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Heart Rate
Immediately after nicotine was administered to the hearts in Howard's ringers solution, a dramatic increase in heart rate was observed. Heart rate continued to rise for approximately 120 seconds post treatment. After this time, the heart rate decreased and leveled out at 112 beats per minute (bpm). The control heart, which was treated with saline solution, displayed a constant heart rate range between 100 and 104 bpm. Measurements were stopped at 4 minutes and 10 seconds after the initial treatments. As the heart rates leveled off, the four nicotine treated hearts were on average 10-15 beats higher than the controls (
Fig. 1).

Alcian Green Staining
Alcian green staining revealed the presence of more cartilage in the wings of egg # 8 compared to the controls
(Image 6). Legs were too small and underdeveloped to show any conclusive evidence of bone development (Image 7). Egg # 9 (Image 8) exhibited comparable bone formation to the controls (Image 9).

©Cebra-Thomas, 2000

Last Modified: 5 May 2000

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