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speculate that the red skin color could also be attributed to a phenomena known as collateral circulation. Collateral circulation can result from the reduction of blood vessels to the surface of the skin. The reduced supply of nutrients and oxygen to the skin can lead to the branching of new blood vessels, and therefore an increase in the amount of vessels (Thompson et al. 1986). Therefore, the redness of the embryo from egg #9 can be result of not only the slowing of blood and protruding vessels, but also because of an increase in the amount of blood vessels being recruited to the skin surface.

Overall, we have shown that nicotine has adverse effects on chick embryo development. Our experimental evidence for this stems from the fact that 96% of our nicotine treated embryos died. Although, we saw significant malformations in the two surviving embryos, the surviving population size was not large enough to make a conclusive determination of nicotine's effect on developmental malformations.

©Cebra-Thomas, 2000

Last Modified: 5 May 2000

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