Department of Biology, Swarthmore College
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Readings for Presentations and Discussions

Main Books:
Book 1: Loreau, M., Shahid, N. and P. Inchausti. (Eds) 2002. Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning: Synthesis and Perspectives. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 294 pages.
Book 2: Kinzing, A.P., Pacala, S.W., and D. Tilman. (Eds) 2002. The Functional Consequences of Biodiversity: Empirical Progress and Theoretical Extensions. Princeton University Press, Princeton. 365 pages.

1. Subject: Hypothesis on the role of biodiversity on ecosystem function
Readings Presentation:
• Naeem, S., Loreau,, M. and P. Inchusti. 2002. Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning: the emergence of a synthetic ecological framework. In: book 1, pp. 3-11
• Mooney, H. A. 2002. The debate on the role of biodiversity in ecosystem functioning. In: book 1, pp. 12-17
• Giller, P.S. and Grace O’Donovan. 2002. Biodiversity and ecosystem function: do species matter? Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 102B(3): 129-139
Readings Discussion:
• Walker, B.H. 1992. Biodiversity and ecological redundancy. Conservation Biology 6(1):18-23

2. Subject: What are functional groups: how and why to use them?
Readings Presentation:
• Hooper, D.U., et al. 2002. Species diversity, functional diversity, and ecosystem functioning. In: book 1, pp. 195-208
• Purvis, A. and A. Hector. 2000. Getting the measure of biodiversity. Nature. 405:212-218
Readings Discussion:
• Naeem, S. and J.P. Wright 2003. Disentangling biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning: deriving solutions to a seemingly insurmountable problem. Ecology Letters. 6:567-579.
• Moles, R. and K. Hayes. 2002. Evaluating biodiversity through functional groups: a comparison of functional groups and biodiversity measures. Biology and Environment: Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 102B(2):113-117

3. Subject: Experimental tests of the role of biodiversity and ecosystem function in grasslands: single versus multiple study sites
Readings Presentation:
• Tilman, D., et al. 2002. Plant diversity and composition: effects on productivity and nutrient dynamics of experimental grasslands. In: book 1, pp. 21-35
• Hector, A., et al. 2002. Biodiversity manipulation experiments: studies replicated at multiple sites. In: book 1, pp. 36-48
Readings Discussion:
• Madritch, M.D. and M.D. Hunter 2003. Intraspecific litter diversity and nitrogen deposition affect nutrient dynamics and soil respiration. Oecologia. 136:124-128.
• Hector, A., B. Schmid, et al., 1999. Plant diversity and productivity experiments in European grasslands. Science. 286:1123-1127.
• Loreau, M. 2000. Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning: recent theoretical advances. Oikos. 91:3-17.

4. Subject: How to design and analyze experiments testing the role of biodiversity and ecosystem function
Readings Presentation:
• Schmid, B., et al 2002. The design and analysis of biodiversity experiments. In: book 1, pp. 61-78
• Huston, M.A. and A.C. McBride. 2002. Evaluating the relative strengths of biotic versus abiotic controls on ecosystem processes. In: book 1, pp. 47-60
Readings Discussion:
• Fridley, J.D. 2001. The influence of species diversity on ecosystem productivity: how, where, and why? Oikos. 93:514-526.
• Jolliffe, P.A. 2000. The replacement series. Journal of Ecology. 88:371-385.

5. Subject: Diversity and stability: constant or benign environmental conditions versus heterogeneous or extreme environment conditions
Readings Presentation:
• Loreau, M. et al. 2002. A new look at the relationship between diversity and stability. In: book 1, pp. 79-91
• Hughes, J.B. et al. 2002. Do species interactions buffer environmental variation (in theory)? In: book 1, pp. 92-101
• McCann, K.S. 2000. The diversity-stability debate. Nature, 405:228-233
Readings Discussion:
• Benedetti-Cecchi, L. 2000. Variance in ecological consumer-resource interactions. Nature. 407:370-374
• Ives, A.R., k. Gross, and J.L. Klug. 1999. Stability and variability in competitive communities. Science. 286:542-544
• Hartley, S.E. and T.H. Jones. 2003. Plant diversity and insect herbivores: effects of environmental change in contrasting model systems. Oikos. 101:6-17

6. Subject: Resistance and resilience: are diverse communities less susceptible to species invasion?
Readings Presentation:
• Levine, J.M. et al 2002. Neighborhood scale effects of species diversity on biological invasions and their relationship to community patterns. In: book 1, pp. 114-126
• Wardle, D.A. 2001. Experimental demonstration that plant diversity reduces invisibility – evidence of a biological mechanism or a consequence of sampling effect. Oikos, 95: 161-170
Readings Discussion:
• Hodgson, D.J., P.B. Rainey and A. Buckling 2002. Mechanisms linking diversity, productivity and invasibility in experimental bacterial communities. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences. 269:2277-2283.
• Dunstan, P.K. and C.R. Johnson 2004. Invasion rates increase with species richness in a marine epibenthic community by two mechanisms. Oecologia. 138:285-292.

7. Subject: Diversity in food webs and multi-trophic levels instead of just simple species diversity
Readings Presentation:
• Raffaelli, D. et al. 2002. Multi-trophic dynamics and ecosystem processes. In: book 1, pp. 147-154
• de Ruiter, P.C., et al. 2002. Biodiversity and stability in soil ecosystems: patterns, processes and the effects of disturbance. In: book 1, pp. 102-113
Readings Discussion:
• Van der Putten, W.H., L.E.M. Vet, J.A. Harvey and F.L. Wackers 2001. Linking above- and belowground multitrophic interactions of plants, herbivores, pathogens, and their antagonists. Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 16:547-554.
• Deruiter, P.C., A.M. Neutel and J.C. Moore 1995. Energetics, Patterns of Interaction Strengths, and Stability in Real Ecosystems. Science. 269:1257-1260.

8. Subject: Belowground diversity: microbial diversity as the hidden half.
Readings Presentation:
• Wardle, D.A. and W.H. van der Putten. 2002. Biodiversity, ecosystem functioning and aboveground-belowground linkages. In: book 1, pp. 155-168
• Mikola, J. et al. 2002. Biodiversity, ecosystem functioning and soil decomposer food webs. In: book 1, pp. 169-180
• Van der Heijden, M.G.A. and J.H.C. Cornelissen. 2002. The critical role of plant-microbe interactions on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning: arbuscular mycorrhizal associations as an example. In: book 1, pp. 181-194
Readings Discussion:
• Korthals, G.W., P. Smilauer, C. Van Dijk and W.H. Van der Putten 2001. Linking above- and below-ground biodiversity: abundance and trophic complexity in soil as a response to experimental plant communities on abandoned arable land. Functional Ecology. 15:506-514.
• Goverde, M., M.G.A. van der Heijden, A. Wiemken, I.R. Sanders and A. Erhardt 2000. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi influence life history traits of a lepidopteran herbivore. Oecologia. 125:362-369.
• Mouquet, N. and M. Loreau 2003. Community patterns in source-sink metacommunities. American Naturalist. 162:544-557.

9. Subject: Functional effects of biodiversity changes at landscape and regional level
Readings Presentation:
• Bengtsson, J., et al. 2002. Slippin’ and slidin’ between the scales: the scaling components of biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relations. In: book 1, pp. 209-220
• Bond, E. and J. Chase. 2002. Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning at local and regional scales. Ecology Letters, 5: 467-470
Readings Discussion:
• Petersen, J.E. and A. Hastings 2001. Dimensional approaches to scaling experimental ecosystems: Designing mousetraps to catch elephants. American Naturalist. 157:324-333.
• Schneider, D.C. 2001. The rise of the concept of scale in ecology. Bioscience. 51:545-553.

10. Subject: Interactions between changes in biodiversity and other components of global change such as warming, increase in CO2 and nitrogen deposition
Readings Presentation:
• Petchey, O.L et al. 1999. Environmental warming alters food web structure and ecosystem function. Nature, 402:69-72
• Reich, P.B. et al. 2001. Plant diversity enhances ecosystem responses to elevated CO2 and nitrogen deposition. Nature, 410:809-812
• Shaver, G.S. et al. 2000. Global warming and terrestrial ecosystems: a conceptual framework for analysis. Bioscience, 50(10): 871-882
Readings Discussion:
• Pounds, J.A., M.P.L. Fogden and J.H. Campbell 1999. Biological response to climate change on a tropical mountain. Nature. 398:611-615.
• Coles, S.L. and B.E. Brown 2003. Coral bleaching - Capacity for acclimatization and adaptation. Advances in Marine Biology, Vol 46. 46:183-223.

11. Subject: Relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem processes and ‘services’ in managed ecosystems
Readings Presentation:
• Vandermeer, J. et al. 2002. Effect of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning in managed ecosystems. In: book 1, pp. 221-233
Readings Discussion:
• Donald, P.F. 2004. Biodiversity impacts of some agricultural commodity production systems. Conservation Biology. 18:17-37.
• Hawkins, B.A. 1992. Parasitoid-Host Food Webs and Donor Control. Oikos. 65:159-162.

12. Subject: Conservation and restoration ecology: can we re-assemble functioning ecosystems?
Readings Presentation:
• Lawler, S.P. et al. 2002. How relevant to conservation are studies linking biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. In: book 2, pp. 294-313
• Rice, K.J. and N.C. Emery 2003. Managing microevolution: restoration in the face of global change. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 1:469-478.
Readings Discussion:
• Foley, J.A., M.H. Costa, C. Delire, N. Ramankutty and P. Snyder 2003. Green surprise? How terrestrial ecosystems could affect earth's climate. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 1:38-44.
• Stockwell, C.A., A.P. Hendry and M.T. Kinnison 2003. Contemporary evolution meets conservation biology. Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 18:94-101.

13. Subject: Perspectives, Challenges and Conclusions
Readings Presentation:
• Loreau, M., S. Naeem, and P. Inchausti. 2002. Perspectives and challenges. In: book 1, pp. 237-242
Readings Discussion:
• Bennett, E.M., S.R. Carpenter, G.D. Peterson, G.S. Cumming, M. Zurek and P. Pingali 2003. Why global scenarios need ecology. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 1:322-329.

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