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PROJECT INFORMATION
This web site does not necessarily represent the viewpoints of the Swarthmore College Peace Collection or of Swarthmore College.

The site was produced using Dreamweaver MX 6.0 on a Macintosh and viewed with Internet Explorer 5. Colors, fonts and frame sizes may vary according to the web browser used by individuals.

All images appearing on this site are the property of the Swarthmore College Peace Collection and may not be reproduced without permission from its curator [wchmiel@swarthmore.edu]. When requesting permission, please include the name of this web site, the name of each image [as well as the number of each image if one is given], and the page name on which the image/s appear.

Specific credits for the images are as follows:


Title Bar on All Pages:
- Group of C.O.s at Fort Douglas (Utah), Oct. 18, 1919
5"x3.5" sepia photograph on postcard [cropped] from Photograph Collection: William Kantor (CDGA), 3"x5" photo box


Home Page:
-- Conscientious objectors sentenced to death in World War I before their sentences were changed to prison terms (l-r): Mayer Bernstein, Thomas Shotkin, Jacob Schneider, Benjamin Salmon, n.d.
3.25"x5.25" sepia photograph from Photograph Collection: Subject File -- Conscientious Objection/ Objectors, collective photo box [all sizes]

-- Quote "What if they gave a war . . . and nobody came?"
from Seeds of Peace, p. 264


History Page:
-- Quote "All truth passes through three stages. First, it is ridiculed. Second, it is violently opposed. Third, it is accepted as being self-evident" from Seeds of Peace, p. 244
- "John Bull's Glorious Return" excerpted from page of cartoons entitled "John Bull's Progress," published June 3, 1793

Put out by H. Humphrey, No. 18, Old Bond Street. From Oversize Graphics Collection (#86)
-- C.O.s at Fort Douglas (Utah), Nov. 15, 1919: caption on back of photo "The Funston Boys Who Participated in the 'Reign of Terror'"; front row (l-r): Monsky, David Eichel, Bloch, Silver, Steiner; back row (l-r): Shotkin, Greenberg, Downey, Powell, Kaplan, Breger, Hennessey
5.5"x3.25" sepia print from Photograph Collection: New York Bureau of Legal Advice (CDGA), 5"x7" CDGA collective box
-- Civilian Public Service seal/sticker produced by the American Friends Service Committee, ca. 1941-1947
1.25" x 1.75" seal/sticker from Stamp/Sticker/Seal/Envelope Collection [image #3]
-- "Send a Congressman to Vietnam - Not Me!" seal/sticker produced by GIs:free, n.d.
2.75" x 1.5" seal/sticker from Stamp/Sticker/Seal/Envelope Collection [image #202]
-- "All Women Against All War" seal/sticker produced by the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, n.d.
1.0" x 1.0" seal/sticker from Stamp/Sticker/Seal/Envelope Collection [image #487]
-- Quote "If only half the women of the United States . . . " by Lydia G. Wentworth, 1924
Taken from 2.5" x 1.25" seal/sticker from Stamp/Sticker/Seal/Envelope Collection [image #924]


- CPS Photos page [link from History Page]:
-- CPS man practicing jumping from tower in preparation for smokejumping, Missoula CPS Camp #103 (Missoula, Montana)
Color slide from personal collection of Albert Gray [acc. 03A-022] in Audiovisual Collection slide notebook -- DG 056: Civilian Public Service Personal Papers & Collected Materials
-- Unidentified CPS smokejumper in full uniform
Color slide from personal collection of Albert Gray [acc. 03A-022] in Audiovisual Collection slide notebook -- DG 056: Civilian Public Service Personal Papers & Collected Materials
-- Smokejumpers in airplane preparing to jump
10"x8" black & white photograph [cropped] from Photograph Collection: American Friends Service Committee (DG 002), box 2; credit: U.S. Forest Service
-- CPS wife from Patapsco CPS Unit #3 (Elkridge, Maryland) working in dental clinic at Pennhurst Mental Hospital, 1945
10"x8" black & white photograph [cropped] from Photograph Collection: American Friends Service Committee (DG 002), box 6
-- Aleem Whitson, Muslim C.O., working in laundry at CPS Camp #14 (Merom, Indiana)
8"x10" black & white photograph [cropped] from Photograph Collection: American Friends Service Committee (DG 002), box 2
-- Chinese language class with Dr. Coffman at CPS China Unit (Lagro, Indiana)
10"x8" black & white photograph [cropped] from Photograph Collection: American Friends Service Committee (DG 002), box 1; credit: Kurtz - Manchester
-- Class in bandaging at CPS China Unit (Lagro, Indiana)
10"x8" black & white photograph [cropped] from Photograph Collection: American Friends Service Committee (DG 002), box 1; credit: Hertz - Manchester
-- Ambulance trucks on road beside oxcart & cow, Friends Ambulance Unit, China
10"x8" black & white photograph [cropped] from Photograph Collection: American Friends Service Committee (DG 002), box 6
-- CPS men doing camp laundry at Camp #23 (Coshocton, Ohio), May 1942
10"x8" black & white photograph [cropped] from Photograph Collection: American Friends Service Committee (DG 002), box 4; credit: Richard Wurts
-- CPS men unloading & splitting wood for roofing & siding, Camp #21 (Cascade Locks, Oregon), ca. 1941-1942
7"x5" black & white photograph from Photograph Collection: American Friends Service Committee (DG 002), box 16
-- Kitchen, dining hall & director's residence, Zalduondo Unit (Puerto Rico)
3.5"x2.5" black & white photograph from Zalduondo Unit photo album, from Photograph Collection: American Friends Service Committee (DG 002), box 6
-- Unit members, Zalduondo Unit (Puerto Rico), Jan. 1943
3.5"x2.5" black & white photograph from Zalduondo Unit photo album, from Photograph Collection: American Friends Service Committee (DG 002), box 6
-- At the hookworm control project of CPS camp #27 (Orlando, Florida)
Color slide from personal collection of Albert Gray [acc. 03A-022] in Audiovisual Collection slide notebook -- DG 056: Civilian Public Service Personal Papers & Collected Materials
-- Interior of China Flats dormitory (Powers, OR)
Color slide from personal collection of Albert Gray [acc. 03A-022] in Audiovisual Collection slide notebook -- DG 056: Civilian Public Service Personal Papers & Collected Materials

Stories & Accounts Page:
-- Anti-Conscription cartoon, n.d.

From Subject File: Art in War & Peace -- graphics by individual artist (Ed Nofziger)
-- "No Skunks Allowed..."
3" x 4" sepia photograph [photographed onto 8"x10" page with typed explanation of photo] from Photograph Collection: American Friends Service Committee (DG 002), box 3


Primary Sources Page:
#1
Mennonite C.O.s in WWI: Reeb, Ward, Baer, Dave Derstine
4.25" x 3.25" sepia photograph [cropped] from Photograph Collection: William Kantor (CDGA), 3"x5" photo box
#2 Christ Was a Conscientious Objector"
postcard from CDGA: New York Bureau of Legal Advice, box 1
#3 "The Shadow" vs. "The Solid Reality"
drawing by Florence Andrews in her July 29, 1943 letter to Bennett; from DG 208: Bennett & Florence Andrews
#4 "A C.O. Send-Off. The lucky ones are - Wortsmann, Lunde & Blair, October 20, 1919"
5.5"x3.25" sepia photograph [cropped] from Photograph Collection: New York Bureau of Legal Advice (CDGA), 5"x7" CDGA collective photo box
#5 "Discharged! Break him?! Hell!! He's not even bent!!"
postcard from CDGA: William Kantor
#6 Group of Dunkard C.O.s in WWI: [top row] Chronister, Lerew, Stamm, King, Reimolt, Ditmer, Dotterer; [3rd row] John B. Miller, Brubb, Wismer, Ekroth; [2nd row] Demuth, Bohn, Keeny, Barnes Reichard, Foltz, Strasbaugh, Heckman, Geiman[sp?], Harshman, Wolffe[sp?]; [bottom row] Harley, Loughlin, Dorsey, Smith, Ruhl, Hull, Simes, Coffman
4.5"x2.5" sepia photograph from Photograph Collection: William Kantor (CDGA), 3"x5" photo box
#7 Amnesty Demonstration, May 11, 1946
3.25" x 2.25 black & white photograph [cropped] from CDGA: Committee for Amnesty for All Objectors to War and Conscription, 5"x7" CDGA collective photo box
#8 Ft. Leavenworth (Kansas), 7th Wing Sub-Basement, Solitary Cell, ca. 1918-1919; caption "Behind the Wooden Doors Are Bars; the board and blankets shown are the facilities granted for the sole respite from the monotony of solitary"
3.25"x 5.5" sepia photograph on postcard from Photograph Collection: William Kantor (CDGA), 3"x5" photo box
#9 Ft. Leavenworth (Kansas), U.S. Disciplinary Barracks, ca. 1918-1919
5.25"x 3.5" sepia photograph on postcard from Photograph Collection: William Kantor (CDGA), 3"x5" photo box
#10 Group of C.O.s: David or Julius Eichel on right, ca. 1918-1919
4.25"x 3.25" sepia print [cropped] from Photograph Collection: New York Bureau of Legal Advice (CDGA), 5"x7" CDGA collective photo box
#11 Drawing of C.O. Esteban G. Caban of Puerto Rico by Whitey Matysik, Oct 17, 1945
From Oversized Graphics Collection
#12 Ft. Leavenworth (Kansas), 7th Wing; caption "'Open' Cells In Tiers For the Better Type of Prisoners." The men are confined in this wing except when at work or at mess. They have no outdoor recreation, but may read, write, converse, and play checkers"
3.25"x5" sepia photograph on postcard from Photograph Collection: William Kantor (CDGA), 3"x5" photo box
#13 Postcard produced by People's Freedom Union promoting amnesty for C.O.s, 1919

4"x5" color negative from Photograph Collection: New York Bureau of Legal Advice (CDGA), 5"x7" CDGA collective photo box [original postcard is in CDGA: New York Bureau of Legal Advice, box 1]

#14 C.O.s outside guardhouse at Ft. Riley (KS) "awaiting court-martial," ca. 1918: (l-r) Morris Franklin, B. Stein, J. Brandon, G. Zeidler, F.K. Hennessey, F.K. Bru___
5"x3" sepia photograph [cropped] from Photograph Collection: William Kantor (CDGA), 3"x5" photo box
#15 Painting by George Hay, made while in west Texas in 1943 as a "pioneer member of CPS #98 - the Coast & Geodetic Survey group"
8"x10" color photocopy from Civilian Public Service Personal Papers & Collected Materials (DG 056): box 14, "George Hay" folder; permission granted by Hay for reproduction on this web site only
#16 WWI C.O.s: Morris Trasken (left); John Bertolet (top); William Kantor (center); Harry Clave (right)
3.25"x5.5" sepia photograph [cropped] from CDGA: William Kantor, 3"x5" photo box
#17 Letter to Frances Witherspoon, of the New York Bureau of Legal Advice, from Mrs. Anna Zeidler, 1918 (written in a mixture of German and English)
Letter [cropped] from CDGA: New York Bureau of Legal Advice, box 1
#18 Seven WWI C.O.s on a sawhorse: Stine, Watts, Strosbaugh, Horlacher, Johnson, Russell Keadle, "Big Fritz" Gerhart
4.25"x3" sepia photograph [cropped] from Photograph Collection: William Kantor (CDGA), 3"x5" photo box
#19 Prison patch of William Kantor worn on pant leg or sleeve at Alcatraz prison, June-Nov. 1919
11.75"x4" fabric with painted numbers from CDGA Memorabilia Collection: Kantor
#20 Nancy Foster Neumann, Dietician at CPs Camp #__ in Trenton (ND)
3.5" x 5" photo [cropped] from DG 056, 5"x7" photo box
#21 The "Reds" at Camp Dix (NJ), July 16, 1918: 1/ Steven Stanley, 2/ Bruno Grunzig, 3/ Ronald Hotson, 4/ Fred Thiel, 5/ George Mueller, 6/ David Eilenberg, 7/ Rudolph Vrana, 8/ Leo Robbins
6"x3.75 sepia photograph [cropped] from Photograph Collection: New York Bureau of Legal Advice (CDGA), 5"x7" CDGA collective photo box
#22 Letter (#41 of 76) from Igal Roodenko to Vivien Roodenko, March 24, 1946 [while at Sandstone prison?] -- extract re: being locked in cell for a week for having kept wheat bread in his locker
Letter [cropped] from DG 161: Eichel Family, box 2
#23Thirteen Socialist C.O.s at Camp Meade, 1918
3.5"x2.5" sepia photograph [cropped] from Photograph Collection: William Kantor (CDGA), 3"x5" photo box
#24 Unknown man after taking part in human guinea pig starvation experiment in CPS during WWII
3.5" x 5" black & white photograph [cropped] from personal papers of C.D. Smith, DG 056: Civilian Public Service Personal Papers & Collected Materials, 5"x7" photo box
#24 Letter to New York Bureau of Legal Advice from Maurice Goldstein, telling of his treatment as a C.O. who refused to handle a gun, March 8, 1918
Letter [cropped] from CDGA: New York Bureau of Legal Advice, box 1
#25 Letter to New York Bureau of Legal Advice from Maurice Goldstein, telling of his treatment as a C.O. who refused to handle a gun, March 8, 1918
From CDGA: New York Bureau of Legal Advice, box 1
#26 CPS internee at Germfask CPS camp in jacket that reads on back "Leo the Brat, Camp Germfask, Minersville, Cal. Slave Labor Camp. Selective Service System," May 1946
3.5"x5" black & white photograph [cropped] from Photograph Collection: Bent Andreson (CDGA) [acc. 83A-140], 3"x5" photo box
#27 Lew Ayres with unknown man
2.5" x 3.75" black & white negative [cropped] from Photograph Collection: Civilian Public Service Personal Papers & Collected Materials (DG 056) [acc. 98A-025], 5"x7" photo box


Other Resources Page:
-- Pacifism cartoon by Nofziger, n.d.

From Subject File: Art in War & Peace -- graphics from archival collections (DG 040: War Resisters League)


Created by Anne M. Yoder (Archivist, Swarthmore College Peace Collection), Feb. 2003; modified Nov. 2007