Swarthmore College Peace Collection

Jessie Wallace Hughan Papers, 1870-1998

Collection: DG 251



Contact Information

Swarthmore College Peace Collection
500 College Avenue, Swarthmore, PA 19081-1399 U.S.A.
Telephone: (610) 328-8557 (Curator); Fax: (610) 328-8544
Email: wchmiel1@swarthmore.edu (Curator); URL: http://www.swarthmore.edu/Library/peace/


Descriptive Summary
Repository
The Swarthmore College Peace Collection is the official repository for this set of papers.
Creator
Hughan, Jessie Wallace (1875-1955)
Title
Jessie Wallace Hughan Papers
Inclusive Dates
1870-1998
Call Number
DG 251

Language of Materials
Materials in English
Extent
5 linear feet [papers only]
Abstract
Jessie Wallace Hughan (December 25, 1875 – April 10, 1955) was an American educator, social activist, and a radical pacifist. During her college days she was one of four co-founders of Alpha Omicron Pi, a national sorority for university women. She also was a founder and the first Secretary of the War Resisters League, established in 1923. For over two decades, she was a perennial candidate for political office on the ticket of the Socialist Party of America in her home state of New York.

Administrative Information
Restrictions to Access
None
Usage Restrictions
None except to handle material with care because of fragility of some items
Alternate Form of Material
Non
Acquisitions Information
Gift of Julie Finch and Frances Early, June 2013 [acc. 2013-032 and acc. 2013-036]; one folder from Raquel Wood, July 2013 [acc. 2013-042]
Processing Information
Processed by Anne M. Yoder, Archivist, July 2013
Preferred Citation
[Identification of item], in the Jessie Wallace Hughan Papers (DG 251), Swarthmore College Peace Collection
Copyright Notice
Copyright may have been transferred to the Swarthmore College Peace Collection or may have been retained by the creators/authors (or their descendants), in this collection, as stipulated by United States copyright law. Please contact the SCPC Curator for further information.

Online Catalog Headings
These and related materials may be found under the following headings in online library/archival catalogs.
See tripod record


Related Collections
Kaufman, Abraham. Collected Papers. (CDG-A)
War Resisters League Records (DG 040)


Historical Background
[from website http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jessie_Wallace_Hughan]

Early years

Jessie Wallace Hughan was born December 25, 1875 in Brooklyn, New York. She was the third of four children born to Margaret and Samuel Hughan, who were of Scottish, English, and French ancestry. Her father was an accountant.
Hughan attended grammar school on Staten Island and then went on to Northfield Seminary, a theologically liberal Unitarian college preparatory school for girls located in Northfield, Massachusetts.

Hughan enrolled at Barnard College in New York City in 1894. In January 1897 she co-founded there with three other students the international sorority Alpha Omicron Pi. In 1898 she graduated, earning her A.B. degree, for which she authored an unpublished senior thesis on "Recent Theories of Profits." An excellent student, Hughan was a member of Phi Beta Kappa, a national honorary society.

After graduation from Barnard, Hughan enrolled in Columbia University. There Hughan earned her Masters of Arts degree in 1899, writing a thesis entitled "The Place of Henry George in Economics," and her Ph.D. in 1910. Her dissertation was adapted by Columbia University Press and published in book form as The Present Status of Socialism in America, for which the prominent British-born socialist John Spargo wrote the introduction. The book was later reissued by a commercial publisher under a slightly revised title.

Hughan made her professional career as an educator, teaching in a series of public and private schools following her graduation from Columbia. She first taught in schools in Naugatuck, Connecticut and White Plains, New York before returning to New York City in the early 1900s to complete her doctorate. Following her graduate work, she taught in a number of high schools throughout New York City, primarily in Brooklyn. In the 1920s, Hughan was in charge of the English Department at Textile High School, a position which she retained until her retirement from the profession in 1945.

Political career: social activism

Jessie Wallace Hughan joined the Socialist Party of America (SPA) in 1907.

Hughan's primary place in the socialist movement was as an officer of the Intercollegiate Socialist Society (ISS), an independent organization established by author Upton Sinclair in 1905 to provide a venue of topics related to socialism, pro and con, by university students across America. Hughan was elected to the Executive Committee of the ISS in 1907 and served continuously in that capacity until the end of the organization in 1921, continuing in a similar capacity in its successor organization, the League for Industrial Democracy (LID) through 1925. She also served as Vice President of the ISS from 1920 to 1921. Other so-called adult leaders of the ISS during this interval included Morris Hillquit, J.G. Phelps Stokes, Harry W. Laidler, as well as founding father Upton Sinclair.

In 1913, the ISS commissioned Hughan to write a book on the principles of socialism to serve as a text for study and discussion by the various chapters of the organization. The resulting publication, a tome called Facts of Socialism, was an influential text among the young intellectuals who participated in the Intercollegiate Socialist Society's activities, a group which included peace activist Devere Allen, journalist Heywood Broun, researcher and American Civil Liberties Union official Robert W. Dunn, historian Herbert Feis, and publicist Walter Lippmann.

Political career: campaigns for electoral office

For over two decades, Jessie Wallace Hughan was a candidate for public office on the ticket of the Socialist Party of America. Her first foray into politics came in a 1915 bid for Alderman in 1915. It was perhaps the only race in which she ran in which she had a measurable chance of winning. Hughan ran for office not so much intending to win, but rather as a means of advancing socialist ideas to a broader public and to put pressure on elected officials to co-opt and implement ideas from the Socialist Party's political platform. Hughan therefore was unfazed by electoral defeat, instead running for a steadily escalating series of political offices.

Hughan ran for Secretary of State of New York in 1918. In 1920, she ran for Lieutenant Governor of New York as a Socialist. The year 1922 marked Hughan's first bid for U.S. Congress, an office which she sought four times — in 1922 in the New York 16th District; in 1924 in the New York 17th District; in 1928 in the New York 15th District; and in 1934 in the New York 15th District. In 1926 she took a break from her Congressional campaigns to launch a bid for election to the U.S. Senate from New York. Hughan also ran for New York State Assembly in 1927, 1932, and 1938.

Hughan does not seem to have exited the Socialist Party with its so-called "Old Guard" faction in 1936 to join the Social Democratic Federation, instead remaining loyal to fellow radical pacifist Norman Thomas despite the SPA's descent into factional war as the decade of the 1930s came to a close. Tellingly, neither did she run for elective office again after 1938.

Political career: anti-war efforts

A deeply religious person, Jessie Wallace Hughan was a committed pacifist who spent the whole of her life fighting the spread of militarism in America. Following the eruption of the First World War in the summer of 1914, Hughan felt herself called to action. In 1915 she organized the Anti-Enlistment League, with a headquarters in her apartment. Hughan and her associates were able to gather the signatures of some 3,500 men to a declaration opposing military enlistment with a view to demonstrating to American political leaders the unpopularity of the European war. She was a devoted opponent of the coordinated "Preparedness" campaign which emerged across the nation in 1915 and 1916.

American entry into the war in April 1917 spelled the end of the Anti-Enlistment League, with the government seizing the organization's files and records.

While she was never fired from her public school teaching positions for her political views, Hughan was called into suspicion in the eyes of some New York politicians. In 1919, Hughan was called before the Lusk Committee of the New York State Assembly, a special committee convened to investigate and report upon radicalism in New York state. The Committee denied her the Certificate of Character and Loyalty due to her appending the words "This obedience being qualified always by dictates of conscience" to the state's teachers' oath.

Later in 1919, Hughan's name appeared with those of settlement house pioneer Jane Addams and liberal journalist Oswald Garrison Villard on a list of 62 "dangerous radicals" presented to the Overman Committee of the U.S. Senate, the first congressional body charged with the investigation of radicalism in the United States.

Hughan sat on the National Council and was a member of the New York Executive Committee of the Fellowship of Reconciliation, a religious pacifist organization, from 1920 to 1923. In 1923, she founded a new anti-militarist group, the War Resisters League (WRL), and presided over it as Secretary from the time of its formation. The intent behind the WRL was to provide an organizational framework for opponents of militarism who had no traditional religious basis for their pacifist beliefs. The organization of the WRL was supported by other pacifist groups, including the Fellowship of Reconciliation, the Women's Peace Society, and the Women's Peace Union.

In 1938, with another war looming in Europe, Hughan organized a new umbrella organization known as the United Pacifist Committee, designed to coordinate the educational and political activities of sundry pacifist groups. She helped with the organization of public demonstrations, including a series of No More War parades in New York City, and was a vigorous opponent of the return to military conscription in 1940.She continued to serve as Secretary of the War Resisters League continuously through the end of World War II in 1945, at which time she stepped down to become the group's Honorary Secretary. She continued to remain active on the governing Executive Committee of the WRL.

Death and legacy

Jessie Wallace Hughan retired in 1945. She stayed active in the War Resisters League as a member of the organization's Executive Committee until her death on April 10, 1955. She was 79 years old at the time of her death. She was survived by her sister Evelyn Hughan, with whom she had lived during her entire adult life, as well as her sister Marjorie Hughan Rockwell and Marjorie's four children, with whom Jessie was extremely close.

The organization that Hughan founded, the War Resisters League, as well as the organization she helped to found, Alpha Omicron Pi sorority, both continue as vital and established institutions into the 21st century. Both of these organizations remember Hughan's name and her role in their formation. Alpha Omicron Pi annually awards a prize known as the Jessie Wallace Hughan Cup to the organization's outstanding chapter.

Collection Overview / Arrangement of Collection
This collection of papers was gathered by family members and other historians who wished to record the life and legacy of Jessie Wallace Hughan. It features personal writings and letters of Hughan, as well as correspondence and other material that help to chronicle her interests and peace activism. A second section items by and about Hughan's family, with many letters between her sisters, Evelyn and Marjorie. It also includes diaries written by Evelyn. At the end of the collection is correspondence and notes of various biographers of Hughan. It should be noted that there is some WRL correspondence in this collection that may not have been connected with Hughan directly.

Items removed:
- To Book Collection: American Socialism of the Present Day (1911); The Socialism of To-Day (1916); A Study of International Government (1923); What Is Socialism? (1928)
- To Oversized Items Collection – Documents: Jessie’s 1925 passport      
- To Audiovisual Collection: audiocassette “Maggie Finch Interview (3 & 4), June 15, 1993” [with Frances Early at Maggie’s Home in New Rochelle]



Detailed Description of the Collection

Box 1
Jessie
Biographical information
Biographical information: mss. “Resister for Peace” by Annie Ridley Crane Finch (for the F.O.R.)
Hughan (family) addresses
Schooling
Schooling: Barnard College (graduated 1898)
70th birthday: letters of appreciation received, 1945-1946
Death (April 10, 1955); memorials/letters and memorial service
Images (of photographs & from magazines)
Notes by Mercedes Randall of interview with Jessie Hughan, 1950 (May)

Box 2
Jessie
Diary, 1912 [trip to Scotland]; Diary, 1913 [trip to Scotland & Europe]; Diary, 1914
Diary, Dec. 1915, 1916-1920, 1921-1925
Diary, 1926-1930; travel diary, 1927-1928
Diary, 1931-1935; 1936-1939
Notebook with quotes/notes/finances
Poems written
Gift poems / fun poems written (short)
Poetry set “Children’s Verses” written
Poetry set “The Sea and the Woods” written
Poetry set “The Tenses” written
Poetry set “The Vanguard” written
Poetry set “War and Peace” written
Poetry set (published) “The Challenge of Mars and Other Verses” written, 1932
Game “Guns or Disarmament” created

Box 3
Jessie
Childhood writings
Childhood newsletters written, 1886, 1888
Writings: Titles A-D
- Leaflet “An American asks: Is the Time Ripe for Peace?” 1943
- Mss. “As I Remember Gene Debs,” 1942 (October)
- Pamphlet “The Beginnings of War Resistance,” 1937 (January)
- Mss. “Breaking the Circle: A Layman’s Plan for Unemployment Relief,” 1931 (November)
- Article “Can a Nation Afford to be Non-Resistant?” 1917 (December)
- Mimeographed article “A Compact Survey of the History of War Resistance,” 1934
- Foreword to pamphlet “Conscience and the Commonwealth,” 1944
- Pamphlet “Correspondence Course on Citizenship for Women. Lesson 3. The Socialist Party,” circa 1920s   
- Article “Cousin Louisa’s Box” (Munsey’s Magazine), undated [by JWH?]
- Article “Defending Our Country,” circa 1916-1917
- Mss. “Defense of Democracy,” 1939 (January)
- Article “Direct Attack Upon War” (The Social Preparation), circa 1923-1924
- Mss. “Disarmament and the Fight Against War,” 1932
- Mss. “The Disarmament Parade,” 1921
- Mss. “Discussion Outlines for the Study of Pacifism,” circa 1943-1944

Writings: Titles E-L
- Article “The Extent of Collective Ownership and Democratic Management under Socialism” (The Intercollegiate Socialist), circa 1915?
- Mss. “Final Reply to Mr. A. A. Sessions,” 1918 (June)
- Mss. “For the Symposium on Conscience, Pacifism, and the Commonwealth (or Conscience, Morality, and the Commonwealth),” 1944
- Mss. “Freedom from Fear,” 1943 (December)
- Mss. “Good Friday, A Passion Play of Now,” 1919 (June)
- Mss. “The Great Solution,” 1917 (September)
- Mss. “Has International Socialism Collapsed?” circa 1915-1916
- Pamphlet “If War Should Come,” 1935 (October)
- Mss. “If War Should Come,” undated
- Pamphlet, “If We Should Be Invaded: Facing a Fantastic Hypothesis,” 1939 (May)
- Mss. “Is a Just Peace Still Possible?” 1941 (August)
- Leaflet “Is Conscription of Women the American Way?” undated
-Pamphlet “Letters Coming Through the Barriers, 1942-1943” (War Resisters’ International)

Writings: Titles M-O
- Mss. “Mahli and Mushi,” undated
- Article “National Non-Resistance?” (The Western Comrade), undated
- Mss. “The Nature of the State,” 1919 (September)
- Pamphlet “New Leagues for Old: Blueprints or Foundations?” circa 1945-1946
- Mss. “Non-Cooperation in War,” 1922
- Mss. “On Dueling,” circa 1926-1939
- Pamphlet “Our Position in Wartime,” 1941 (December)
-Article “Our U.S.A. Movement since Pearl Harbour” (The War Resister), 1942
- Mss. “The Outlook for Aggressive Pacifism,” 1920

Writings: Titles P
- Pamphlet “Pacifism and Invasion,” 1942 (February)
- Pamphlet “Pacifism and Invasion” / “On Duelling” (A.J. Muste Memorial Institute Essay Series #4)
- Leaflet “The Pacifist in Wartime: A Reply to the Christian Century,” 1942 (February)
- Mss. “A Pacifist Proposal for World Peace,” 1946 (September)
- Mss. “Pacifist Team Organization,” 1942 (January)
- Mss. “Pacifists Face the Dilemma,” undated
- Mss. “The Paris Draft of the World League,” 1919 (March)
- Mss. “Peace Aims and A.O. Pi,” 1943 (January)
- Mss. “Peace Plan,” undated
- Mss. “Plan for Federation against War,” undated
- Mss. “A Preface to Discussion,” 1935 (August)
- Mss. “A Preface to Post-War,”1942 January
- Pamphlet “A Preface to Post-War,” 1943 (January)
- Pamphlet “Preparedness,” 1916 (February-March)
- Mss. “Preparedness: A Reply to Mr. Mackay, circa 1916
- Mss. “Proposal for a Federation Against War,” circa 1925?
- Mss. “Proposed Questionnaire for Senators, Congressmen and Potential Candidates for 1946 Elections,” circa 1946?

Writings: Titles R
- Mss. “Red Flags and Fascism,” undated [circa post-1935]
- Article “Reds and Pacifists: A Road Map of Campus Radicalism,” (The Fraternity Month distributed by the War Resisters League: Committee for Student Enrollment), 1936 (December)
- Mss. “Representation in the Peace League,” undated
- Mimeographed article “Revolution and Realism,” distributed by the War Resisters League, undated
- Mss. “Revolutionary Pacifism,” 1919 (December)
- Mss. “The Revolutionized Inter-nation,” 1919 (June)

Writings: Titles S [folder 1]
- Mss. “Security, the Atom Bomb, and the U.N.,” 1947 (January)
- Mss. “Sex Assumptions,” circa 1931
- Article “Shall We Fight?” (The Social Preparation), undated
- Mss. “Socialism and the Woman Voter: What Women Demand from a Political Party,” circa 1920s?
- Leaflet “Socialism, or Chaos - Which?” circa 1926?
- Mss. “Socialists and War,” undated
- Notes “Socialism and the Next War,” circa 1920s
- Mss. “Some Apparent Misconceptions of Socialism,” undated [circa 1920s-1930s 
- Mss. “Some Suggestions for Work in Non-Resistant Pacifism,” circa 1919-1920?
- Mss. “Some Words and Symbols: A Bit of Interpretation,” circa 1940-1942
- Mss. “So You Are Going to Teach: Suggestions for the High School Beginner,” 1935 (August)
- Mss. “Statement on Militarism,” 1926
- Mss. “Statement on Prohibition,” 1926

Writings: Title S [folder 2]
- Mss. “Studies in Character and Personality for High Schools,” undated
- Mss. “Suggested Outlines for Two Discussion Courses,” 1934

Writings: Title T-V
- Pamphlet “Three Decades of War Resistance,” 1942 (March)
- Article “25th Anniversary Reminiscences,” 1940 (November)
- Pamphlet “The Use of Force and the Conscientious Objector,” undated
- Mss. “Utopian Socialism: My Conception of a Cooperative Commonwealth,” 1915 (December) [by JWH?]
- Mss. “Victory Over Communism Without Conquest Checking Communism Without War,” circa 1951-1952
- Mss. “A Voice from the Pews,” undated

Writings: Title W [folder 1]
- Pamphlet “War Resistance in the Atomic Age,” circa 1945-1946
- Mimeographed article “War Resistance in the Class Struggle,” distributed by the War Resisters League, undated [pre-1932]
- Pamphlet “War Resistance since 1937,” 1940 (November)
- Untitled article “We Socialists….,” 1915
- Pamphlet “What About Spain?” 1937 (April)
- Article “What About the Jews in the Ghettos?” (Pacifica Views), 1943 (September)
- Article “What is Pacifism? - Again,” (Pacifica Views), 1944 (December)
- Pamphlet “What is War Resistance?” circa 1932-1933
- Pamphlet “What is War Resistance?” 1942 (January)
- Leaflet “What’s-the-Idea,” undated
- Mss. “When Pacifists Are Tested,” 1916
- Leaflet “Why Not Peace in 1944?” 1944 (March)
- Pamphlet “Women and War,” 1914 (October)
- Mss. “A Word on Suffrage,” 1919

Writings: Title W [folder 2]
- Mss. “Worth Enjoying,” undated
- Leaflet “Would You Like to See the War End Today?,” undated

Book Reviews written
Reviews of JHW’s book “American Socialism in the Present Day”
Reviews of JWH’s books
Miscellaneous writings and notes

Box 4 (half box)
Jessie
Involvement with the Anti-Enlistment League
Letters of recommendation received, 1898-1910
Teaching, 1917-1929
Teaching; controversy with Board of Examiners, etc.; 1930-
Involvement with Socialist Party
Candidacy for political offices
Involvement with War Resisters League
Miscellaneous involvements/efforts
Letters to the Editor written and to government officials

Box 5
Jessie
General correspondence (including WRL): outgoing
General correspondence, ____-1899
General correspondence, 1900-1916
General correspondence, 1917-1919; undated (circa 1915-1917)
General correspondence, 1920-1929
General correspondence, 1930-1939
General correspondence, 1940-1949
General correspondence, 1950s
General correspondence, undated
Correspondence with Eddie Gottlieb
Correspondence from Abe Kaufman
Correspondence to Abe and Ida Kaufman

Box 6
Jessie and Family
Samuel and Margaret (Maggie) West Hughan [parents]: miscellaneous
Correspondence from Margaret Hughan [mother], 1889, 1892 - 1893 (April), 1899
Correspondence from Margaret Hughan [mother], 1893 (May) - 1894; undated
Correspondence to parents, 1892
Correspondence from Willie Hughan [cousin], 1895-1896
Correspondence to niece (Margaret) and nephews
Correspondence from nephews (Hugh, Fritz, Don)
Correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1890s
Correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1900-1913
Correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1914-1915

Box 7
Jessie and Family
Correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1916-1919, undated [circa 1910-1920]
Correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1921-1925
Correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1926-1928
Correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1930-1933
Correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1934
Correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1935-1936
Correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1937-1939
Correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1940
Correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1941
Correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1942

Box 8
Jessie and Family
Correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1943
Correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1944
Correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1945
Correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1946
Correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1947
Correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1948
Correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1949
Correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], circa 1940s
Correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1950
Correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1951
Correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1952-1953
Correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], undated
Correspondence from Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1891-1893
Correspondence from Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1912-

Box 9
Jessie and Family
Correspondence to Evelyn Hughan [sister], 1893
Correspondence from Evelyn Hughan [sister], 1891-1892 (September)
Correspondence from Evelyn Hughan [sister], 1892 (October-December)
Correspondence from Evelyn Hughan [sister], 1893 (January-February)
Correspondence from Evelyn Hughan [sister], 1893 (March-December)
Correspondence from Evelyn Hughan [sister], 1894
Correspondence from Evelyn Hughan [sister], 1897-1902
Correspondence from Evelyn Hughan [sister], 1909, 1913, 1941
Correspondence from Evelyn Hughan [sister], undated
Reference material: “Chapters on Ants” by Mary Treat (Harper’s Half-Hour Series), 1870
Reference material: biographies about Mygatt and Witherspoon
Reference materials: miscellaneous

Box 10
Family
Evelyn Hughan: biographical information
Evelyn Hughan: correspondence from nephews (Hugh, Fritz, Don)
Evelyn Hughan: miscellaneous correspondence received
Marjorie Hughan Rockwell: biographical information; miscellaneous
Marjorie Hughan Rockwell: correspondence with Margaret Hughan [mother]
Marjorie Hughan Rockwell: miscellaneous correspondence received
Marjorie Hughan Rockwell (Petterkin): correspondence to Evelyn Hughan [sister]
Marjorie Hughan Rockwell: correspondence from Don Rockwell [son]
Correspondence from Don  Rockwell to Margaret Rockwell Finch [sister], April 15, 1966
Marjorie Hughan Rockwell: correspondence from Fritz Rockwell [son]
Marjorie Hughan Rockwell:  correspondence with Hugh Rockwell [son]
Marjorie Hughan Rockwell: correspondence with Margaret Rockwell Finch [daughter]
Marjorie Hughan Rockwell: correspondence from Tracy Mygatt
Marjorie Hughan Rockwell: “Hughan Saga” written
Miscellaneous correspondence (unknown writer and/or recipient)

Box 11
Family
Evelyn Hughan: biographical information
Evelyn Hughan: miscellaneous correspondence
Evelyn Hughan: correspondence to nephews, 1925-1926
Evelyn Hughan: correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1892
Evelyn Hughan: correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1913-1914
Evelyn Hughan: correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1915
Evelyn Hughan: correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1917-1918
Evelyn Hughan: correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1922
Evelyn Hughan: correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1924
Evelyn Hughan: correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1925
Evelyn Hughan: correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1926-1928
Evelyn Hughan: correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1930
Evelyn Hughan: correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1934
Evelyn Hughan: correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1935
Evelyn Hughan: correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1936
Evelyn Hughan: correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1938
Evelyn Hughan: correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1939
Evelyn Hughan: correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1940
Evelyn Hughan: correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1941
Evelyn Hughan: correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1942
Evelyn Hughan: correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1943
Evelyn Hughan: correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1944
Evelyn Hughan: correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1945
Evelyn Hughan: correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1947
Evelyn Hughan: correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], 1951
Evelyn Hughan: correspondence to Marjorie Hughan Rockwell [sister], undated
Marjorie Hughan Rockwell: correspondence to Evelyn Hughan [sister]
Evelyn Hughan: reference material re: George Plimpton

Box 12 (half box)
Family
Evelyn Hughan: diaries written, 1888-1890
Evelyn Hughan: diaries written, 1916-1920; 1921-1925
Evelyn Hughan: diaries written, 1926-1930; 1931-1935

Box 13
Biographers
Frances Early: correspondence, etc.                    
Frances Early: speeches and writings re: Jessie Wallace Hughan
Frances Early: efforts re: essays for 1998 WRL calendar
Annie Finch: correspondence
Julie Finch: correspondence, etc.
Julie Finch: notes from interview with Eddie Gottlieb
Julie Finch: bibliography of Julie’s writings at NYPL; Hughan residences
Margaret Rockwell Finch: correspondence, etc.
Margaret Finch: correspondence to and from Frances Early
Margaret Finch: correspondence to and from Abe Kauffman re: Hughan (etc.)
Margaret Finch: miscellaneous writings re: Jessie Wallace Hughan
Margaret Finch: notes re: Jessie Wallace Hughan for book she hoped to write
Margaret and Roy Finch: correspondence from Frances Witherspoon and Tracy Mygatt
Roy Finch: writings and statements; biographical information
Roy Finch: correspondence
Roy Finch: WRL (original correspondence)
Roy Finch: reference material and notes and lists

Box 14 (half box)
Biographers
Abe and Ida Kaufman correspondence
Abe Kaufman to Frances Early
Abe and Ida Kaufman to and from Frances Witherspoon and Tracy Mygatt
Abe Kaufman re: Hughan