort in Boston, overwhelming the small contingent of royal troops, and imprisoning Andros. The following is an account of Samuel Prince, a native of Boston, who wrote it to inform his father-in-law, Thomas Hinckley, the last governor of New Plymouth, about the nature of the insurrection.]
Boston, April 22, 1689.
. . .
I knew not any thing of what was intended, till it was begun; yet being at the north end of the town, where I saw boys run along the street with clubs in their hands, encouraging one another to fight, I began to mistrust what was intended; and, hasting towards the town-dock, I soon saw men running for their arms: but, ere I got to the Red Lion, I was told that Captain George and the master of the frigate was seized, and secured in Mr. Colman's house at the North End, and, when I came to the town-dock, I understood that Boolifant and some others with him were laid hold of; and then immediately the drums began to beat, and the people hasting and running, some with and some for arms, Young Dudley' and Colonel Lidgit with some difficulty attained to the Fort. And, as I am informed, the poor boy cried very much; whom the Governor sent immediately on an errand, to request the four ministers, Mr. Joylife, and one or two more, to come to him at the Fort, pretending that by them he might still the people, not thinking it safe for him at that time to come to them; and they returned him the like answer. Now, by this time, all the persons whom they concluded not to be for their side were seized and secured, except some few that had hid themselves; which afterwards were found, and dealt by as the rest. The Governor, with Palmer, Randolph, Lidgit, West, and one or two more, were in the Fort. All the companies were soon rallied together at the Town House, where assembled Captain Wintroup, Shrimpton, Page, and
many other substantial men, to consult of matters; in which time the old Governor came among them, at whose appearance there was a great shout by the soldiers.
Soon after, the king's jack was set up at the Fort, and a pair of colors at Beacon Hill: which gave notice to some thousands of soldiers on Charlestown side that the controversy was now to be ended; and multitudes would have been there, but that there was no need. The frigate, upon the tidings of the news, put out all her flags and pennants, and opened all her ports, and with all speed made ready for fight, under the command of the lieutenant-swearing that he would die before she should be taken; although the captain sent to him, that if he shot one shoot, or did any hurt, they would kill him, whom they had already seized. But he, not regarding that, continued under those resolutions all that day. Now, about four of clock in the afternoon, orders were given to go and demand the Fort; which hour the soldiers thought long for: and, had it not been just at that nick, the Governor and all the crew had made their escape on board the frigate -- a barge being sent for them. But the soldiers, being so near, got the barge. The army divided, and part came up on the back side of the Fort, and part went underneath the hill to the lower battery, or sconce, where the red-coats were; who, immediately upon their approach, retired up the Fort to their master, who rebuked them for not firing at our soldiers, and, as I am informed, beat some of them. One of them, being a Dutchman, said to him, "What the Devil should I fight against a thousand men? " and so ran into the house.
When the soldiers came to the battery, or sconce, they presently turned the great guns about, and mounted them against the Fort, which did much daunt all those within; and were so void of fear, that I presume, had they within the Fort been resolute to have lost their lives in fight, they might have killed an hundred of us at once -- being so thick together before the mouths of their cannons at the Fort, all loaden with small shot: but God prevented it. Then they demanded a surrender; which was denied them till Mr. West and another should first go to the Council, and, after their return, we should have an answer whether to fight or no.
And accordingly they did: and, upon their return, they came forth, and went disarmed to the Town House; and from thence, some to the close jail, and he under a guard in Mr. Usher's house. The next day, they sent the two colonels' to demand of him a surrender of the Castle, which he resolved not to give: but they told him, if he would not give it presently under hand and seal, that he must expect to be delivered up to the rage of the people, who doubtless would put him to death; so leaving him. But he sent and told them that he would, and did so; and so they went down, and it was surrendered to them with cursing. So they brought them away, and made Captain Fairwether commander in it. Now, by this time that the men came back from the Castle, all the guns, both in ships and batteries, were brought to bear against the frigate -- which were enough to have shattered her to pieces at once -- resolving to have her. But as it is incident to corrupt nature to lay the blame of our evil deeds anywhere rather than on ourselves, so Captain George casts all the blame now upon that devil Randolph; for, had it not been for him, he had never troubled this good people. So, earnestly soliciting that he might not be constrained to surrender the ship-for, by so doing, both himself and all his men should lose their wages, which otherwise would be recovered in Eng. land-giving leave to go on board, and strike the topmasts, close up the ports, and bring the sails ashore; and so they did. The country people came armed into the town in the afternoon, in such rage and heat, that it made us all tremble to think what would follow: for nothing would pacify them but he must be bound in chains or cords, and put in a more secure place;' and that they would see done ere they went away, or else they would tear down the house where he was to the ground. And so, to satisfy them, he was guarded by them to the Fort. And I fear whether or no the matter of settling things under a new Government may not prove far more difficult than the getting from under the power of the former, except the Lord eminently appear in calming and quieting the disturbed spirits of people, whose duty certainly now is to condescend, comply, and every way study for peace. So prays the assured well-willer to New England's happiness,
Counsellor Clark' writ a very grateful letter to Mr. Bullifant, intimating what a faithful friend he had been to said Bullifant, and withal desiring said Bullifant, that if Lhere should news come out of England of a change, which he hoped in God it never would (as to Government), that said Bullifant would do him the favor as to send him word with expedition, that so he might make his escape, living so dangerously in the midst of his enemies, who were even ready to devour him; and the merchants have gotten this pamphl t,, and resolve forthwith to print it.-Farewell!
Source: Charles M. Andrews, Narratives of the Insurrections, 1675-1690 (New York, 1915), 186-90.
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