Swarthmore College Peace Collection, 500 College Avenue, Swarthmore, PA 19081 U.S.A.

John Nevin Sayre
Records, 1885-1982; (bulk, 1922-1967)

Document Group: DG 117
Provenance:
Donor/Depositor: John Nevin Sayre and Faith Sayre Schindler
Received: 1975, 1978, 1981, 1993, 1998

Size: 37 linear feet (150 boxes)

Restrictions: none

Microfilm: none

Finding Aids: Checklist prepared by Wilma Mosholder, 1999, with assistance from Tina Wong (class of 1999)

This checklist is the property of the Swarthmore College Peace Collection


Table of Contents

Biographical Introduction
Provenance
Scope and Content
Arrangement
Series A American (USA) Correspondence, 1909-1972
Series B International Files, 1922-1974
Series C International Fellowship of Reconciliation (IFOR), 1919-1969
Series D Fellowship of Reconciliation-USA, 1915-1965 Historical Records of special interest
Series E Fellowship of Reconciliation-USA, 1919-1967 FOR Programs; Special Projects
Series F Writings, Lectures, Sermons by Sayre, 1908-1967
Series G Speaking Engagements and Trips, 1923-1967 United States and Overseas
Series H Biographical and Personal Records: Family Letters, 1885-1982
Series I Reference Files (articles, clippings, pamphlets) 1902-1967
Photographs
FOR Officials during the Sayre years (lists):
Executive Secretaries of FOR-USA
Chairmen of National Council of FOR-USA
International FOR (IFOR) Executives and Council Chairmen



JOHN NEVIN SAYRE



Biographical Introduction

John Nevin Sayre (1884-1977) described himself as a "peace apostle whose life has been devoted to the waging of peace and opposition to war." He was ordained to ministry in the Episcopal Church in 1911. He joined the Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR) in December 1915, only weeks after the American branch was organized. These events defined the course that his life took.

Sayre was born in Bethlehem, PA, one of two sons of a "captain of American industry" whose family was engaged in the development of the steel industry and railroads. Their maternal grandfather was a clergyman who became a college president. The boys had a privileged childhood; they were sent to boarding schools and summer camps. Nevin studied at Princeton and graduated in 1907. Francis studied at Williams College and Harvard Law school. He was married to a daughter of President Wilson in a ceremony at the White House at which Nevin officiated. Francis entered the diplomatic service and held important posts in the government of Franklin D. Roosevelt. Nevin benefited by gaining access to Presidents Wilson and Roosevelt and other prominent persons like General Douglas MacArthur and Emperor Hirohito.

Nevin Sayre, having decided to enter the ministry, then studied at Union Theological Seminary in New York for two years. He finished his graduate work at the Episcopal Theological School at Cambridge in 1911, and was promptly ordained.

The next few years were an exploratory period during which he considered a career in education, missionary work or the ministry. While working at Princeton in 1914, he heard a lecture on Christianity and war which prompted him to examine the teachings of Jesus on the use of force and the love of enemies. It became clear that Jesus was an "unequivocable pacifist" and that he "totally rejected war". Sayre never doubted that conclusion which became a guiding principle for the rest of his life. When he learned about the Fellowship of Reconciliation, he promptly became a member in December 1915.

Earlier that year, feeling an urge to preach, he responded to the call to the pastorate of Christ Episcopal Church in Suffern, NY which he served during the war years 1915-1919. The congregation of this village church did not curtail his freedom to uphold a strong pacifist position. Nevertheless after the war ended, he felt a call to be an "evangelist to youth and other parishes". He resigned his pastorate in 1919 to become one of the founders of the Brookwood community school which was conceived by a group of members of the FOR for the purpose of "training builders of the new world". He taught there until 1921 when Brookwood became a "workers' college" under new leadership.

1922 was a year of transition. In February he was married to Kathleen Whitaker. She was a young English woman who came to the US in 1916 with her widowed mother. They were Christian pacifists who found the pro-war spirit in English churches and society to be intolerable. Kathleen took a business course and then offered her services at the FOR office where she was promptly engaged by Norman Thomas. Nevin Sayre, in writing his memoirs half a century later, devoted a chapter to "Companions in the Faith". He said that she was "first and foremost" in an international group of comrades. That same year he became editor of The World Tomorrow, a pacifist journal published by the Fellowship Press, and continued in the position until 1924. He had been writing for the publication since its beginning in 1918. He returned to journalism in 1940 when he edited Fellowship magazine for five years while serving as co-secretary of the FOR with A.J. Muste.

For more than forty years (1924-1967) Sayre was an integral part of the national FOR staff. He had worked briefly as associate secretary, along with the secretary Paul Jones in 1921. Following his period with The World Tomorrow, he served again as associate secretary from 1924 to 1935. Then he was FOR chairman from 1935 to 1940. When A.J. Muste became secretary in 1940 he and Sayre headed the staff as "equal partners" until Sayre resigned that position to become the international secretary in 1947. He continued working full time in the international field until 1967 when a stroke forced his retirement.

Sayre's first active involvement in the international aspects of peacemaking probably occurred in January 1921. He spent three weeks in Germany with an international reconciliation team. They observed post-war conditions, and talked with groups and individuals, including Quaker relief workers, in 15 urban areas. In the years that followed, Sayre made frequent trips to Europe, including Russia (1929, 1932) and Eastern Europe (1938). More extensive tours, with his wife Kathleen, took them to the far east in 1949-1950, to South Africa in 1952, and to South America in 1958.

Most of Sayre's international work was done in the context of the International FOR (IFOR). He became chairman of the IFOR in 1935 and remained in that position until 1955. During that time he presided over six meetings of the IFOR Council. Thereafter he continued to undergird the financial support of the organization. A distinctive feature of the IFOR work which began in the 1930s was the use of traveling secretaries for spreading the peace message to Asia, Africa and Latin America. These notable messengers were Muriel Lester, André and Magda Trocmé, Hildegard and Jean Goss-Mayr. Sayre's own network of contacts throughout the world is evident in the extensive files of his correspondence, country by country, with individuals and FOR groups.

The broad interests of Sayre often involved him in working with other organizations. He participated in the founding of the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) and served on the Board of Directors from 1918-1928. He helped to form the Committee on Militarism in Education in 1925 and was its first chairman. He served as president of the National Peace Conference in 1935-1938 and led several of its delegations to the White House. Sayre also participated in some special projects undertaken jointly with other peace groups. In 1927-1928 he led a Mission of Peace and Good Will to Central America which was sponsored by the FOR and the American Friends Service Committee (AFSC). The team of four, including a woman, lectured and made contacts in four countries and at the Pan American Congress in Havana. Their immediate aim of ending the fighting in Nicaragua was not accomplished, but they succeeded in laying the groundwork for a 5-year FOR program in Central America. In Asia in 1950 Sayre took the initiative in an international act of compassion. When he and his wife were on their world tour, they learned that Japanese soldiers who had been accused of war crimes in the Philippines were still in prison there, some to be executed. With the support of the International FOR and a committee of the Tokyo YMCA, Sayre went directly to Philippine President Quirino. Before leaving office in1953, he commuted the sentences of all the Japanese prisoners, thus freeing them to return to their country and families.

As a devotee of the "pacifist faith" Sayre found it necessary to go beyond preaching it in general and urge it on particular individuals in key positions of power, as in the case of President Quirino above. This practice of "speaking truth to power" was facilitated by his brother Francis B. Sayre who was a son-in-law of Woodrow Wilson and who held important diplomatic positions in the administration of Franklin D. Roosevelt from 1933 to 1952. In 1918-1919 Nevin Sayre had three private interviews with President Wilson which were productive. In 1936 and 1938 he led delegations of the National Peace Conference to the White House which were cordially received. In October 1949 when Nevin and Kathleen Sayre were on their world tour, they had two visits in Japan which were social occasions. They were luncheon guests of General Douglas MacArthur and his wife at the American Embassy, and they were received by the Emperor and Empress of Japan at the royal palace. In both cases they conversed about the favorable circumstances which characterized the post-war period in Japan.

The significance and influence of Sayre's life work are summarized by John M. Swomley, a colleague of Sayre on the national staff of the FOR from 1940-1960 and its executive secretary 1953-1960. He wrote a biographical series titled "John Nevin Sayre: Peacemaker" for Fellowship magazine, 1977-1979. The following excerpt is taken from the beginning of the first article published November 1977:

"John Nevin Sayre was one of the great figures of the American peace movement. He lived an unusual life, dedicated fully to world peace. He invested himself and his fortune in movements for radical but peaceful change. He was the associate and advisor of men and women who became more famous, but who could hardly be said to have had more influence. In many respects, the Fellowship of Reconciliation as an organization is an ongoing tribute to his unswerving commitment and intelligent leadership. For fifty-two years he served the Fellowship in various capacities. No other person during that period, which spanned four wars, made a greater continuous world-wide contribution to the cause of world peace."

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Provenance

On July 1, 1975 Sayre formalized his intention of depositing his "office files" in the Swarthmore College Peace Collection by signing a statement to that effect. It also included the files still at his home after they were no longer needed. The office files of twenty-four cartons were transferred to the SCPC in July 1975, along with the large accumulation of FOR records at the national office in Nyack, NY. The curator of the Peace Collection decided that the Sayre materials should be a separate document group, DG 117. A unit within the Sayre Papers contained his files of the Episcopal Peace Fellowship, which were separated to form the nucleus of DG 118.

The collection of peace related materials at the Sayre home in South Nyack included four steel cabinets of reference files which he and his wife Kathleen had collected and used for half a century. There were also personal and family writings including small diaries from childhood throughout adulthood, and lifelong correspondence with his beloved brother Francis B. Sayre who became a prominent diplomat. A copy of John Nevin Sayre's unpublished memoirs was donated by his daughter Faith Sayre Schindler who arranged for a visit of several days in the home in 1978 in order to examine and select materials offered to the SCPC. These were brought to Swarthmore in July 1978.

In 1981 more cartons of Sayre materials were found at Shadowcliff, the national FOR office. They included sermons and speeches, materials about Kathleen Sayre's peace work, and books and photographs from the period of the first World War.

Additional personal and family materials were contributed by Faith S. Schindler. In 1993 she sent a suitcase full of letters. The earliest were written by Nevin Sayre's parents in the 1890s. The bulk of the correspondence comprises the exchange of letters between Nevin and Kathleen from their courtship in 1921 through the years when he was delivering speeches and building structures of peace in the US and around the world.

The last accession of Sayre material was received in July 1998 from Faith S. Schindler in response to a suggestion from the SCPC. It is a collection of photocopies of letters of condolence received by Kathleen W. Sayre at the time of Nevin Sayre's death in 1977.

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Scope and Content

The major part of the Sayre papers consists of the extensive correspondence of a lifetime which was centered in the Fellowship of Reconciliation. The principal categories are his American (US) and international files. There is also a large quantity of family letters. Related to the international correspondence are the files of the International Fellowship of Reconciliation (IFOR), of which Sayre was chairman in 1935-1955. They include minutes and reports of Conferences, the Council and Executive Committees. These files also contain historical records, materials on policy discussions, adjunct programs and fund raising. There are some miscellaneous historical materials of the FOR-USA concerning Sayre's particular interests, like the 1933 referendum of the membership. Another series is given to programs and special projects of the FOR-USA, 1919-1958, some in collaboration with other organizations. These files include correspondence, minutes, reports and releases.

Some of Sayre's principal correspondents were: Devere Allen, Roger N. Baldwin, Percy W. Bartlett, Arthur W. Blaxall, Vera Brittain, K.K. Chandy, E. Philip Eastman, Hildegard and Jean Goss-Mayr, Allan A. Hunter, Howard Kester, Herbert Jehle, Muriel Lester, Kaspar Mayr, Wilhelm Mensching, Premysl Pitter, Charles E. Raven, Henri Roser, Paul M. Sekiya, Friedrich Siegmund-Schultze, Emily Parker Simon, Glenn E. Smiley, John M. Swomley, Evan W. Thomas, Charles A. Thomson, and André and Magda Trocmé.

The private side of Sayre's life is expressed primarily in family letters (1892-1972) particularly with his brother Francis B. Sayre, a prominent diplomat, and his wife Kathleen Whitaker Sayre. Additional autobiographical sources are pocket diaries and travel journals. His unpublished memoirs, written after his stroke, are a compilation of reflective writings on aspects of his personal and public life.

Writing and speaking were important aspects of Sayre's most active years. His periodical articles, pamphlets, mimeographed reports on FOR work, hearings in Washington, broadcasts, letters to public officials and editors constitute one category. Another includes sermons and study series given in churches which are mainly in manuscript, often in outline or notes. Sayre kept collections of frequently used illustrations and quotations. Supplemental records about speaking engagements include press clippings, schedules, titles, etc. An extensive subject file, which he and his wife assembled, provided them with ample reference materials, in all printed forms, on national, international and religious issues.

The collection contains photographs, mostly of individuals, groups at meetings, and conference sites. There is a box of World War I views, including relief work (various sizes).

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Arrangement

In general the arrangement of the Sayre papers corresponds to the broad categories used by Sayre and his secretaries. The collection is comprised of nine series as listed below. Subdivisions were made in some series for the sake of logic and clarity. Individual Arrangement pages precede each series except for Series I, Reference Files.

Series A American (USA) Correspondence, 1909-1972
19 boxes (A-Z, then by date)

Series B International Files, 1922-1974
44 boxes General material, national Fellowships, correspondence with individuals (A-Z by country, then persons, etc.)

Series C International Fellowship of Reconciliation (IFOR), 1919-1969
9 boxes History, Conferences and Council meetings, Administration and policy; programs/projects

Series D Fellowship of Reconciliation and USA, 1915-1965
2 boxes Historical records of special interest to Sayre

Series E Fellowship of Reconciliation and USA, 1919-1967
15 boxes Programs of FOR and Special Projects with other groups

Series F Writings, Lectures, Sermons by Sayre, 1908-1967
13 boxes

Series G Speaking Engagements in US and Overseas Trips, 1923-1967
6 boxes

Series H Biographical and Personal Records, 1885-1982
15 boxes Memoirs, tributes, obituaries of Sayre and wife, Academic life; Pastoral Ministry, Public engagements and Press clippings, Pocket Diaries; Travel Journals, Sayre Family Letters and memorabilia

Series I Reference Files, 1902-1967
27 boxes (subjects A-Z, then by date)


Total: 150 boxes

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Fellowship of Reconciliation and USA
(FOR-USA)
Executive Secretaries of FOR-USA

 

Edward W. Evans

1916

Norman Thomas and Edward W. Evans

1917-1919

Paul Jones
Grace Hutchins (co-secretary 2.5 years)

1919-1929

John Nevin Sayre (co-secretary)

1924-1935

J. B. Matthews

1929-1935

Harold E. Fey

1935-1940

A. J. Muste and John Nevin Sayre

1940-1946

A. J. Muste

1946-1953

John Swomley
Alfred Hassler, (co-secretary 1958-1960)

1953-1960

Alfred Hassler

1960-1974

Barton Hunter

1974-1979

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Fellowship of Reconciliation and USA
(FOR-USA)

Chairmen of National Council of FOR-USA

Gilbert A. Beaver

1916-1925

A. J. Muste

1926-1929

Paul Jones

1929-1930

Reinhold Niebuhr

1931-1932

Edmund B. Chaffee

1933-1934

John Nevin Sayre

1935-1939

Arthur L. Swift

1940-1943

Phillips P. Elliot

1943-1946

Charles W. Iglehart

1946-1950

John Oliver Nelson

1950-1955

Charles R. Lawrence

1955-1963

Robert W. Moon

1964-1971

Kay Johnson

1971-1973

Barton Hunter

1973-1974

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International Fellowship of Reconciliation

(IFOR)

Executives, 1919-1974
Date
Location of Secretariat

Kees Boeke

1919-1921

Bilthoven, Neth.

Oliver Dryer, Secretary

1921-1928

London

Donald Grant, and Kaspar Mayr, Secretaries

1929-1933

Vienna

Henri Roser, General Secretary and Daniel Hogg, Assistant Secretary

1933-1938

Paris

Percy W. Bartlett, General Secretary

1938-1956

London

Ernest Best

1956-1957

London

E. Philip Eastman

1957-1966

London

J. J. Wentink (interim)

1967

London

Erwin Rennert

1967-1968

Vienna

Pieter A. Eterman, Administrative Secretary)

1968-1969

Driebergen, Neth.

Alfred Hassler (half-time with P.A. Eterman, Admin. Sec'y

1970-1974

Driebergen, Neth

Council Chairmen/Presidents, 1935-1973

John Nevin Sayre, Chairman

1935-1955

Garth H. C. MacGregor, Chairman

1956-1959

Howard Schomer, Chairman

1960-1963

George MacLeod, President

1964-1967

Hannes de Graaf, President

1968-1973



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This file was last updated on March 19, 2013