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Although many embryos died, some chicks lived in shell-less culture for 16 days. Cultured chicks were smaller than comparably aged chicks incubated in the shell.

Chick embryos cultured for 16 days.


Tuan, R.S., and M.H. Lynch (1983). Effect of experimentally induced calcium deficiency on the developmental expression of collagen types in chick embryonic skeleton. Dev. Biol. 100:374-386.

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Last Modified: 14 April 2003

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