and were required to reside within the empire's western and southwestern provinces, an area known as the Pale of Settlement.

They were denied the right to own land.

After the 1917 Bolshevik seizure of power, most of the 2.5 million Jews living in Russia resided in small towns and cities within the Pale of Settlement, and made their livings from petty trade, small-scale handicraft production, and unskilled labor. Jews were hard hit by the collapse of the economy due to the combined impact of world war, revolution, civil war, and pogroms (acts of anti-Jewish violence) between 1914 and 1921.
stalin's forgotten zion